The characteristic feature of Buddhism is the doctrine of Karma, which is a subtle substitute for the conception of personal continuity. According to this view it is not the concrete individuality of the soul that survives, and migrates into a new life, but only the karma, or action, i.e., the sum of the man's deeds, his merits, the ethical resultant of his previous life, its total value, stripped of its former individuation, which is regarded as accidental. As the karma is greater or less, so will the next transmigration be a promotion or a degradation. At times the degradation may be so extreme that karma is embodied in an inanimate form, as in the case of Gautama's disciple who, for negligence in his master's service, was reduced after death to the form of a broomstick. (Catholic Encyclopedia: Buddhism, 1911)
A special form of this belief is the doctrine of Karma - the persisting existence and transmission through re-incarnations of the sum of the past deeds and merits of the individual. (Catholic Encyclopedia: Immortality, 1911)
The Pali word kamma or the Sanskrit word
karma (from the root kr to do) literally means ‘action’,
‘doing’. But in the Buddhist theory of karma it has a specific
meaning: it means only ‘volitional action’ not all action. Nor
does it mean the result of karma as many people wrongly and loosely use
it. In Buddhist terminology karma never means its effect; its effect is
known as the ‘fruit’ or the ‘result’ of karma.
Volition may relatively be good or bad, just as desire may relatively be good or bad. So karma may be good or bad relatively. Good karma produces good effects and bad karma bad effects. ‘Thirst’, volition, karma, whether good or bad, has one force as its effect: force to continue- to continue in a good or bad direction. Whether good or bad it is relative, and is within the cycle of continuity (samsara). An Arahant, though he acts, does not accumulate karma, because he is free from the false idea of self, free from the ‘thirst’ for continuity and becoming, free from all other defilements and impurities. For him there is no rebirth.
The theory of karma should not be confused with so-called
‘moral justice’ or ‘reward and punishment’. The
idea of moral justice, or reward and punishment, arises out of the conception
of a supreme being, a God, who sits in judgement, who is a law-giver and
who decides what is right and wrong. The term ‘justice’ is ambiguous
and dangerous, and in its name more harm than good is done to humanity.
The theory of karma is the theory of cause and effect, of action and reaction; it is a natural law, which has nothing to do with the idea of justice or reward and punishment. Every volitional action produces its effects or results. If a good action produces good effects, it is not justice, or reward, meted out by anybody or any power sitting in judgement of your action, but this is in virtue of its own nature, its own law.
This is not difficult to understand. But what is difficult is that, according to karma theory, the effects of a volitional action may continue to manifest themselves even in a life after death. (Walpola Rahula, What the Buddha Taught)
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Philosophy: Kama Sutra - 'Praised be the three aims of life, virtue
(dharma), prosperity (artha), and love (kama), which are the subject of
this work.' Kama Sutra (Kama Shastra). Discussion and Quotes
/ Quotations, Pictures, Positions from Famous Indian Sexual Philosophy of
the Kama Sutra.
Contents: Kama Sutra Pictures - Kama Sutra Positions - Kama Sutra: Women - Kama Sutra: Partners - Kama Sutra: Marriage - Kama Sutra: Love Potions - Kama Sutra: Sex Aids - Kama Sutra: Homosexuality - Kama Sutra: Embrace - Kama Sutra: Kissing - Kama Sutra: Scratching - Kama Sutra: Biting - Kama Sutra: Sighs and Blows - Kama Sutra: Foreplay - Kama Sutra: Role Reversal - Kama Sutra: Fellatio
Kama Sutra Pages (different spelling): Kamasutra - Kamasutra Pictures - Kamasutra Positions - Kama - Karma - Sutra - Karmasutra - Karma Sutra - Karma Sutra Pictures - Karma Sutra Positions
Index / Home Page - Summary
and Links to articles on the Metaphysics
of Space and Motion and the Wave
Structure of Matter (WSM). What is the most Simple
Science Theory of Reality? Describing Reality from One
(with properties of a nearly rigid continuous wave medium) rather than Many
Things (Matter). i. e. From Matter as discrete Particles
generating continuous Spherical Fields in Space-Time
to Matter as Spherical Standing Waves in Space (see diagram below).
Subjects include Truth, Reality, Metaphysics, Physics, Einstein's Relativity, Quantum Theory, Cosmology, Ancient Greek Philosophy, Western & Eastern Philosophy, Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Theology, Evolution, Nature / Ecology, Culture, Art, Erotic Art, Sexuality, Feminism, Health, Politics, Education and Utopia. Includes Pictures and numerous Quotes from many fine philosophers / physicists, including Plato, Aristotle, Rene Descartes, Gottfried Leibniz, Sir Isaac Newton, Christiaan Huygens, Spinoza, George Berkeley, David Hume, Immanuel Kant, Friedrich Nietzsche, Nikola Tesla, Max Planck, Gandhi, Albert Einstein, Louis de Broglie, Erwin Schrodinger, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Richard Feynman and Milo Wolff.
Physics (and thus all human knowledge) evolved from Newton's concepts of particles and forces in Space and Time, which assumes the existence of four separate things. This causes many problems for Humanity because the necessary connection between these things is unknown. Einstein failed to solve this with his unified field theory of matter which describes reality in terms of matter-energy (fields) in space-time. The Metaphysics of Space and Motion and the Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) solves these problems by describing Reality in terms of One thing, Space, existing with the Properties of a Wave Medium. Matter is formed from Spherical Standing Waves in Space which cause the 'particle' effect at their Wave Center. Time is due to the Wave Motion (activity) of Space. Forces / fields are caused by the interaction of the Spherical In and Out Waves with other matter in Space which changes the wave velocity and thus location of the Wave-Center (and which we 'see' as a 'force accelerating a particle').
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Geoff and Karene
(George Berkeley, 1710) Nothing seems of more importance, towards erecting a firm system of sound and real knowledge, which may be proof against the assaults of skepticism, than to lay the beginning in a distinct explication of what is meant by thing, reality, existence: for in vain shall we dispute concerning the real existence of things, or pretend to any knowledge thereof, so long as we have not fixed the meaning of those words.
Truth & Reality
The Spherical Standing Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) in Space
Theory of Reality
Unity of Reality
Logic & Reality
Special & General
of Light & Matter
& Infinite Space
Truth & Reality