History of the Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) is an article by Milo Wolff (M.I.T. retired) and (Natural Philosopher)
It is the second of four articles on the Wave Structure of Matter (WSM). This discipline describes the origin of matter and the natural laws as properties of wave structures traveling at velocity c in a quantum-wave medium or the space around us and throughout the universe.
The origins of the Wave Structure of Matter were proposed in the late 19th / early 20th century by William Clifford  and later by Erwin Schrodinger . However, this dynamic unity of reality (that the Wave Structure of Matter in Space explains) is an ancient idea that dates back to the foundations of metaphysics and philosophy from Ancient Indian Philosophy and Greek Philosophy.
Albert Einstein also realized that matter is spatially extended, extending a concept of Ernst Mach . Recent mathematical development is by Milo Wolff  and philosophical metaphysical foundations from.
His voluminous writing were a popular scientific topic in the years 1880-1900. (See, The Common Sense of the Exact Sciences, 1885, Edited by Karl Pearson, New York: Dover, 1955).
Clifford created an element of space curvature 'the twist' in a mathematical model, which he used to describe electromagnetic and atomic phenomena with quaternion algebras. His 4-dimensional space was non euclidean. At the time these physical concepts were not favored within the scientific community.
A legend has grown up around Albert Einstein's discovery of general relativity, in the scientific community, as the first successful attempt to describe physical space as non-Euclidean. Of greater historical importance was the more general concept of space as expressed by Clifford and its mathematical studies of Non-Euclidean geometry. This concept is the non-Euclidean space in Clifford's 'Space-Theory'. But the complexity of the mathematics involved allowed only the best and brightest mathematicians to draw conclusions regarding the physics of space and time. Clifford's mathematical work received a large boost some years ago when John Archibald Wheeler developed some of Clifford's ideas in his Geometrodynamics (Academic Press, 1962).
Ernst Mach proposed, that the law of inertia depended on all the matter of the universe. This is known as Mach's Principle. It was the first observation that natural laws depend on distant objects. Mach in 1883 deduced  that the inertia of a body depended on the presence of the visible stars. He asserted:
'Every local inertial frame is determined by the composite matter of the universe'and jokingly, 'When the subway jerks, it is the fixed stars that throw us down.'
His deduction arose from two different methods of measuring rotation. First, without looking at the sky one can measure the centrifugal force on a rotating mass m and use the inertia law F = ma = mv2/r to find circumferential speed v and position. The second method compares the object's angular position with the fixed (distant) stars. Both methods give exactly the same result! Thus the inertia law depends on the fixed stars. Mach's Principle was criticized because it appeared to predict instantaneous action-at-a-distance across empty space. How can information travel from here to the stars and back again in an instant? It cannot. Instead, the energy exchange mechanism of F=ma, formerly unknown, is now seen as the interaction of matter waves in a universal wave-medium, space. The quantum wave medium is produced (See Principle II) by waves from every wave center 'particle' in the universe. The energy exchange of inertia is mediated by the space medium. There is no need to travel across the universe.
The basis of Mach's principle, that the mass-energy density of space is established by waves from all matter of the Universe was found by Wolff . In his work, Mach's Principle in a quantitative form, has become Principle II of the Wave Structure of Matter. Albert Einstein was greatly influenced by Mach when he deduced the General Theory of Relativity (GTR), which, like all natural laws, is a result of the Wave Structure of Matter.
It is not possible to know using a discrete particle of matter, because waves are the transfer mechanism. Thus further progress required the abandonment of the notion of a discrete particle and accepting electron wave structure. Unfortunately, Neils Bohr, his Copenhagen group, and most physicists accepted the discrete particle and delayed the WSM for about 50 years. Erwin Schrodinger, who introduced wave equations / resonance to explain the discrete energy states of quantum theory (discovered by Max Planck), proposed in 1937 to eliminate discrete particles by using a quantum wave structure. He wrote : 'What we observe as material bodies and forces are nothing but shapes and variations in the structure of space. Particles are just schaumkommen (appearances).'
That is, matter is a wave structure in a quantum wave medium (space) and material bodies are only their appearance to us. By all material bodies and forces, he agreed with Clifford that one substance space, is the basis of everything. He added a new element to the work of Clifford 'that the structure of the waves of space lead to the appearances we observe of discrete particles. These appearances are used to form the natural laws (rules) we create. The appearances depend on the behavior of the quantum waves of nature itself.
Most of us are aware that energy transfers in Nature are due to discrete state changes of quantum systems. This points out that the continuous electric & magnetic fields of Maxwell's Equations are usually only a (very) good approximation to the actual behavior of the discrete energy exchanges between quantum states. Hence the Wave Structure of Matter suggests that the quantum waves are real but e-m fields are not. This emphasizes the importance in experimental techniques to understand the origin of energy transfers.
Wheeler and Feynman (W&F) in 1945 sought  the cause of the radiation from accelerated charge, especially to verify an empirical formula used by Paul Dirac: Force = [da/dt]2 e/3c2where e is the electron charge, c is the velocity of light and a is the acceleration. They discussed this with Einstein who suggested a proposal by Tetrode  that light (energy) transmission was a two-way communication between a source molecule or atom and a receiver molecule utilizing inward and outward waves. At first glance this proposal appears to violate the causality concept: Actions should appear before their causes, because inward waves appear to be traveling backward in time. Their calculation assumed that the charge generated equal amplitudes of advanced (inward) and retarded (outward) spherical electromagnetic waves. The outward waves evoked a response of the universe; that is, the production of inward waves returning from absorbing charges elsewhere in the universe. Dirac's formula for the force of acceleration was verified and found independent of the properties of the absorber provided that absorption was complete. W&F presumed vector e-m waves but were in hindsight equivalent to scalar quantum waves. This occurred because they assumed e-m waves without using a wave equation. W&F summarized the inward waves:
Absorber charges at a large distance produce spherical waves headed towards the source. At the moment the source is accelerated, these waves, just touch the source. Thus all the waves from the absorber charges form an array of approximately plane waves marching towards the source. The (Huygens) envelope of these plane waves is a spherical in-going wave. The sphere collapses on the source, and then pours out again as a divergent outward wave. This summary closely describes the later exact solutions by Wolff .
Albert Einstein studied, the mechanism of the transmission of force from one particle to another and concluded that particles must possess a property that extends throughout space to connect particles. His knowledge of Nature told him that discrete particles cannot exist because their borders would be an abrupt discontinuity; instead particles and space must be continuous. Einstein  wrote:
'Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended. In this way the concept of 'empty space' loses its meaning.'
He asserted that the concept of a discrete particle generating continuous fields acting on other particles across the universe is impossible to imagine, and are never found in Nature. He rejected the point particle and Maxwell's field Equations, writing:
'The combination of the idea of a continuous field with that of material points discontinuous in space appears inconsistent. Hence the material particle has no place as a fundamental concept in a field theory. Thus even apart from the fact that gravitation is not included, Maxwell's electrodynamics cannot be considered a complete theory.'
Batty-Pratt and T. Racey  showed in 1980 how the inward wave of an electron is rotated at a wave-center to become the outward wave, producing spin h/4pi. This was one missing element of the work of Wheeler and Feynman above.
Milo Wolff at MIT found (1984) the complete mathematical structure of the electron and deduced that the predictions of Clifford, Schrodinger and Mach were embodied in only two simple principles of the properties of space. Their extreme simplicity is remarkable. Using the scalar wave equation, he found that the wave properties of space and the simple scalar waves of the charged particles of the Universe (electrons, etc.) were the origin of special relativity, the de Broglie wavelength, and the Compton wavelength and thus the Schrodinger Equation. This equation became the basis of Principle I of the WSM. He used a quantitative version of Mach'Principle as Principle II to show how the density of space depends on all matter in the Universe. Remarkably, just these two principles together describe the origin of all the natural laws. This work was published in [4,5,6].
The natural philosopher and metaphysicist observed (1998) that both ancient and modern philosophers had deduced this . Ancient Indian Philosophy and Greek Philosophy, and later western philosophers used the logic of philosophy and metaphysics (i.e. understanding necessary connection) to assert that all matter and motion (the entire universe) was derived from one substance. The Wave Structure of Matter confirms their deductions that one substance (Space) must exist to explain how matter is interconnected across the universe. The following quotes from Heraclitus, Aristotle, Gottfried Leibniz, Immanuel Kant, F. H. Bradley, Franz Brentano, Michael Faraday, James Clerk Maxwell, Friedrich Nietzsche, Hendrik Lorentz, Albert Einstein, Erwin Schrodinger, John Archibald Wheeler, Fritjof Capra and David Bohm are important in this foundation of Metaphysics / ;
'The judgement, for instance, that there is a three-dimensional (spatial) world is, Brentano believed, so widely confirmed as to be infinitely more likely than any of its alternatives.' (One Hundred Twentieth-Century Philosophers, Brown et al, 1998)
'I cannot conceive curved lines of force without the conditions of a physical existence in that intermediate space.' (Michael Faraday, 1830)
'Greek philosophy seems to begin with a preposterous fancy, with the proposition that water is the origin and mother-womb of all things. Is it really necessary to stop there and become serious? Yes, and for three reasons: firstly, because the preposition does enunciate something about the origin of things; secondly, because it does so without figure and fable; thirdly and lastly, because it contained, although only in the chrysalis state, the idea :everything is one. ..That which drove him (Thales) to this generalization was a metaphysical dogma, which had its origin in a mystic intuition and which together with the ever renewed endeavors to express it better, we find in all philosophies- the proposition: everything is one!' (Friedrich Nietzsche, The Greeks, p159)
'According to the general theory of relativity space without ether is unthinkable; for in such space there not only would be no propagation of light, but also no possibility of existence for standards of space and time. But this ether may not be thought of as endowed with the quality characteristic of matter, as consisting of parts ('particles') which may be tracked through time.' (Albert Einstein, 1928, Leiden Lecture)
'Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended (as fields). In this way the concept 'empty space' loses its meaning. ... The field thus becomes an irreducible element of physical description, irreducible in the same sense as the concept of matter (particles) in the theory of Newton. ... The physical reality of space is represented by a field whose components are continuous functions of four independent variables - the co-ordinates of space and time. Since the theory of general relativity implies the representation of physical reality by a continuous field, the concept of particles or material points cannot play a fundamental part, nor can the concept of motion. The particle can only appear as a limited region in space in which the field strength or the energy density are particularly high. (Albert Einstein, Relativity, 1950)
'When forced to summarize the general theory of relativity in one sentence: Time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter.' (Albert Einstein, Ideas and Opinions, 1954)
'What we observe as material bodies and forces are nothing but shapes and variations in the structure of space. Particles are just schaumkommen (appearances). ... The world is given to me only once, not one existing and one perceived. Subject and object are only one. The barrier between them cannot be said to have broken down as a result of recent experience in the physical sciences, for this barrier does not exist. ... Let me say at the outset, that in this discourse, I am opposing not a few special statements of quantum mechanics held today (1950s), I am opposing as it were the whole of it, I am opposing its basic views that have been shaped 25 years ago, when Max Born put forward his probability interpretation, which was accepted by almost everybody. ... I don't like it, and I'm sorry I ever had anything to do with it.' (Erwin Schrodinger, Life and Thought, Cambridge U. Press, 1989).
'Someday we'll understand the whole thing as one single marvelous vision that will seem so overwhelmingly simple and beautiful that we may say to each other; 'Oh, how could be have been so stupid for so long? How could it have been otherwise!'' (John Archibald Wheeler)
'In Indian philosophy, the main terms used by Hindus and Buddhists have dynamic connotations. The word Brahman is derived from the Sanskrit root brih - to grow- and thus suggests a reality which is dynamic and alive. The Upanishads refer to Brahman as 'this unformed, immortal, moving', thus associating it with motion even though it transcends all forms.' The Rig Veda uses another term to express the dynamic character of the universe, the term Rita. This word comes from the root ri- to move. In its phenomenal aspect, the cosmic One is thus intrinsically dynamic, and the apprehension of its dynamic nature is basic to all schools of Eastern mysticism. They all emphasize that the universe has to be grasped dynamically, as it moves, vibrates and dances. ... The Eastern mystics see the universe as an inseparable web, whose interconnections are dynamic and not static. The cosmic web is alive; it moves and grows and changes continually.' (Fritjof Capra, The Tao of Physics, 1972.)
'The notion that all these fragments is separately existent is evidently an illusion, and this illusion cannot do other than lead to endless conflict and confusion. Indeed, the attempt to live according to the notion that the fragments are really separate is, in essence, what has led to the growing series of extremely urgent crises that is confronting us today. Thus, as is now well known, this way of life has brought about pollution, destruction of the balance of nature, over-population, world-wide economic and political disorder and the creation of an overall environment that is neither physically nor mentally healthy for most of the people who live in it. Individually there has developed a widespread feeling of helplessness and despair, in the face of what seems to be an overwhelming mass of disparate social forces, going beyond the control and even the comprehension of the human beings who are caught up in it.' (David Bohm, Wholeness and the Implicate Order, 1980)
Prof. Carver Mead, an engineer at Cal-Tech investigated the e-m consequences of the WSM in his 2000 book 'Collective Electrodynamics' . He recognized that the electron is not a point particle but a wave structure, so that the approximations of Maxwell's Equations, especially magnetism, do not work when dimensions approach quantum sizes. He used the measured effect of wave structure at low temperatures (termed the Quantum Hall-effect) that the magnetic flux f in a closed loop of current takes only quantized values: Flux = nf, where n is an integer. This is because the waves of the circulating electrons must join together in phase, otherwise they cancel each other. He derived a vector potential to correct the flawed magnetic terms of Maxwell Equations. His book, very popular in Silicon Valley, shows correct ways to solve the electromagnetics of transistor circuits. MIT awarded him two prizes. Mead has begun a new field of Natural Electrodynamics to supplement the former work-horse, Maxwell's Equations.
'The quantum world is a world of waves, not particles. So we have to think of electron waves and proton waves and so on. Matter is 'incoherent' when all its waves have a different wavelength, implying a different momentum. On the other hand, if you take a pure quantum system - the electrons in a superconducting magnet, or the atoms in a laser - they are all in phase with one another, and they demonstrate the wave nature of matter on a large scale. Then you can see quite visibly what matter is down at its heart.' (Carver Mead Interview, American Spectator, Sep/Oct 2001, Vol. 34 Issue 7, p68)
"You must be the change you wish to see in the world."
"When forced to summarize the general theory of relativity in one sentence:
Time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter. ... Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended. In this way the concept 'empty space' loses its meaning. ... The particle can only appear as a limited region in space in which
the field strength or the energy density are particularly high. ...
The free, unhampered exchange of ideas and scientific conclusions is necessary for the sound development of science, as it is in all spheres of cultural life. ... We must not conceal from ourselves that no improvement in the present depressing situation is possible without a severe struggle; for the handful of those who are really determined to do something is minute in comparison with the mass of the lukewarm and the misguided. ...
Humanity is going to need a substantially new way of thinking if it is to survive!" (Albert Einstein)
Our world is in great trouble due to human behaviour founded on myths and customs that are causing the destruction of Nature and climate change. We can now deduce the most simple science theory of reality - the wave structure of matter in space. By understanding how we and everything around us are interconnected in Space we can then deduce solutions to the fundamental problems of human knowledge in physics, philosophy, metaphysics, theology, education, health, evolution and ecology, politics and society.
This is the profound new way of thinking that Einstein realised, that we exist as spatially extended structures of the universe - the discrete and separate body an illusion. This simply confirms the intuitions of the ancient philosophers and mystics.
Given the current censorship in physics / philosophy of science journals (based on the standard model of particle physics / big bang cosmology) the internet is the best hope for getting new knowledge known to the world. But that depends on you, the people who care about science and society, realise the importance of truth and reality.
Just click on the Social Network links below, or copy a nice image or quote you like and share it. We have a wonderful collection of knowledge from the greatest minds in human history, so people will appreciate your contributions. In doing this you will help a new generation of scientists see that there is a simple sensible explanation of physical reality - the source of truth and wisdom, the only cure for the madness of man! Thanks! Geoff Haselhurst (Updated September, 2018)
A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it. (Max Planck, 1920)
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