Cosmology: Exploring the Milky Way Galaxy, other Galaxies, Stars, Supernovas, & Quasars
Brief Summaries / Information & Pictures


Summary of the Milky Way Galaxy

Milky Way Galaxy in the Southern Hemisphere
The Milky Way galaxy
in the Southern hemisphere

The Milky Way is a spiral galaxy which is the home of our Solar System together with at least 200 billion other stars, their planets, thousands of clusters and nebulae.

A spiral galaxy can be described as having a bulge in the center, surrounded by a disk (flat, moving) and spherical halo.

Compared with other galaxies, the Milky Way is very large - its mass is probably between 750 billion and one trillion solar masses, its diameter about 100,000 light years.

Galaxies, which are made up of stars, gas and dust, rotate very slowly. Our Sun, one of many stars in our Milky Way Galaxy, completes a circuit around the Milky Way every 250 million years.

The term "milky" originates from the hazy band of white light appearing across the celestial sphere visible from Earth, which comprises stars and other material lying within the galactic plane. The Greek philosopher, Democritus (450 BC – 370 BC) was the first known person to claim that the Milky Way consists of distant stars.

The Milky Way is a spiral galaxy
Spiral Galaxy M81: Photo by Hubble Space Telescope.
This is a spiral galaxy which is similar to our Milky Way galaxy.
It is 11.6 million light-years away.

Definition of Supernova

A supernova is a stellar explosion that creates an extremely luminous object that is initially made of plasmaA supernova is a stellar explosion that creates an extremely luminous object that is initially made of plasma - an ionized form of matter. A supernova may briefly out-shine its entire host galaxy before fading from view over several weeks or months. During this brief period of time, the supernova radiates as much energy as the Sun would emit over about 10 billion years. The explosion expels much or all of a star's material at a velocity of up to a tenth the speed of light, driving a shock wave into the surrounding interstellar gas. This shock wave sweeps up an expanding shell of gas and dust called a supernova remnant.

What is a Quasar?

Modern physics understands quasars to be extremely bright and distant active nucleus of a young galaxy. They were first identified as being high-redshift (thus very distant) sources of electromagnetic energy, including radio waves and visible light that were point-like similar to stars rather than extended sources similar to galaxies.
However Halton Arp clearly shows in his book 'Seeing Red' that these supposedly very distant objects are actually part of much closer constellations - proving that their high redshift is not related to distance and thus contradicting the standard 'Big Bang' theory of cosmology. His work is now suppressed in the USA (he was banned from using their telescopes) and he works at the Max Planck institute in Germany. A sad insight into the state of modern physics and its suppression of the truth to maintain existing beliefs over empirical facts.


Picture Gallery of Supernovas, Galaxies,
The Milky Way Galaxy and Doomed Stars

Discover the amazing beauty of the cosmos!

Supernova
A Supernova - Stellar explosion

Whirlpool Galaxy
The Whirlpool (spiral) Galaxy (M51)
and Companion Galaxy

Dying Star
The Cats Eye Nebula - Three thousand light-years away, a dying star sheds clouds of glowing gas.

Spiral Galaxy
NGC 4622 Spiral Galaxy
A rare example of a spiral galaxy with
two arms pointing in opposite directions.

Infant Stars in the Milky Way Galaxy
LH 95 - a star-forming system located
in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC),
160,000 light-years away.
This photo from the Hubble Space Telescope
shows gas, dust, infant and larger stars.

Doomed Star
The 'doomed' star Eta Carinae - 8,000 light-years away, 10 billion miles diameter. Eta Carinae exploded about 150 years ago, when it became one of the brightest stars in the southern sky. It survived the outburst, even though the star released as much visible light as a supernova explosion.




Two Gallaxies Colliding
Two spiral galaxies pass by each other.
The larger galaxy is NGC 2207 (on the left),
and the smaller one on the right is IC 2163.

Light echoes from a Red Star
Star V838 Monocerotis (V838 Mon)
This photo shows the effect called 'the light echo' in which light from the stellar explosion moves outwards and the surrounding dust is illuminated.

 

Beautiful Cosmos -The Sombero Galaxy
Sombrero Galaxy, M104, NGC 4594
Spiral Galaxy, 28 million light-years away.


References

Based upon;

http://seds.lpl.arizona.edu/messier/more/mw.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milky_Way

Images from;

http://heritage.stsci.edu/gallery/galindex.html


Cosmology: Exploring the Milky Way Galaxy, other Galaxies, Stars, Supernovas, & Quasars
Brief Summaries / Information & Pictures

Giordano Bruno's universe was infinite ... he integrated Nicholas of Cusa's thinking, but purged it of remaining Ptolemaic elements, such as the perfect spheres that carried the planets' orbits. (Lerner)
Can we visualize a universe which is finite yet unbounded? ... The supreme task of the physicist is to arrive at those universal laws from which the cosmos can be built up by pure deduction. (Albert Einstein)
The Big Bang is a wonderful myth that deserves a place of honor in the columbarium which already contains the Biblical myth of creation, the Ptolemaic cosmological myth, and many others. (Hans Alfven)
Time is either identical to Motion or is some affection of it. ... about Matter's coming into being and its alterations, we think we have knowledge when we know the source of its Motion. (Aristotle, 340BC)
Wolff Haselhurst Cosmology: The Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) solves many problems of Cosmology by explaining how a Finite Spherical Universe exists within an Infinite Eternal Space.
The Equation of the Cosmos is a relation between the 'size' r of the electron and the size R of the Hubble Universe. It describes how all the N wave centers 'particles' of the Hubble Universe determine the wave density of Space. (Milo Wolff, 2005)
It should be pointed out that Edwin Hubble was not convinced that red shift was exclusively due to Doppler effect. Up to the time of his death he maintained that velocities inferred from red shift measurements should be referred to as apparent velocities. (Mitchell, 1997)
The only thing which is 'certain' of CMBR, is that we detect 'some radiation' at 3K in the night Sky. ... I conclude that since hydrogen is well known in space, the Planck spectrum observed (erroneously attributed to the Big Bang) is due to Hydrogen at 3K in the universe. (Paul Marmet)
The universe we observe is simply not decaying; the generalization of 'the law of increasing disorder' to the entire cosmos is unsupported by observation. (Lerner)
What we need for understanding rational human behaviour - and indeed, animal behaviour - is something intermediate in character between perfect chance and perfect determinism - something intermediate between perfect clouds and perfects clocks. (Karl Popper, 1975)
Our Solar System consists of the nine planets and all other celestial bodies that orbit the Sun. The sun is by far the most massive part of the solar system, containing almost 99.9% of the system's total mass. (answers.com)
The Milky Way is the galaxy of which the sun and our solar system are a part, seen as a broad band of light arching across the night sky from horizon to horizon ... comprising of an estimated 200 billion stars. (answers.com)
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope orbiting the Earth 370 miles above the atmosphere. It is a space observatory ... named after Edwin Hubble, it was launched into orbit in 1990 as a project of NASA. (Wikipedia)
A human being is part of the whole called by us universe ... the true value of a human being is determined by the measure in which they have obtained liberation from the self. ... We shall require a substantially new manner of thinking if humanity is to survive. (Albert Einstein, 1954)



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Biography: Geoffrey Haselhurst, Philosopher of Science, Theoretical Physics, Metaphysics, Evolution. Our world is in great trouble due to human behaviour founded on myths and customs that are causing the destruction of Nature and climate change. We can now deduce the most simple science theory of reality - the wave structure of matter in space. By understanding how we and everything around us are interconnected in Space we can then deduce solutions to the fundamental problems of human knowledge in physics, philosophy, metaphysics, theology, education, health, evolution and ecology, politics and society.

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