Metaphysics: Sir Isaac Newton
The Metaphysics of Space and the Wave Structure of Matter unites Sir Isaac Newton's Absolute Space and his Particle conception of matter.

It seems probable to me that God in the beginning formed matter in solid, massy, hard, impenetrable, movable particles, of such sizes and figures ... (Sir Isaac Newton)It seems probable to me that God in the beginning formed matter in solid, massy, hard, impenetrable, movable particles, of such sizes and figures, and with such other properties, and in such proportion to space, as most conduced to the end for which he formed them; and that these primitive particles being solids, are incomparably harder than any porous bodies compounded of them; even so very hard, as never to wear or break in pieces; no ordinary power being able to divide what God himself made one in the first creation. (Newton, From 'The Tao of Physics', Capra)

Particle / Space Duality of Newton's Mechanics - Isaac Newton on Time, Particles, Forces - Newton's Concept of Light as Particle - Newton's Law of Inertia - Top of Page

Sir Isaac Newton: Physics Famous Scientists - WSM Explains Newton's Three Laws of Motion. 'Absolute Space, in its own nature, without regard to any thing external, remains always similar and immovable' (Newton). The Particle / Space Duality of Newton's Mechanics (1687)

We begin with a very good summary of Atomism, as their ultimate conclusion, that the 'particle' is a conceptual tool for the logical positivist / mathematical physicist, but does not physically exist, is absolutely correct. (As the principles of the Wave Structure of Matter state, the 'particle' effect of matter is caused by the Wave-Center of the Spherical Standing Waves.)

Atomism arose as an explanatory scheme with the ancient Greeks (around 400BC), Leucippus and Democritus, and Epicurus, and the Roman poet, Lucretius. At the most fundamental level atomism is the belief that all phenomena are explicable in terms of the properties and behaviour of ultimate, elementary, localized entities (or 'fundamental particles'). Thus it prescribes a strategy for the construction of scientific theories in which the behaviour of complex bodies is to be explained in terms of their component parts. That strategy has led to many of the successes of modern physical science, though these do not prove that there actually are 'ultimate entities' of the type postulated by atomism.
Their (the atomists) analysis goes 'behind' the appearance of minute, unchangeable and indestructible 'atoms' separated by the emptiness of 'the void'. It is the void which is said to make change and movement possible. All apparent change is simply the result of rearrangements of the atoms as a consequence of collisions between them. This seems to lead to mechanical determinism, though, in an attempt to leave room for freewill, Epicurus and Lucretius postulated that atoms might 'deviate' in their courses. (See references on Cosmology for an explanation of Free Will)
However if 'what exists' is 'atoms', what of the 'void'? In different ways both Aristotle and Descartes denied that there could be such a thing as literally 'empty space'. Physically therefore they saw the world as a plenum. Atomism was also associated with atheism, since as Lucretius put it, 'Nothing can ever be created out of nothing, even by divine power.' Conversely no thing can ever become nothing - so the atomists proposed a strict principle of conservation of matter.
The attempt of the ancient atomists to solve a metaphysical problem about the nature of change resulted in a brilliantly fruitful strategy for the construction of theories in the physical sciences. However there are unanswered philosophical objections to atomism and the very successes it has stimulated suggest that 'the stuff of the world' cannot ultimately be understood in terms of atomism. A thoroughgoing positivism will continue to hold that 'atomic theories' are simply devices for talking about observable phenomena. (The Concise Encyclopedia of Western Philosophy and Philosophers, 1991)

With this understanding of the 'particle' in mind, and with Albert Einstein as our guide, we shall now explain and solve Newton's Mechanics, and thus also appreciate how Newton's theory profoundly (though incorrectly) shaped the face of modern physics.

Particle / Space Duality of Newton's Mechanics - Isaac Newton on Time, Particles, Forces - Newton's Concept of Light as Particle - Newton's Law of Inertia - Top of Page

Sir Isaac Newton: Physics Famous Scientists - WSM Explains Newton's Three Laws of Motion. 'Absolute Space, in its own nature, without regard to any thing external, remains always similar and immovable' (Newton). Sir Isaac Newton's Concepts of Time, Particles, & Forces
(On the Problem of Action-at-a-Distance)

Let us now consider two very famous quotes from Newton on absolute Space and Time. Newton's comments on Absolute Space being the foundations of the Relative Motions of Matter in Space is absolutely correct and very astute as Newton effectively predicts the evolution of relativity - that it is easier to measure the motion of matter relative to other matter, rather than to Space itself!

Absolute Space, in its own nature, without regard to any thing external, remains always similar and immovable. Relative Space is some moveable dimension or measure of the absolute spaces; which our senses determine, by its position to bodies; and which is vulgarly taken for immovable space. ...
And so instead of absolute places and motions, we use relative ones; and that without any inconvenience in common affairs; but in Philosophical disquisitions, we ought to abstract from our senses, and consider things themselves, distinct from what are only sensible measures of them. For it may be that there is no body really at rest, to which the places and motions of others may be referred. ...
Absolute, True, and Mathematical Time, of itself, and from its own nature flows equably without regard to any thing external, and by another name is called Duration: Relative, Apparent, and Common Time is some sensible and external (whether accurate or unequable) measure of Duration by the means of motion, which is commonly used instead of True time; such as an Hour, a Day, a Month, a Year. ...
For the natural days are truly unequable, though they are commonly consider'd as equal, and used for a measure of time: Astronomers correct this inequality for their more accurate deducing of the celestial motions. It may be, that there is no such thing as an equable motion, whereby time may be accurately measured. All motions may be accelerated and retarded, but the True, or equable progress, of Absolute time is liable to no change. The duration or perseverance of the existence of things remains the same, whether the motions are swift or slow, or none at all. (Newton, 1687)

Newton is also largely correct that Time is intimately connected to Motion, for Time is ultimately caused by the Wave-Motions of Space. It is also correct to assume an absolute Time (like QT rather than Relativity) such that we have a constant reference to measure the changing velocity of wave-motion. However, Time does not exist as a 'thing in itself' as Newton thought!

Albert Einstein explains Newton's Mechanics lucidly and logicaly (as reflects the greatness of Albert Einstein).

The first attempt to lay a uniform theoretical foundation was the work of Newton. In his system everything is reduced to the following concepts:
i) Mass points with invariable mass
ii) Instant action-at-a-distance between any pair of mass points
iii) Law of motion for the mass point.
Physical events, in Newton's view, are to be regarded as the motions, governed by fixed laws, of material points in space. This theoretical scheme is in essence an atomistic and mechanistic one. There was not, strictly speaking, any all-embracing foundation, because an explicit law was only formulated for the actions-at-a-distance of gravitation; while for other actions-at-a-distance nothing was established a priori except the law of equality of actio and reactio. Moreover, Newton himself fully realized that time and space were essential elements, as physically effective factors, of his system. (Albert Einstein, 1940)

We now realise his error was to introduce discrete 'particles' with Motion, rather than the Motion of Space itself, i.e. Spherical Standing Wave Motion, which creates the 'particle effect' at the Wave-Center.

Newton's endeavours to represent his system as necessarily conditioned by experience and to introduce the smallest possible number of concepts not directly referable to empirical objects is everywhere evident; in spite of this he set up the concept of absolute space and absolute time. For this he has often been criticized in recent years. Therefore, in addition to masses and temporally variable distances, there must be something else that determines motion. That something he takes to be relation to absolute space. He is aware that space must possess a kind of physical reality if his laws of motion are to have any meaning, a reality of the same sort as material points and their distances. (Albert Einstein, 1954)

As explained in Uniting Metaphysics and Physics, Albert Einstein considered matter to be spatially extended (and represented by Spherical Force Fields) thus he did not believe in the existence of a fundamental Space or Time that was separate from Matter (he imagined that matter caused Space and Time, whereas the Wave Structure of Matter states the opposite, that Space [and it wave motions] cause Matter and Time). As with Leibniz and Mach, Albert Einstein believed that all motion of matter in Space could instead be understood as motion of matter relative to other matter, thus the concept of an absolute Space became unnecessary.

In Newtonian physics the elementary theoretical concept on which the theoretical description of material bodies is based is the material point, or particle. Thus matter is considered a priori to be discontinuous. This makes it necessary to consider the action of material points on one another as action-at-a-distance. Since the latter concept seems quite contrary to everyday experience, it is only natural that the contemporaries of Newton - and indeed Newton himself - found it difficult to accept. Owing to the almost miraculous success of the Newtonian system, however, the succeeding generations of physicists became used to the idea of action-at-a-distance. Any doubt was buried for a long time to come. (Albert Einstein, 1950)

The solution though is obvious once known - to discard the concept of the discrete particle in Space and replace it with the Spherical Standing Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) in Space.
Then instant action-at-a-distance between discrete particles becomes action-at-a-distance between the In and Out-Waves of the Wave-Centers 'particles' in Space. This leads to a clear understanding of how matter interacts with other matter at-a-distance in Space, as it is the interaction of the In-Waves and Out-Waves with other SSWs (and particularly their Wave-Centers) that explains all matter to matter interactions in Space. These interactions are limited by the velocity of the In-Waves and Out-Waves which is the velocity of light c. Thus actions-at-a-distance are not instantaneous as Newton had assumed, but are limited by the velocity of the In-Waves (velocity of light c), as Albert Einstein realised, and observation confirms.
On the other hand, with respect to an absolute Space, it is one purpose of this article to show that in fact Newton was correct, there does exist a fundamental physical Space which acts as a wave medium and necessarily connects all things. Newton's error was to further assume the existence of the motion of material particles in this Space, rather than the (Spherical) Wave-Motion of Space itself.
Newton's error, of assuming too many existents (a common error), leads to two insurmountable problems;

a) How does matter exist as a discrete particle in Space and move through the Space around it?

As Born explains;

One obvious objection to the hypothesis of an elastic Aether (Space) arises from the necessity of ascribing to it the great rigidity it must have to account for the high velocity of Waves. Such a substance would necessarily offer resistance to the motion of heavenly bodies, particularly to that of planets. Astronomy has never detected departures from Newton's Laws of Motion that would point to such a resistance. (Born, 1924)

While Born is correct that Space is very rigid and this explains the high Wave-Velocity, he (along with most physicists) mistakenly assumes that separate 'particles' exist in this Space, and thus it is inconceivable that Space itself can exist as it would resist the motion of these particles. The obvious solution is to replace the concept of matter existing as discrete particles with matter existing as Spherical Standing Waves in this Space, thus the motion of the particle becomes the apparent motion of successive Wave-Centers.

b) How do these discrete particles gravitationally act-at-a-distance with other particles separate in Space?

Newton simply assumed that discrete particles could act instantly on other particles at-a-distance in Space (Newton's instantaneous action-at-a-distance) though he was well aware of this problem as he explains in his famous letter to Bentley;

It is inconceivable that inanimate brute matter should, without mediation of something else which is not matter, operate on and affect other matter without mutual contact. ... That gravity should be innate, inherent and essential to matter, so that one body may act upon another at-a-distance, through a vacuum, without the mediation of anything else by and through which their action may be conveyed from one to another, is to me so great an absurdity that I believe no man, who has in philosophical matters a competent faculty of thinking, can ever fall into it.
So far I have explained the phenomena by the force of gravity, but I have not yet ascertained the cause of gravity itself. ... and I do not arbitrarily invent hypotheses. (Newton. Letter to Richard Bentley 25 Feb. 1693)

Action-at-a-distance has puzzled philosophers and physicists since Newton first assumed instantaneous action-at-a-distance for gravitational Mass. For if matter is assumed to be a tiny particle, how could it interact (instantly!) with other matter at a distance in Space (across the entire universe)? For example, how do we, here on earth, sense the heat and light from the sun so distant in Space.
We now realize that matter is not small, it is large. Indeed Albert Einstein was very close to the truth - matter is spherically spatially extended, thus as we have said, Newton's instant action-at-a-distance from a particle becomes action-at-a-distance from the Wave-Center of Spherical Standing Waves in Space, due to the interaction and change in velocity of their In and Out-Waves.
i.e. A consequence of Principle Two, the In-Waves of the Spherical Standing Wave in Space interact with other SSWs in Space (particularly their high Wave-Amplitude/Density Wave-Centers) as they flow in through them and change their velocity accordingly. This determines where each successive In-Wave will ultimately meet at their respective Wave-Center (i.e. the future position of the Wave-Center / 'particle') which causes the apparent motion (acceleration) of the 'particle'. This then explains action-at-a-distance (from the Wave-Center) and why it is not instantaneous, but rather, is limited by the velocity of the In-Waves / Velocity of light c.)

Particle / Space Duality of Newton's Mechanics - Isaac Newton on Time, Particles, Forces - Newton's Concept of Light as Particle - Newton's Law of Inertia - Top of Page

Sir Isaac Newton: Physics Famous Scientists - WSM Explains Newton's Three Laws of Motion. 'Absolute Space, in its own nature, without regard to any thing external, remains always similar and immovable' (Newton). Sir Isaac Newton's Concept of Light as a Particle

It is true that Newton tried to reduced light to the motion of material points in his corpuscular theory of light. Later on, however, as the phenomena of finite velocity, polarization, diffraction, and interference of light forced upon this theory more and more unnatural modifications, Huygens' undulatory wave theory of light prevailed. (Albert Einstein, 1936)

Albert Einstein clearly realized, as did physicists of the time, that the particle concept of light is unable to explain experimental phenomena like polarization, diffraction, and interference, which are obviously explained by wave phenomena. This divide between Newton's particle conception of light and Huygens' wave theory of light was decided by Thomas Young's (1801) famous double slit experiment which showed interference patterns that could only be explained by a wave theory. For how could a single particle travel through two slits and interfere with itself?
Further, as Albert Einstein argues, it is impossible to explain how particles of matter emit and absorb particles of light.

What in that case becomes of the material points of which light is composed when the light is absorbed? (Albert Einstein, 1931)

So while Newton's particle theory for light and matter had substantial logical (mathematical) success at explaining certain phenomena, particularly the orbits of planets, it clearly produced many paradoxes due to its fundamental error of assuming the existence of discrete particles.

Yet no serious doubt of the mechanical (particle) foundation of physics arose, in the first place because nobody knew where to find a foundation of another sort. Only slowly, under the irresistible pressure of facts, there developed a new foundation of physics, 'Field' physics. (Albert Einstein, 1954)

We shall shortly consider the 'Field' physics, but before this we need to finally explain Newton' famous Law of Inertia;

An object at rest will remain at rest and an object in motion will continue in motion with a constant velocity unless it experiences a net external force. (Serway, 1992)

Particle / Space Duality of Newton's Mechanics - Isaac Newton on Time, Particles, Forces - Newton's Concept of Light as Particle - Newton's Law of Inertia - Top of Page

Sir Isaac Newton: Physics Famous Scientists - WSM Explains Newton's Three Laws of Motion. 'Absolute Space, in its own nature, without regard to any thing external, remains always similar and immovable' (Newton). Sir Isaac Newton's Law of Inertia F = m.a

Concisely stated - Mass is caused by the Relationship between the Change in Velocity c of the In-Waves (from one direction) and the resultant Change in Location of the Wave-Center which we see as the 'Acceleration of the Particle'.

It is necessary to correctly understand Principle Two for this explains Newton's Law of Inertia F=m.a which is at the very heart of Physics.

Principle Two - On the Necessary Connections between What Exists

i) Any Change in Velocity of the Spherical In-Waves from One Direction Changes where these In-Waves meet at their respective Wave-Center which we see as the Accelerated Motion of the 'Particle'. (This is the Cause of All Forces, i.e. Newton's Law of Inertia F=m.a)
ii) The Spherical In-Waves are formed from the Huygens' Combination of Out-Waves from All other Matter in our Finite Spherical Universe. (This is the Cause of Mach's Principle - the Mass (mass-energy density of space) of an object is determined by all the other matter in the Universe.)

Principle Two explains how matter 'particles' (as Wave-Centers) are 'Necessarily Connected' to other Matter in the Space around them, and thus leads to the explanation of 'Force' and Newton's famous and most important Law of Inertia Force = Mass * Acceleration (F=m.a)
Let us consider the Spherical In-Waves of One Electron / Spherical Standing Wave (SSW). If there is no change in the velocity of the Spherical In-Wave then there can be no change in the apparent motion of the Wave-Center / 'particle'. i.e. If the Spherical In-Waves comes in with the same velocity in all directions then the Wave-Center / 'particle' will remain stationary in the same place in Space. Conversely, if there is a change in velocity of the Spherical In-Waves in one direction then this will also cause a change in motion (acceleration) of the Wave-Center / 'particle'. So when we consider the future motion of a particle we must actually consider the velocity of the Spherical In-Waves only, for it is logical that this alone determines where these In-Waves will meet at their future Wave-Centers.
This is the underlying cause of the Law of Inertia and the concepts of force, mass and acceleration. We can now translate the language of physics into the language of the WSM. When we apply a Force to an object we are in fact changing the velocity of their In-Waves, and this causes an acceleration (change in apparent motion) of the particle effect at the Wave-Center. It is this relationship between the change in velocity of In-Waves and the change in Motion of the Wave-Center that causes the concept of Mass and explains the necessary connection between things that exist. (i.e. Action-at-a-distance).

Though this is perhaps a little confusing upon first reading, with time it becomes more obvious that the Spherical Wave Structure of Matter simplifies and solves the problems of Newton's Mechanics by removing the concept of discrete 'particles' and replacing this with Spherical Wave Motions of Space whose Wave-Center's Cause the 'Particle' Effect.

Finally, it is important to realize that Einstein’s Relativity evolved largely from Newton's Mechanics (1687), Faraday's Electromagnetic Field Theory (1832), Maxwell’s Equations (1876) and Lorentz's Theory of the Electron (1900-1906). By applying this new Metaphysical foundation to these earlier theories we can correct their errors, and this then leads to a simple solution to the problems of Einstein’s Relativity.

Please read the complete explanation at Uniting Metaphysics and Physics - Einstein's Relativity, Quantum Theory, Cosmology

Metaphysics: Sir Isaac Newton
The Metaphysics of Space and the Wave Structure of Matter unites Sir Isaac Newton's Absolute Space and his Particle conception of matter

Metaphysics is the attempt to know reality as against mere appearance, or the study of first principles or ultimate truths, or again the effort to comprehend the universe, not simply by fragments, but somehow as a whole. (F.H. Bradley, 1846-1924)
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All things come out of the one and the one out of all things. ... I see nothing but Becoming. Be not deceived! The very river in which you bathe a second time is no longer the same one you entered before. (Heraclitus, 500BC)
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Metaphysics is universal and is exclusively concerned with primary substance. ... Here we have the science to study that which is just as that which is, both in its essence and in the properties which, just as a thing that is, it has. (Aristotle, 340BC)
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No one doubts but that we imagine TIME from the very fact that we imagine other bodies to be moved slower or faster or equally fast. We are accustomed to determine duration by the aid of some measure of MOTION. (Spinoza, 1673)
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Absolute Space, in its own nature, without regard to any thing external, remains always similar and immovable. ... It seems probable to me that God formed matter in solid, hard, impenetrable, movable particles. (Sir Isaac Newton)
Sir Isaac Newton
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Reality cannot be found except in One single source, because of the interconnection of all things with one another. ... Substance cannot be conceived without activity, activity being the essence of substance in general. (Gottfried Leibniz, 1670)
Gottfried Leibniz
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When we look towards external objects, and consider the operation of causes, we can never discover any power or necessary connexion which binds the effect to the cause, and renders the one a consequence of the other. (David Hume, 1737)
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Natural science contains in itself synthetical judgments a priori, as principles. ... Space then is a necessary representation a priori, which serves for the foundation of all external intuitions. (Immanuel Kant, 1781)
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Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended (as fields). Thus the concept 'empty space' loses its meaning. ... The field becomes an irreducible element of physical description, irreducible in the same sense as matter (particles) in Newton's theory. (Albert Einstein, 1950)
Albert Einstein
Field Theory of Matter
Do not allow yourselves to be deceived: Great Minds are Skeptical. ... There is nothing more necessary than truth, and in comparison with it everything else has only secondary value. (Friedrich Nietzsche, 1890)
Metaphysics of Skepticism
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Biography: Geoffrey Haselhurst, Philosopher of Science, Theoretical Physics, Metaphysics, Evolution. Our world is in great trouble due to human behaviour founded on myths and customs that are causing the destruction of Nature and climate change. We can now deduce the most simple science theory of reality - the wave structure of matter in space. By understanding how we and everything around us are interconnected in Space we can then deduce solutions to the fundamental problems of human knowledge in physics, philosophy, metaphysics, theology, education, health, evolution and ecology, politics and society.

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