When Kama is practised by men of the four castes according to the rules
of the Holy Writ (i.e. by lawful marriage) with virgins of their own caste,
it then becomes a means of acquiring lawful progeny and good fame, and it
is not also opposed to the customs of the world. On the contrary the practice
of Kama with women of the higher castes, and with those previously enjoyed
by others, even though they be of the same caste, is prohibited. But the
practice of Kama with women of the lower castes, with women excommunicated
from their own caste, with public women, and with women twice married, is
neither enjoined nor prohibited. The object of practising Kama with such
women is pleasure only.
Nayikas, therefore, are of three kinds - maids, women twice married, and public women. Gonikaputra has expressed an opinion that there is a fourth kind of Nayika, a woman who is resorted to on some special occasion even though she be previously married to another. These special occasions are when a man thinks thus:
This woman is self-willed, and has been previously enjoyed by many others besides myself. I may, therefore, safely resort to her as to a public woman though she belongs to a higher caste than mine, and, in so doing, I shall not be violating the ordinances of Dharma.
This is a twice-married woman and has been enjoyed by others before me; there is, therefore, no objection to my resorting to her.
This woman has gained the heart of her great and powerful husband, and exercises a mastery over him, who is a friend of my enemy; if, therefore, she becomes united with me she will cause her husband to abandon my enemy.
This woman will turn the mind of her husband, who is very powerful, in my favour, he being at present disaffected towards me, and intent on doing me some harm.
By making this woman my friend I shall gain the object of some friend of mine, or shall be able to effect the ruin of some enemy, or shall accomplish some other difficult purpose.
By being united with this woman, I shall kill her husband, and so obtain his vast riches which I covet.
The union of this woman with me is not attended with any danger, and will bring me wealth, of which, on account of my poverty and inability to support myself, I am very much in need. I shall therefore obtain her vast riches in this way without any difficulty.
This woman loves me ardently, and knows all my weak points; if therefore, I am unwilling to be united with her, she will make my faults public, and thus tarnish my character and reputation. Or she will bring some gross accusation against me, of which it may be hard to clear myself, and I shall be ruined. Or perhaps she will detach from me her husband who is powerful, and yet under her control, and will unite him to my enemy, or will herself join the latter.
The husband of this woman has violated the chastity of my wives, I shall therefore return that injury by seducing his wives.
By the help of this woman I shall kill an enemy of the king, who has taken shelter with her, and whom I am ordered by the king to destroy.
The woman whom I love is under the control of this woman. I shall, through the influence of the latter, be able to get at the former.
This woman will bring to me a maid, who possesses wealth and beauty, but who is hard to get at, and under the control of another.
Or lastly thus:
My enemy is a friend of this woman's husband, I shall therefore cause her to join him, and will thus create an enmity between her husband and him.
For these and similar other reasons the wives of other men may be resorted to, but it must be distinctly understood that is only allowed for special reasons, and not for mere carnal desire.
Charayana thinks that under these circumstances there is also a fifth kind of Nayika, a woman who is kept by a minister, or who repairs to him occasionally; or a widow who accomplishes the purpose of a man with the person to whom she resorts. Suvarnanabha adds that a woman who passes the life of an ascetic and in the condition of a widow may be considered as a sixth kind of Nayika. Ghotakamukha says that the daughter of a public woman, and a female servant, who are still virgins, form a seventh kind of Nayika. Gonardiya puts forth his doctrine that any woman born of good family, after she has come of age, is an eighth kind of Nayika. But these four latter kinds of Nayikas do not differ much from the first four kinds of them, as there is no separate object in resorting to them. Therefore, Vatsyayana is of opinion that there are only four kinds of Nayikas, i.e. the maid, the twice-married woman, the public woman, and the woman resorted to for a special purpose.
The following women are not to be enjoyed:
A woman turned out of caste
A woman who reveals secrets
A woman who publicly expresses desire for sexual intercourse
A woman who is extremely white
A woman who is extremely black
A bad-smelling woman
A woman who is a near relation
A woman who is a female friend
A woman who leads the life of an ascetic
And, lastly the wife of a relation, of a friend, of a learned Brahman, and of the king
The followers of Babhravya say that any woman who has been enjoyed by five men is a fit and proper person to be enjoyed. But Gonikaputra is of opinion that even when this is the case, the wives of a relation, of a learned Brahman and of a king should be excepted.
The following are of the kind of friends:
One who has played with you in the dust, i.e. in childhood
One who is bound by an obligation
One who is of the same disposition and fond of the same things
One who is a fellow student
One who is acquainted with your secrets and faults, and whose faults and secrets are also known to you
One who is a child of your nurse
One who is brought up with you one who is an hereditary friend
These friends should possess the following qualities:
They should tell the truth
They should not be changed by time
They should be favourable to your designs
They should be firm
They should be free from covetousness
They should not be capable of being gained over by others
They should not reveal your secrets
Charayana says that citizens form friendship with washermen, barbers, cowherds, florists, druggists, betel-leaf sellers, tavern keepers, beggars, Pithamardas, Vitas and Vidushekas, as also with the wives of all these people.
A messenger should possess the following qualities:
Knowledge of the intention of men by their outward signs
Absence of confusion, i.e. no shyness
Knowledge of the exact meaning of what others do or say
Knowledge of appropriate times and places for doing different things
Ingenuity in business
Quick application of remedies, i.e. quick and ready resources
And this part ends with a verse:
'The man who is ingenious and wise, who is accompanied by a friend, and who knows the intentions of others, as also the proper time and place for doing everything, can gain over, very easily, even a woman who is very hard to be obtained.'
The Kama Sutra of Vatsayayana, Sir Richard Burton, translator (1883)
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Philosophy: Kama Sutra - 'Praised be the three aims of life, virtue
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/ Quotations, Pictures, Positions from Famous Indian Sexual Philosophy of
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Contents: Kama Sutra Pictures - Kama Sutra Positions - Kama Sutra: Women - Kama Sutra: Partners - Kama Sutra: Marriage - Kama Sutra: Love Potions - Kama Sutra: Sex Aids - Kama Sutra: Homosexuality - Kama Sutra: Embrace - Kama Sutra: Kissing - Kama Sutra: Scratching - Kama Sutra: Biting - Kama Sutra: Sighs and Blows - Kama Sutra: Foreplay - Kama Sutra: Role Reversal - Kama Sutra: Fellatio
Kama Sutra Pages (different spelling): Kamasutra - Kamasutra Pictures - Kamasutra Positions - Kama - Karma - Sutra - Karmasutra - Karma Sutra - Karma Sutra Pictures - Karma Sutra Positions
Index / Home Page - Summary
and Links to articles on the Metaphysics
of Space and Motion and the Wave
Structure of Matter (WSM). What is the most Simple
Science Theory of Reality? Describing Reality from One
(with properties of a nearly rigid continuous wave medium) rather than Many
Things (Matter). i. e. From Matter as discrete Particles
generating continuous Spherical Fields in Space-Time
to Matter as Spherical Standing Waves in Space (see diagram below).
Subjects include Truth, Reality, Metaphysics, Physics, Einstein's Relativity, Quantum Theory, Cosmology, Ancient Greek Philosophy, Western & Eastern Philosophy, Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Theology, Evolution, Nature / Ecology, Culture, Art, Erotic Art, Sexuality, Feminism, Health, Politics, Education and Utopia. Includes Pictures and numerous Quotes from many fine philosophers / physicists, including Plato, Aristotle, Rene Descartes, Gottfried Leibniz, Sir Isaac Newton, Christiaan Huygens, Spinoza, George Berkeley, David Hume, Immanuel Kant, Friedrich Nietzsche, Nikola Tesla, Max Planck, Gandhi, Albert Einstein, Louis de Broglie, Erwin Schrodinger, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Richard Feynman and Milo Wolff.
Physics (and thus all human knowledge) evolved from Newton's concepts of particles and forces in Space and Time, which assumes the existence of four separate things. This causes many problems for Humanity because the necessary connection between these things is unknown. Einstein failed to solve this with his unified field theory of matter which describes reality in terms of matter-energy (fields) in space-time. The Metaphysics of Space and Motion and the Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) solves these problems by describing Reality in terms of One thing, Space, existing with the Properties of a Wave Medium. Matter is formed from Spherical Standing Waves in Space which cause the 'particle' effect at their Wave Center. Time is due to the Wave Motion (activity) of Space. Forces / fields are caused by the interaction of the Spherical In and Out Waves with other matter in Space which changes the wave velocity and thus location of the Wave-Center (and which we 'see' as a 'force accelerating a particle').
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Geoff and Karene
(George Berkeley, 1710) Nothing seems of more importance, towards erecting a firm system of sound and real knowledge, which may be proof against the assaults of skepticism, than to lay the beginning in a distinct explication of what is meant by thing, reality, existence: for in vain shall we dispute concerning the real existence of things, or pretend to any knowledge thereof, so long as we have not fixed the meaning of those words.
Truth & Reality
The Spherical Standing Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) in Space
Theory of Reality
Unity of Reality
Logic & Reality
Special & General
of Light & Matter
& Infinite Space
Truth & Reality