Cosmology: Determinism, Necessary Connection, Free Will & Morality
The Wave Structure of Matter explains Limited Free Will
in a Necessarily Connected Universe

What we need for understanding rational human behaviour - and indeed, animal behaviour - is something intermediate in character between perfect chance and perfect determinism - something intermediate between perfect clouds and perfects clocks.
(Karl Popper, 1975)


Introduction

The problem of Free Will vs. Determinism has puzzled philosophers for thousands of years. It is a profound problem for without Free Will there can be no morality, no right and wrong, no good and evil. All our behaviours would be pre-determined and we would have no creativity or choice. Common sense (and most importantly, Darwinian Evolution) suggests that we do in fact have Free Will, that we can decide and determine our futures within the limits of physical reality. However, the only absolute way to solve this problem of Philosophy is to know what exists and how it is interconnected, i.e. True Knowledge of Reality.
The Metaphysics of Space and the Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) is a simple scientific solution which explains how we can have limited free will in a necessarily connected universe.

This is very important as it explains why we can live as moral creatures creating better futures for ourselves and our society. By 'limited free will' we mean limited by the necessary connection of matter. We do not have the freedom to defy gravity and make ourselves float upwards, but within the constraints of necessary connection there are still many possible futures. We can choose to read this, or we can decide to stop reading it. Both are possible futures that obey the laws of physics and the necessary connections between things.

Our Finite Spherical Universe within Infinite Space is Necessarily Connected but not Deterministic

It is very important to appreciate the difference between a Necessarily Connected Universe, which ours is, (as explained by the central Principle of the Wave Structure of Matter) and a Deterministic Universe which requires knowledge of the 'initial conditions' from which things, being necessarily connected, can then be determined.
As this WSM Cosmology explains, we exist in a finite and 'Necessarily Connected' Universe (due to the Properties of Space as a continuously connected wave medium), whereas Space itself must be Infinite (One thing existing is necessarily Infinite and Eternal). Thus our finite spherical universe continually has waves flowing into it that have come from Infinity, and can never be pre-determined (an infinite system cannot be predetermined). Thus Spinoza is correct when he writes;

A body in motion or at rest must be determined for motion or rest by some other body, which, likewise, was determined for motion or rest by some other body, and this by a third and so on to infinity. (Spinoza, 1673)

This also explains why even the Motion of planets is not determinable if we consider long periods of time, as Lerner explains;

The Cartesian idea of a set of universal laws which control natural occurrences exercised a powerful appeal in the succeeding centuries. Laplace, even as he developed his theory of a naturally evolving cosmos, endorsed the idea that, given the laws of gravitation, Newtonian mechanics, and the 'initial conditions' of the universe, every subsequent event not only can be accurately predicted, but is predetermined. The whole history of the universe, and of earth, is the inevitable operation of a set of eternal laws. In modern terms, Laplace believed that mathematical physics constitutes a Theory of Everything.
With absolute, infinite knowledge of the comet's velocity and infinite precision in calculation, its orbit is simply unpredictable. Yet this is not an effect of 'chance'. At all points the orbit was under precise control of the laws of gravitation as programmed into the simulation. The unpredictability came from the instability of the three-body interaction.
This doesn't mean we can't make useful predictions about the future. We can if the amount of time we try to predict is short enough. For unstable systems this time limit is the amount of time that passes between collisions of the particles that make up the system. For the comet this is a single orbit, but for a gas a tiny fraction of a second. We can, however, make useful statistical predictions; on average the comet will probably last about 150 orbits. And of course many systems are sufficiently close to stable that we can ignore their instability because the rate at which their instabilities grow is far longer than we need to worry about. For example, the orbits of the planets in our actual solar system appear to be unpredictable in excess of twenty million years from now. For all intents and purposes, in plotting a space mission the system is absolutely stable, predictable and reversible. (Lerner, 1991)


Determinism Vs. Free Will

The problem of whether Humans have free will or whether all our actions are pre-determined and our apparent free will is simply an illusion is profoundly important to Humanity, for the answer to this question will tell us whether we can determine our own future, and whether the concept of Morality actually exists (for if we had no free will, then there could be no such thing as morality!).
The solution is quite simple though and can be easily understood with the aid of the following example;

Let us take a normal pack of playing cards (52 cards - 13 Hearts, Diamonds, Spades, and Clubs) and I shall place the Ace of Hearts face down on the top of the pack.
Thus I am both necessarily connected to the Ace of Hearts (as I am to all matter in the universe) and I have pre-determined knowledge of the exact card, thus I can be certain that if I turn the card over it will be the Ace of Hearts. So we see that while I have complete knowledge of the system then there is no chance involved - the system is both necessarily connected and pre-determined.
Now let us further imagine that I place this pack of cards in front of someone else who has no knowledge of the fact that the Ace of Hearts is the top card. So while they are still necessarily connected to the top card (Ace of Hearts) they do not have pre-determined knowledge of this card, thus if I ask them to tell me which card is on top of the pack they only have a one in fifty two chance of guessing correctly. Thus we see how chance exists when we do not have pre-determined knowledge (even though we are still necessarily connected).

Further, in a necessarily connected but non determined universe, there are many possible futures (within the constraints of the properties of Space and the waves structure of matter - we can't flap our arms and fly!).
If we now apply this knowledge to the matter of brain and body (which is the cause of our human mind) we realise that while we are necessarily connected to the other matter in the universe, we can never have pre-determined knowledge of the motions of this other matter (as explained above due to the system being infinite) thus explaining how chance (due to lack of pre-determined knowledge) exists in the universe. Hence evolution of our brain and mind can use this chance to allow us to creatively think of new and novel ideas and relationships that we can then remember, and then we can use chance again to select from these various chance relationships to determine actions. Now while this is a very simplified explanation of how our mind works, and there may be millions of ‘layers’ to these chance selections, each with various degrees of probabilities for selecting different outcomes, nonetheless the principles are true and do explain how lack of pre-determined knowledge in a necessarily connected Universe within an Infinite Space allows chance and limited ‘free will’.

A simple example of this process can be found when considering a game commonly found in fairgrounds, where there is a clown's head with open mouth that is rotating backwards and forwards, and you must drop a ball and try and get it to land in a certain slot. Depending on the time that you drop the ball ultimately determines where it will land. But all options are possible, and if we use this chance (due to lack of knowledge, as explained above) to determine when the ball is dropped, then we realise that we are using chance to decide on the future of the universe.

Thus Spinoza is both right and wrong when he writes;

There is no mind absolute or free will, but the mind is determined for willing this or that by a cause which is determined in its turn by another cause, and this one again by another, and so on to infinity. (Spinoza, 1673)

His error was to not understand how lack of pre-determined knowledge in an infinite though necessarily connected system causes chance and limited free will.

Karl Popper also intuitively understood that there had to be some 'balance' between complete determinism (clocks) and complete disorder and chance (clouds) when he wrote;

What we need for understanding rational human behaviour - and indeed, animal behaviour - is something intermediate in character between perfect chance and perfect determinism - something intermediate between perfect clouds and perfects clocks. (Popper, 1975)

He was absolutely right, for a 'Necessarily Connected', but infinite and ‘Non-Determined’ space allows us to have limited free will (based upon this lack of pre-determined knowledge which gives rise to chance).


Cosmology: Determinism, Necessary Connection, Free Will & Morality
The Wave Structure of Matter explains Limited Free Will
in a Necessarily Connected Universe

Giordano Bruno's universe was infinite ... he integrated Nicholas of Cusa's thinking, but purged it of remaining Ptolemaic elements, such as the perfect spheres that carried the planets' orbits. (Lerner)
Can we visualize a universe which is finite yet unbounded? ... The supreme task of the physicist is to arrive at those universal laws from which the cosmos can be built up by pure deduction. (Albert Einstein)
The Big Bang is a wonderful myth that deserves a place of honor in the columbarium which already contains the Biblical myth of creation, the Ptolemaic cosmological myth, and many others. (Hans Alfven)
Time is either identical to Motion or is some affection of it. ... about Matter's coming into being and its alterations, we think we have knowledge when we know the source of its Motion. (Aristotle, 340BC)
Wolff Haselhurst Cosmology: The Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) solves many problems of Cosmology by explaining how a Finite Spherical Universe exists within an Infinite Eternal Space.
The Equation of the Cosmos is a relation between the 'size' r of the electron and the size R of the Hubble Universe. It describes how all the N wave centers 'particles' of the Hubble Universe determine the wave density of Space. (Milo Wolff, 2005)
It should be pointed out that Edwin Hubble was not convinced that red shift was exclusively due to Doppler effect. Up to the time of his death he maintained that velocities inferred from red shift measurements should be referred to as apparent velocities. (Mitchell, 1997)
The only thing which is 'certain' of CMBR, is that we detect 'some radiation' at 3K in the night Sky. ... I conclude that since hydrogen is well known in space, the Planck spectrum observed (erroneously attributed to the Big Bang) is due to Hydrogen at 3K in the universe. (Paul Marmet)
The universe we observe is simply not decaying; the generalization of 'the law of increasing disorder' to the entire cosmos is unsupported by observation. (Lerner)
What we need for understanding rational human behaviour - and indeed, animal behaviour - is something intermediate in character between perfect chance and perfect determinism - something intermediate between perfect clouds and perfects clocks. (Karl Popper, 1975)
Our Solar System consists of the nine planets and all other celestial bodies that orbit the Sun. The sun is by far the most massive part of the solar system, containing almost 99.9% of the system's total mass. (answers.com)
The Milky Way is the galaxy of which the sun and our solar system are a part, seen as a broad band of light arching across the night sky from horizon to horizon ... comprising of an estimated 200 billion stars. (answers.com)
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope orbiting the Earth 370 miles above the atmosphere. It is a space observatory ... named after Edwin Hubble, it was launched into orbit in 1990 as a project of NASA. (Wikipedia)
A human being is part of the whole called by us universe ... the true value of a human being is determined by the measure in which they have obtained liberation from the self. ... We shall require a substantially new manner of thinking if humanity is to survive. (Albert Einstein, 1954)



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Biography: Geoffrey Haselhurst, Philosopher of Science, Theoretical Physics, Metaphysics, Evolution. Our world is in great trouble due to human behaviour founded on myths and customs that are causing the destruction of Nature and climate change. We can now deduce the most simple science theory of reality - the wave structure of matter in space. By understanding how we and everything around us are interconnected in Space we can then deduce solutions to the fundamental problems of human knowledge in physics, philosophy, metaphysics, theology, education, health, evolution and ecology, politics and society.

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