Praised be the three aims of life, virtue (dharma),
prosperity (artha), and love (kama), which
are the subject of this work.
(The Complete Kamasutra, 1994)
Ancient Indian sages composed the Kama Shastra on the basis of the Vedas. The first formulation of the Kama Shastra, or the rules of love, is attributed to Nandi, Shiva's companion. It is preserved today in the form of the 'Kamasutra' written down by the sage Vatsyayana sometime between the first and sixth century A.D. The Kama Sutra is recognised as the true surviving text of the original Kama Shastra. Vatsyayana states that he only quotes and condenses the previous work and refers to himself in third person (Vatsyayana thinks ..) when expressing his opinion.
The Kama Shastra was one of three ancient Indian texts concerning the aims of life. It should be understood within the context of the Artha Shastra and the Dharma Shastra (which were written in Sanskrit, seventh century B.C.). As Alain Danielou confirms;
Life necessitates three kinds of activity: to assure its survival, its means of existence, and its nourishment; to realise its reproduction according to forms of activity generally connected with sexuality; and, lastly, to establish rules of behaviour that allow different individuals to perform their roles within the framework of the species. In human society, this is represented as three necessities, three aims of life: material goods (artha) assure survival; erotic practice (kama) assures the transmission of life; and rules of behaviour, a moral nature (dharma), assure the cohesion and duration of the species. (The Complete Kamasutra, translated by Alain Danielou, 1994)
So with religion, morality (dharma) and material
success (artha), kama is the third goal of human life. Kama is further defined
Kama is the enjoyment of appropriate objects by the five senses of hearing, feeling, seeing, tasting and smelling, assisted by the mind together with the soul. The ingredient in this is a peculiar contact between the organ of sense and its object, and the consciousness of pleasure which arises from that contact is called Kama. (Kamasutra, 1883)
Kama is to be learnt from the Kama Sutra (aphorisms on love) and from the practice of citizens. (Kamasutra, 1883)
The ancient Indians appear to be very good evolutionists, as it is clear from evolution that sex and survival are the two most fundamental forces driving our continued existence. Further, the Kama Sutra is an evolutionary work in that it promotes the cultivation of skills to become a well rounded / well evolved individual with healthy, intimate relationships with others. As Alain Danielou agrees;
The Kama Sutra is not a pornographic work. First and foremost, it is a picture of the art of living for the civilised and refined citizen, completing in the sphere of love, eroticism and the pleasures of life. (The Complete Kamasutra, Alain Danielou 1994)
As the sixty-four arts are respected, are charming, and add to the talent of women, they are called by the Acharyas dear to women. A man skilled in the sixty-four arts is looked upon with love by his own wife, by the wives of others, and by courtesans. (Kamasutra)
The aim of the Sixty Four Arts of the Kama Sutra is not merely to be a good wife, but to be a skillful, playful, understanding, refined, sexual, beautiful and intelligent woman. The Kama Sutra also expresses cultivation of the male, his understanding of female nature and the importance of cultivating sensual moods and intimacy. The ancient Indians show great attention to detail of smell, light, music, food, drink and touch before intercourse can begin.
Playing on musical instruments
Union of dancing, singing, and playing instrumental music
Writing and drawing
Arraying and adorning an idol with rice and flowers
Spreading and arranging beds or couches of flowers, or flowers upon the ground
Colouring the teeth, garments, hair, nails and bodies, i.e. staining, dyeing, colouring and painting the same
Fixing stained glass into a floor
The art of making beds, and spreading out carpets and cushions for reclining
Playing on musical glasses filled with water
Storing and accumulating water in aqueducts, cisterns and reservoirs
Picture making, trimming and decorating
Stringing of rosaries, necklaces, garlands and wreaths
Binding of turbans and chaplets, and making crests and top-knots of flowers
Scenic representations, stage playing Art of making ear ornaments Art of preparing perfumes and odours
Proper disposition of jewels and decorations, and adornment in dress
Magic or sorcery
Quickness of hand or manual skill
Culinary art, i.e. cooking and cookery
Making lemonades, sherbets, acidulated drinks, and spirituous extracts with proper flavour and colour
Tailor's work and sewing
Making parrots, flowers, tufts, tassels, bunches, bosses, knobs, etc., out of yarn or thread
Solution of riddles, enigmas, covert speeches, verbal puzzles and enigmatical questions
A game, which consisted in repeating verses, and as one person finished, another person had to commence at once, repeating another verse, beginning with the same letter with which the last speaker's verse ended, whoever failed to repeat was considered to have lost, and to be subject to pay a forfeit or stake of some kind
The art of mimicry or imitation
Reading, including chanting and intoning
Study of sentences difficult to pronounce. It is played as a game chiefly by women, and children and consists of a difficult sentence being given, and when repeated quickly, the words are often transposed or badly pronounced
Practice with sword, single stick, quarter staff and bow and arrow
Drawing inferences, reasoning or inferring
Carpentry, or the work of a carpenter
Architecture, or the art of building
Knowledge about gold and silver coins, and jewels and gems
Chemistry and mineralogy
Colouring jewels, gems and beads
Knowledge of mines and quarries
Gardening; knowledge of treating the diseases of trees and plants, of nourishing them, determining their ages
Art of cock fighting, quail fighting and ram fighting
Art of teaching parrots and starlings to speak
Art of applying perfumed ointments to the body, and of dressing the hair with unguents and perfumes and braiding it
The art of understanding writing in cypher, and the writing of words in a peculiar way
The art of speaking by changing the forms of words. It is of various kinds. Some speak by changing the beginning and end of words, others by adding unnecessary letters between every syllable of a word, and so on
Knowledge of language and of the vernacular dialects
Art of making flower carriages
Art of framing mystical diagrams, of addressing spells and charms, and binding armlets
Mental exercises, such as completing stanzas or verses on receiving a part of them; or supplying one, two or three lines when the remaining lines are given indiscriminately from different verses, so as to make the whole an entire verse with regard to its meaning; or arranging the words of a verse written irregularly by separating the vowels from the consonants, or leaving them out altogether; or putting into verse or prose sentences represented by signs or symbols. There are many other such exercises.
Knowledge of dictionaries and vocabularies
Knowledge of ways of changing and disguising the appearance of persons
Knowledge of the art of changing the appearance of things, such as making cotton to appear as silk, coarse and common things to appear as fine and good
Various ways of gambling
Art of obtaining possession of the property of others by means of muntras or incantations
Skill in youthful sports
Knowledge of the rules of society, and of how to pay respect and compliments to others
Knowledge of the art of war, of arms, of armies, etc.
Knowledge of gymnastics
Art of knowing the character of a man from his features
Knowledge of scanning or constructing verses
Making artificial flowers
Making figures and images in clay
A public woman, endowed with a good disposition, beauty and other winning qualities, and also versed in the above arts, obtains the name of a Ganika, or public woman of high quality, and receives a seat of honour in an assemblage of men. She is, moreover, always respected by the king, and praised by learned men, and her favour being sought for by all, she becomes an object of universal regard.
The daughter of a king too as well as the daughter of a minister, being learned in the above arts, can make their husbands favourable to them, even though these may have thousands of other wives besides themselves.
And in the same manner, if a wife becomes separated from her husband, and falls into distress, she can support herself easily, even in a foreign country, by means of her knowledge of these arts. Even the bare knowledge of them gives attractiveness to a woman, though the practice of them may be only possible or otherwise according to the circumstances of each case.
A man who is versed in these arts, who is loquacious and acquainted with the arts of gallantry, gains very soon the hearts of women, even though he is only acquainted with them for a short time.
The Kama Sutra of Vatsayayana, Sir Richard Burton, translator (1883)
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Philosophy: Kama Sutra - 'Praised be the three aims of life, virtue
(dharma), prosperity (artha), and love (kama), which are the subject of
this work.' Kama Sutra (Kama Shastra). Discussion and Quotes
/ Quotations, Pictures, Positions from Famous Indian Sexual Philosophy of
the Kama Sutra.
Contents: Kama Sutra Pictures - Kama Sutra Positions - Kama Sutra: Women - Kama Sutra: Partners - Kama Sutra: Marriage - Kama Sutra: Love Potions - Kama Sutra: Sex Aids - Kama Sutra: Homosexuality - Kama Sutra: Embrace - Kama Sutra: Kissing - Kama Sutra: Scratching - Kama Sutra: Biting - Kama Sutra: Sighs and Blows - Kama Sutra: Foreplay - Kama Sutra: Role Reversal - Kama Sutra: Fellatio
Kama Sutra Pages (different spelling): Kamasutra - Kamasutra Pictures - Kamasutra Positions - Kama - Karma - Sutra - Karmasutra - Karma Sutra - Karma Sutra Pictures - Karma Sutra Positions
Index / Home Page - Summary
and Links to articles on the Metaphysics
of Space and Motion and the Wave
Structure of Matter (WSM). What is the most Simple
Science Theory of Reality? Describing Reality from One
(with properties of a nearly rigid continuous wave medium) rather than Many
Things (Matter). i. e. From Matter as discrete Particles
generating continuous Spherical Fields in Space-Time
to Matter as Spherical Standing Waves in Space (see diagram below).
Subjects include Truth, Reality, Metaphysics, Physics, Einstein's Relativity, Quantum Theory, Cosmology, Ancient Greek Philosophy, Western & Eastern Philosophy, Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Theology, Evolution, Nature / Ecology, Culture, Art, Erotic Art, Sexuality, Feminism, Health, Politics, Education and Utopia. Includes Pictures and numerous Quotes from many fine philosophers / physicists, including Plato, Aristotle, Rene Descartes, Gottfried Leibniz, Sir Isaac Newton, Christiaan Huygens, Spinoza, George Berkeley, David Hume, Immanuel Kant, Friedrich Nietzsche, Nikola Tesla, Max Planck, Gandhi, Albert Einstein, Louis de Broglie, Erwin Schrodinger, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Richard Feynman and Milo Wolff.
Physics (and thus all human knowledge) evolved from Newton's concepts of particles and forces in Space and Time, which assumes the existence of four separate things. This causes many problems for Humanity because the necessary connection between these things is unknown. Einstein failed to solve this with his unified field theory of matter which describes reality in terms of matter-energy (fields) in space-time. The Metaphysics of Space and Motion and the Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) solves these problems by describing Reality in terms of One thing, Space, existing with the Properties of a Wave Medium. Matter is formed from Spherical Standing Waves in Space which cause the 'particle' effect at their Wave Center. Time is due to the Wave Motion (activity) of Space. Forces / fields are caused by the interaction of the Spherical In and Out Waves with other matter in Space which changes the wave velocity and thus location of the Wave-Center (and which we 'see' as a 'force accelerating a particle').
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Geoff and Karene
(George Berkeley, 1710) Nothing seems of more importance, towards erecting a firm system of sound and real knowledge, which may be proof against the assaults of skepticism, than to lay the beginning in a distinct explication of what is meant by thing, reality, existence: for in vain shall we dispute concerning the real existence of things, or pretend to any knowledge thereof, so long as we have not fixed the meaning of those words.
Truth & Reality
The Spherical Standing Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) in Space
Theory of Reality
Unity of Reality
Logic & Reality
Special & General
of Light & Matter
& Infinite Space
Truth & Reality