Metaphysics: David Hume
Solution to David Hume's Problem of Causation and Necessary Connection by explaining the interconnected Motion of Matter in Space

It appears that, in single instances of the operation of bodies, we never can, by our utmost scrutiny, discover any thing but one event following another, without being able to comprehend any force or power by which the cause operates, or any connexion between it and its supposed effect. (David Hume, 1737)It appears that, in single instances of the operation of bodies, we never can, by our utmost scrutiny, discover any thing but one event following another, without being able to comprehend any force or power by which the cause operates, or any connexion between it and its supposed effect. The same difficulty occurs in contemplating the operations of mind on body- where we observe the motion of the latter to follow upon the volition of the former, but are not able to observe or conceive the tie which binds together the motion and volition, or the energy by which the mind produces this effect.
The authority of the will over its own faculties and ideas is not a whit more comprehensible: So that, upon the whole, there appears not, throughout all nature, any one instance of connexion which is conceivable by us. All events seem entirely loose and separate. One event follows another; but we never can observe any tie between them. They seemed conjoined, but never connected. And as we can have no idea of any thing which never appeared to our outward sense or inward sentiment, the necessary conclusion seems to be that we have no idea of connexion or force at all, and that these words are absolutely without meaning, when employed either in philosophical reasonings or common life. (David Hume, 1737)


David Hume Philosophy Metaphysics Reality Skepticism Necessary Connection and Causation Introduction to David Hume

The Philosopher David Hume is famous for making us realize that until we know the Necessary Connection/Cause of things then all human knowledge is uncertain, merely a habit of thinking based upon repeated observation (induction), and which depends upon the future being like the past.
We should respect Hume's open mind, which is necessary if we are to ever consider new ideas and thus advance Human knowledge.

I cannot find, I cannot imagine any such reasoning. But I keep my mind still open to instruction, if any one will vouchsafe to bestow it upon me. (David Hume, 1737)
I must confess that a man is guilty of unpardonable arrogance who concludes, because an argument has escaped his own investigation, that therefore it does not really exist. I must also confess that, though all the learned, for several ages, should have employed themselves in fruitless search upon any subject, it may still, perhaps, be rash to conclude positively that the subject must, therefore, pass all human comprehension. (David Hume, 1737)

The Metaphysics of Space and Motion and the Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) simply explains the necessary connection of matter (cause and effect) due to the interconnection (and changing velocity) of the Spherical In and Out-waves with all the other matter in the universe.


David Hume's Problem of Causation and Necessary Connection
(and thus Induction)

Hume's Problem of Causation has remained unsolved for 250 years (Neither Kant nor Popper positively solved it!) and this lack of certainty, at the very heart of Human Scientific Knowledge, has greatly prejudiced our belief in the possibility of Metaphysics and the certainty of Science, and has ultimately led to the extreme skepticism (Postmodernism) of our currently troubled and confused times. It is a delight to read David Hume, who writes brilliantly - beautifully blending clarity, content and style. As his skills far exceed my own, I shall gladly limit myself to ordering and presenting his words and ideas, such that I may clearly demonstrate his Problem of Causation (and as a consequence, Induction). Most importantly though, by doing this it becomes possible to show how these profound problems can now, finally, be sensibly solved.

It must certainly be allowed, that nature has kept us at a great distance from all her secrets, and has afforded us only the knowledge of a few superficial qualities of objects; while she conceals from us those powers and principles on which the influence of those objects entirely depends. (Hume, 1737)

When we look about us towards external objects, and consider the operation of causes, we are never able, in a single instance, to discover any power or necessary connexion; any quality, which binds the effect to the cause, and renders the one an infallible consequence of the other. (Hume, 1737)

... experience only teaches us, how one event constantly follows another; without instructing us in the secret connexion, which binds them together, and renders them inseparable. (Hume, 1737)

We then call the one object, Cause; the other, Effect. We suppose that there is some connexion between them; some power in the one, by which it infallibly produces the other, and operates with the greatest certainty and strongest necessity. (Hume, 1737)

I say then, that, even after we have experience of the operations of cause and effect, our conclusions from that experience are not founded on (a priori) reasoning, or any process of the understanding.(Hume, 1737)

It is allowed on all hands that there is no known connexion between the sensible qualities and the secret powers; and consequently, that the mind is not led to form such a conclusion concerning their constant and regular conjunction, by anything which it knows of their nature.(Hume, 1737)

Hume correctly explains that Humans do not know the 'Necessary Connexion' between objects and thus do not know the relationship between Cause and Effect. This quite simply is the Problem of Causation- that until we know 'what exists' and the 'necessary connexions' between these things that exist, then it is impossible for Humanity to have certainty of knowledge.

This then leads to the further Problem of Induction, for if we do not know the a priori cause of events then we have no Principles from which to logically deduce our conclusions. We are left simply observing that one event follows another and seems connected, but we do not know how or why, thus we must depend upon repeated observation (Induction) to determine the laws of Nature (the current state of Modern Physics) and hence tacitly assuming (without reason) that the future is like the past. (It is simply a habit of thinking to connect two events which seem to occur in conjunction and necessarily assumes that the future will be like the past)

..all arguments concerning existence are founded on the relation of cause and effect; that our knowledge of that relation is derived entirely from experience; and all our experimental conclusions proceed upon the supposition that the future will be conformable to the past. .... Without the influence of custom, we should be entirely ignorant of every matter of fact beyond what is immediately present to the memory and senses. (Hume, 1737)

I shall venture to affirm, as a general proposition, which admits of no exception, that the knowledge of this relation is not, in any instance, attained by reasonings a priori; but arises entirely from experience, when we find that any particular objects are constantly conjoined with each other. (Hume, 1737)

It is impossible, therefore, that any arguments from experience can prove this resemblance of the past to the future; since all these arguments are founded on the supposition of that resemblance. Let the course of things be allowed hitherto ever so regular; that alone, without some new argument or inference, proves not that, for the future, it will continue so. (Hume, 1737)


The Metaphysics of Space & Motion Solves Hume's Problem of Causation / Necessary Connection

Let us now apply our knowledge of the Metaphysics of Space and Motion and the Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) to this greatest of all Human intellectual problems, Hume's Problem of Causation and Necessary Connection, which can only be solved by understanding how Matter Exists and is interconnected within this Space of the Universe.

First, Hume agrees that there obviously is a 'necessary connexion' between objects (Matter) in Space. This is obvious by the fact that Physics is able to describe many events with mathematical precision. Thus if we had knowledge of this 'secret connexion' or Force we could accurately predict (logically deduce) the future (from cause to effect) without need of induction from repeated observation and thus having to assume the future is like the past.

It is universally allowed that matter, in all its operations, is actuated by a necessary force, and that every natural effect is so precisely determined by the energy of its cause that no other effect, in such particular circumstances, could possibly have resulted from it. (Hume, 1737)

The generality of mankind never find any difficulty in accounting for the more common and familiar operations of nature - such as the descent of heavy bodies, the growth of plants, the generation of animals, or the nourishment of bodies by food: But suppose that, in all these cases, they perceive the very force or energy of the cause, by which it is connected with its effect, and is for ever infallible in its operation. (Hume, 1737)

From the first appearance of an object, we never can conjecture what effect will result from it. But were the power or energy of any cause discoverable by the mind, we could foresee the effect, even without experience; and might, at first, pronounce with certainty concerning it, by mere dint of thought and reasoning. (Hume, 1737)

Now it seems evident that, if this conclusion were formed by reason, it would be as perfect at first, and upon one instance, as after ever so long a course of experience. (Hume, 1737)

This question I propose as much for the sake of information, as with an intention of raising difficulties. I cannot find, I cannot imagine any such reasoning. But I keep my mind still open to instruction, if any one will vouchsafe to bestow it upon me. (Hume, 1737)

The solution to Hume's Problem of Causation is realised by understanding how Matter Exists in Space as a Spherical Standing Wave whose Focal Point creates the 'Particle' Effect of Matter. So now that we know the Two Fundamental Principles of the WSM, we understand the Cause of the 'Particle' Effect, and thus we can logically deduce the Motion of the Focal Point ('Particle'). By simply considering how the Velocity of the Spherical In-Wave changes as it flows in through other matter in the Space around it, we can thus logically determine where those Spherical In-Waves will meet at their Focal Point thus we can determine the future motion of the 'Particle' Effect. So let us re-visit Hume's simple problem of why a stone falls to the earth;

Would we, therefore, form a just and precise idea of necessity, we must consider whence that idea arises when we apply it to the operation of bodies. ... A stone or piece of metal raised into the air, and left without any support, immediately falls: but to consider the matter a priori, is there anything we discover in this situation which can beget the idea of a downward, rather than an upward, or any other motion, in the stone of metal? (Hume, 1737)

Firstly, we must realise that the stone exists as many trillions of Spherical (Ellipsoidal) Standing Waves whose Wave-Centers/Focal Points are trapped together resonating together in the Space that we call the Matter of the stone. Thus the reason why the stone falls to the Earth is simply because of Principle Two. i.e. The Spherical (Ellipsoidal) In-Waves travel more slowly through the higher mass-energy density of Space that we call the matter of Earth than they do in the opposite direction from Space through the Earth's atmosphere. This causes the Focal Point (where the Spherical In-Waves meet at their Wave-Centers) to move (accelerate) towards the earth- which we see as the stone falling. Thus as Hume demanded, we have replaced Inductive Logic from repeated observation of Effects with Deductive Logic from the Two Principles of the WSM, which demonstrate the Cause of the 'Particle' Effect.


The Solution to Hume's 'Problem of Induction'

For the most part, attempts to solve the problem of induction have taken the form of trying to fit inductive arguments into a deductive mould. (Ayer, 1956)

Finally, why does Induction work, why is the future like the past? (And it is obvious that it is else all our science would be nonsense.)

Without True Knowledge of Reality it is impossible to understand cause and effect - we are simply limited to describing the effects of things upon us, without understanding the cause of these effects. As we did not know how matter interacted with other matter in the Space around it (action-at-a-distance) we consequently did not understood how our human senses were connected to the world of objects in Space around us and thus what caused the perceived effects of our senses.

This lack of knowledge then leads to (what Popper termed) Hume's 'Problem of Induction'. This problem can again be demonstrated using Hume's simple example of dropping a stone such that when I let go of the stone it falls to earth. I can then repeat this experiment any number of times but despite this number of repetitions does this logically (inductively) infer that the stone must fall the next time I let it go. Hume argued that it does not, that it is simply a habit of thinking and that it is quite possible that at some stage in the future the stone will not fall. This leads to the realization that the logic of induction depends upon repeated observation and thus the assumption that the future is like the past. As Hume explains though;

The supposition that the future resembles the past, is not founded on arguments of any kind, but is derived entirely from habit.(Hume, 1737)

Thus Hume's skepticism is valid and has subsequently plagued Philosophy and the sciences with a terribly destructive doubt and a fertile environment for all kinds of absurdity and mysticism. Ultimately all science depends upon observation of the world for its knowledge, and thus Hume's problem of induction must be solved if we are to have certainty of knowledge. As Ayer explains of the philosophical skeptic;

... his contention is that any inference from past to future is illegitimate ... that it is to be doubted whether the exercise of sense-perception can in any circumstances whatever afford proof of the existence of physical objects. (Ayer, 1956)

The solution to this profound problem is in two parts and is beautiful in its simplicity.
i) Once we understand reality, then we understand the necessary connection of cause of the effect. Thus we no longer depend upon repeated observation to inductively deduce that the stone falls when we let it go, for we can now use deductive logic from first principles to deduce that the stone falls to the earth because its In-Waves are traveling more slowly through the Space of the Earth.
ii) We can also explain why the future is like the past because the In-Waves (our future) after flowing through the Wave-Center (our present) become the Out-Waves (our past) and thus the future causes the past and must therefore be like the past. This then explains why we can trust inductive reasoning, for its assumption that the future is like the past is valid, and this also then explains why science has been so successful even though it was founded on an inductive logic whose validity until now could not be shown to be true.

Now the skeptic can still argue that while I may have replaced induction with deduction, nonetheless I still depend upon induction, i.e. upon repeated observation of events, to confirm the truth of the deductive theory.
This is true, but I then can justify this use of induction to support deduction, by showing that this wave theory of matter explains why the future is similar to the past, and therefore deduce that induction is valid.


Popper - One could argue that if the problem of causation were positively solved - if we could show the existence of a necessary link between cause and effect - the problem of induction would also be solved, and positively. Thus one might say, the problem of causation is the deeper problem. Poppers Negative Solution to the Hume's Problem of Induction

Popper's negative solution to the problem of induction (that all truth is evolving, we can never know the Absolute Truth, but only know what is false through scientific method) is correct while we do not know the necessary connection between things (e.g. cause and effect). Conversely, Popper's problem of induction is solved once we solve Hume's Metaphysical problem of Causation and hence understand the 'necessary connexions' between 'what exists'. As Popper himself confirms;

(Karl Popper, 1975) There could easily be a little quarrel about the question which is the deeper problem; Hume's Problem of Causation, or what I have called the Problem of Induction.
One could argue that if the problem of causation were positively solved - if we could show the existence of a necessary link between cause and effect - the problem of induction would also be solved, and positively. Thus one might say, the problem of causation is the deeper problem.
I argue the other way round: the problem of induction is negatively solved; we can never justify the truth of a belief in a regularity. But we constantly use regularities, as conjectures, as hypotheses; and we have good reasons sometimes for preferring certain conjectures to some of their competitors.
It is through the falsification of our suppositions that we actually get in touch with 'reality'. It is the discovery and elimination of our errors which alone constitute that 'positive' experience which we gain from reality.
But should there exist something like the correspondence of a theory to the facts, then this would obviously be more important than mere self-consistency, and certainly also more important than coherence with any earlier 'knowledge' (or 'belief'); for if a theory corresponds to the facts but does not cohere with some earlier knowledge, then this earlier knowledge should be discarded.

It is important to explain and solve Hume and thus Popper, because currently many scientists believe that Truth is always an approximation which is constantly evolving. In fact this is not the case, the solution to the Problem of Metaphysics is a final solution, an Absolute and Eternal Truth . Space and its wave motions will always exist, as will the truth of this reality.


Metaphysics: David Hume
Solution to David Hume's Problem of Causation and Necessary Connection by explaining the interconnected Motion of Matter in Space

Metaphysics is the attempt to know reality as against mere appearance, or the study of first principles or ultimate truths, or again the effort to comprehend the universe, not simply by fragments, but somehow as a whole. (F.H. Bradley, 1846-1924)
Metaphysics Solves
Problems of Science
All things come out of the one and the one out of all things. ... I see nothing but Becoming. Be not deceived! The very river in which you bathe a second time is no longer the same one you entered before. (Heraclitus, 500BC)
One and the Many
Dynamic Unity of Reality
Metaphysics is universal and is exclusively concerned with primary substance. ... Here we have the science to study that which is just as that which is, both in its essence and in the properties which, just as a thing that is, it has. (Aristotle, 340BC)
Aristotle Metaphysics
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No one doubts but that we imagine TIME from the very fact that we imagine other bodies to be moved slower or faster or equally fast. We are accustomed to determine duration by the aid of some measure of MOTION. (Spinoza, 1673)
Benedictus de Spinoza
Metaphysics of Motion
Absolute Space, in its own nature, without regard to any thing external, remains always similar and immovable. ... It seems probable to me that God formed matter in solid, hard, impenetrable, movable particles. (Sir Isaac Newton)
Sir Isaac Newton
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Reality cannot be found except in One single source, because of the interconnection of all things with one another. ... Substance cannot be conceived without activity, activity being the essence of substance in general. (Gottfried Leibniz, 1670)
Gottfried Leibniz
Metaphysics / Monadology
When we look towards external objects, and consider the operation of causes, we can never discover any power or necessary connexion which binds the effect to the cause, and renders the one a consequence of the other. (David Hume, 1737)
David Hume Metaphysics
Necessary Connection
Natural science contains in itself synthetical judgments a priori, as principles. ... Space then is a necessary representation a priori, which serves for the foundation of all external intuitions. (Immanuel Kant, 1781)
Immanuel Kant Metaphysics
Synthetic a priori Knowledge
Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended (as fields). Thus the concept 'empty space' loses its meaning. ... The field becomes an irreducible element of physical description, irreducible in the same sense as matter (particles) in Newton's theory. (Albert Einstein, 1950)
Albert Einstein
Field Theory of Matter
Do not allow yourselves to be deceived: Great Minds are Skeptical. ... There is nothing more necessary than truth, and in comparison with it everything else has only secondary value. (Friedrich Nietzsche, 1890)
Metaphysics of Skepticism
Skeptical / Skeptics Quotes



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Biography: Geoffrey Haselhurst, Philosopher of Science, Theoretical Physics, Metaphysics, Evolution. Our world is in great trouble due to human behaviour founded on myths and customs that are causing the destruction of Nature and climate change. We can now deduce the most simple science theory of reality - the wave structure of matter in space. By understanding how we and everything around us are interconnected in Space we can then deduce solutions to the fundamental problems of human knowledge in physics, philosophy, metaphysics, theology, education, health, evolution and ecology, politics and society.

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