Cosmology
The Wave Structure of Matter explains the Second Law of Thermodynamics, Past, Present, Future & the One way direction of Time

The Second Law of Thermodynamics
Why Our Finite Universe is Ordered & Complex

This webpage is a little different to most pages on Thermodynamics. It is founded on the Cosmology of the Wave Structure of Matter, which explains a Finite Spherical Universe within an Infinite Eternal Space.

To begin, it is useful to use the knowledge of Eric Lerner (who is strongly influenced by Prigogine) as a simple way of demonstrating the solution to this interesting problem of the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which suggests that over time our Finite Spherical Universe should become more disordered.
The reason why our universe remains Ordered is simply because it is part of an infinite perpetual system, and the Second Law of Thermodynamics only applies to Closed systems (not infinite systems), as Lerner clearly explains;

Conversely, if one asserts that the universe had no origin in time, then one must explain how it is that the universe has not completely decayed into uniform equilibrium in the infinite time that it has already existed. How is order maintained? How is progress possible?
... Pope Pius XII wrote; ‘Through the law of entropy, it was recognized that the spontaneous processes of nature are always accompanied by a diminution of free and utilisable energy. In a closed material system, this conclusion must lead eventually to the cessation of processes on a macroscopic scale. This unavoidable fate, which ... stands out clearly from positive scientific experience, postulates eloquently the existence of a Necessary Being.’
... Pope Pius XII concluded that a flagging universe necessarily must come to an end, but more significantly, requires something outside itself to imbue it with order at the beginning - a direct link between the idea of ever-increasing disorder and Christian theology.
From this proof, Boltzmann propounded a new concept with profound cosmological implications. The universe as a whole, must, like any closed system tend toward an equilibrious state of entropy: it will be completely homogeneous, the same temperature everywhere, the stars will cool, their life-giving energy flow will cease. The universe will suffer a 'heat death'. Any closed system must thus go from an ordered to a less ordered state- the opposite of progress.
... Boltzmann was aware that his ideas contradicted the notion, then widely accepted, of a universe without beginning or end. The present-day universe is far from a state of equilibrium, comprising as it does hot stars and cold space. If all natural systems 'run down' to disorder, the present state of order must have been created by some process that violates the second law at a finite time in the past. Conversely, at a finite time in the future, the world will cease to exist, becoming a lifeless homogeneous mass: human progress is but an ephemeral and inconsequential episode in a universal decay.
... Boltzmann found his results disturbing. Since he rejected a supernatural origin of the universe, he tried to argue that, in an infinite amount of time, extremely improbable events do occur, such as the spontaneous organisation of a universe, or a large section of it, from a prior state of equilibrium. The second law is, after all, a statistical one stating what is likely to happen, not what must happen.
..some thermodynamicists pointed out that Boltzmann had proved far less than he claimed. He assumed that gas began in a high degree of disorder, close to equilibrium, and never got far from it. Moreover, he only allowed for atomic collisions, but took no long-range forces, such as electromagnetism or gravity, into account. In most real physical situations, though, these restrictions aren't valid, so Boltzmann's proof is not applicable. A century later scientists were to demonstrate that, in the general case, Boltzmann's law of increasing disorder simply isn't true.
... Poggio goes on to point out that it is a gross over extrapolation of the second law to assume that because it works in certain simple situations on earth, it would work everywhere in the universe. He too points out that fusion is an example of building up, not a decay, of the universe. 'Let us not be too sure that the universe is like a watch that is always running down,' he warns, 'there may be a rewinding. The process of creation may not yet be finished.
... To be sure, the tendency toward equilibrium is supposed to hold only in 'closed systems' and because the earth is heated by the sun, it is not a closed system.
... The universe we observe is simply not decaying; the generalization of 'the law of increasing disorder' to the entire cosmos is unsupported by observation. (Lerner, 1991)


Past Present and Future
The One Way Direction of Time

Eric Lerner perfectly explains this important problem of why Time must be directional, contrary to the laws of modern particle physics;

This is one of the deepest paradoxes of conventional physics today. According to all the laws of physics there should be no distinction between past and future, no direction to time. Since the second law says that entropy necessarily increases with time, and thus the past and future differ, the second law, too, is contradicted.
In relativity theory, for example, time is simply the fourth dimension - there is no more difference between past and future than between left and right. There is no flow of time: all the equations would look the same if time were reversed. Nor is this true of relativity alone. Newton's laws and the laws of quantum mechanics also are what physicists call 'time reversible'; they define no unique direction for time. If one were to make a movie of two billiard balls colliding, for example, it would look just as credible if it were run in reverse.
But in the real world, there is a difference. If it is two raw eggs that collide and break in the movie, it would look absurd in reverse. The two eggs would assemble themselves out of a puddle and roll off. In the real world babies are born, never unborn, they grow up, never down, and eggs are scrambled, never unscrambled. These processes are all irreversible: time moves forward, toward growth or decay.
Hence the fundamental question: If 'the laws of the universe' have no direction in time, why does the real world? Why do laws like the second law, which have a direction for time, work?
The conventional answer to this question is, strangely, the Big Bang. The Big Bang started the universe off in a highly orderly and regular state- a 'perfect' state of very low entropy. Since the universe must run down through states of increasing disorder, closer to equilibrium (the state in which there is no flow of energy), the direction of time is defined. Time is just the direction 'away' from the Big Bang. If there was no Big Bang, there would supposedly be no difference between past and future. The universe would be at equilibrium, and no event would diminish past from future. But the unique event of the Big Bang, so symmetric in space, creates an asymmetry in time.
Thus, if there was no Big Bang - as seems to be the case - we have further questions: Why does time move forward? Is there a difference between past and future, or is it, as Einstein believed, merely a persistent illusion?
The importance of the answers extends far beyond their role at the center of a consistent cosmology. They strike at the heart of some of the greatest mysteries faced by science, philosophy and religion - the questions of the nature of human consciousness, the relation of mind and body, and free will. The distinction between past, present, and future is basic to our experience of consciousness - we are conscious in the now, we remember the past, but we cannot know the future. It also is central to our idea of free will, for it implies that our actions in the present affect the future, that the past is fixed but the future can be changed. How can these ideas be reconciled with a concept of physical laws in which past, present and future all exist equally and cannot be distinguished?
The problem of 'reversible time,' then, arises because scientists improperly abstract reality and believe their highly accurate equations to be absolutely, infinitely precise. It is reversible time that is subjective, an illusion, not irreversible time. The real world is continually coming into existence, created by an infinitely complex web of instabilities and interactions. As Prigogine puts it, 'Time is creation. The future is just not there.'
Time's irreversibility is based on the continuity of space, on its infinite divisibility. (Lerner, 1991)

Once we realize that it is not Time but wave Motion which is fundamental, then it becomes obvious why Time is directional. If we apply this understanding of Time to Matter as Spherical Standing Waves in Space, this then leads to the following explanation of Past, Present, and Future. As it takes Time for the In-Wave to flow into its Wave-Center, thus the In-Waves are the Future, and in time will meet at their Wave-Center (the Present) and after flowing through the Wave-Center become Out-Waves (the past). This is important for it explains why Time is directional because the Wave Motion of Space is Directional, i.e. In and Out Waves travel in Opposite Directions relative to the Wave-Center (Present).


Cosmology
The Wave Structure of Matter explains the Second Law of Thermodynamics, Past, Present, Future & the One way direction of Time

Giordano Bruno's universe was infinite ... he integrated Nicholas of Cusa's thinking, but purged it of remaining Ptolemaic elements, such as the perfect spheres that carried the planets' orbits. (Lerner)
Can we visualize a universe which is finite yet unbounded? ... The supreme task of the physicist is to arrive at those universal laws from which the cosmos can be built up by pure deduction. (Albert Einstein)
The Big Bang is a wonderful myth that deserves a place of honor in the columbarium which already contains the Biblical myth of creation, the Ptolemaic cosmological myth, and many others. (Hans Alfven)
Time is either identical to Motion or is some affection of it. ... about Matter's coming into being and its alterations, we think we have knowledge when we know the source of its Motion. (Aristotle, 340BC)
Wolff Haselhurst Cosmology: The Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) solves many problems of Cosmology by explaining how a Finite Spherical Universe exists within an Infinite Eternal Space.
The Equation of the Cosmos is a relation between the 'size' r of the electron and the size R of the Hubble Universe. It describes how all the N wave centers 'particles' of the Hubble Universe determine the wave density of Space. (Milo Wolff, 2005)
It should be pointed out that Edwin Hubble was not convinced that red shift was exclusively due to Doppler effect. Up to the time of his death he maintained that velocities inferred from red shift measurements should be referred to as apparent velocities. (Mitchell, 1997)
The only thing which is 'certain' of CMBR, is that we detect 'some radiation' at 3K in the night Sky. ... I conclude that since hydrogen is well known in space, the Planck spectrum observed (erroneously attributed to the Big Bang) is due to Hydrogen at 3K in the universe. (Paul Marmet)
The universe we observe is simply not decaying; the generalization of 'the law of increasing disorder' to the entire cosmos is unsupported by observation. (Lerner)
What we need for understanding rational human behaviour - and indeed, animal behaviour - is something intermediate in character between perfect chance and perfect determinism - something intermediate between perfect clouds and perfects clocks. (Karl Popper, 1975)
Our Solar System consists of the nine planets and all other celestial bodies that orbit the Sun. The sun is by far the most massive part of the solar system, containing almost 99.9% of the system's total mass. (answers.com)
The Milky Way is the galaxy of which the sun and our solar system are a part, seen as a broad band of light arching across the night sky from horizon to horizon ... comprising of an estimated 200 billion stars. (answers.com)
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope orbiting the Earth 370 miles above the atmosphere. It is a space observatory ... named after Edwin Hubble, it was launched into orbit in 1990 as a project of NASA. (Wikipedia)
A human being is part of the whole called by us universe ... the true value of a human being is determined by the measure in which they have obtained liberation from the self. ... We shall require a substantially new manner of thinking if humanity is to survive. (Albert Einstein, 1954)



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Biography: Geoffrey Haselhurst, Philosopher of Science, Theoretical Physics, Metaphysics, Evolution. Our world is in great trouble due to human behaviour founded on myths and customs that are causing the destruction of Nature and climate change. We can now deduce the most simple science theory of reality - the wave structure of matter in space. By understanding how we and everything around us are interconnected in Space we can then deduce solutions to the fundamental problems of human knowledge in physics, philosophy, metaphysics, theology, education, health, evolution and ecology, politics and society.

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