# The Dynamic Unity of Reality

And those whose hearts are fixed on Reality itself deserve the title of Philosophers.

(**Plato**, Republic, 380BC)

Denying realism amounts to megalomania

(the most widespread occupational disease of the professional philosopher).

(**Karl Popper**, 1975)

Behind it all is surely an idea so simple, so beautiful, that when we grasp it - in a decade, a century, or a millennium - we will all say to each other, how could it have been otherwise? How could we have been so stupid?

(**John Archibald Wheeler**)

Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication.

(**Leonardo da Vinci**)

## Introduction (June, 2023)

Over several thousand years many great minds, the natural philosophers and scientists, have pondered upon truth and reality, trying to understand our existence in the universe. The result has been two fundamental theories, Quantum Physics and Einstein's Relativity, where the remarkable technology they have created clearly tells us that they contain substantial truths about physical reality.

However, a complete description of reality has remained hidden to us, and has led to the current skeptical postmodern view that true knowledge of reality, and thus absolute truth, is unattainable - there is always a separation between our ideas of things and the real things in themselves - we are trapped in the mind (Kant).

While this is understandable, it does lead to three paradoxes;

The only absolute truth is there are no absolute truths.

We can only imagine things that do not exist, we cannot imagine things that do exist.

And while science clearly works, it only works from untrue foundations.

Whenever we have paradoxes it is always good to go back to our foundations to look for errors. In this short essay I will explain how when we do this we find that there was always a very simple way of describing physical reality that works perfectly well.

Founded on just one substance and one law, I believe the remarkable simplicity and unity of this knowledge will make its truth obvious.

To begin I will briefly describe physical reality, then explain the new foundations for metaphysics that finally solve this fundamental problem of causal connection (how matter is connected to other matter in space) and lead to such beautifully simple solutions to the problems of Quantum Physics, Relativity and Cosmology.

## Physical Reality

1. One Substance.

Space exists with properties of an elastic solid wave medium, propagating longitudinal waves in all directions, thus forming standing waves in all directions. When these standing waves are in-phase (coherent) around a central point then a spherical standing wave naturally forms - space vibrates in and out around the central point, which we call the particle. There are two opposite phase spherical standing waves, which create the electron and positron (matter and antimatter),

2. One Law.

The velocity of the waves is proportional to the wave amplitude (bigger waves travel faster). Where these waves are coherent, forming spherical standing wave 'particles', the wave amplitude is higher, and the waves travel faster. This, as i shall explain, is the foundation of all matter interactions, the source of causal connection and absolute truth.

There is no particle-wave duality of matter, just a spherical standing wave structure of matter where the wave center creates the 'particle' effect, and the spherical in and out waves provide continual two way communication with all other matter in the universe.

We only see the high wave amplitude wave-center and have been deluded into thinking matter was made of tiny little 'particles'. A very naive conception in hindsight - and quantum physics was telling us all along that waves were central to light and matter interactions!

We can now immediately explains several important things;

Why matter and energy are equivalent, since a wave is a flow of energy between two states of the wave medium Space - kinetic energy (vibratory motion of space) and potential energy (elastic deformation of a nearly rigid space).

Why matter and antimatter annihilate, due to destructive wave interference.

How matter and antimatter can be created from apparently 'empty' space.

How science can exist, since the spherical in and out waves provide continuous two way communication between matter in space (empirical knowledge), and the waves behave in a necessary manner due to this one law (logical knowledge).

For some perspective, the wave velocity is the velocity of light, ~ 3 * 10^8 m/s, the wavelength is the Compton wavelength ~ 10^-12 m, and the frequency ~ 10^20 Hz. So in a pin head there are roughly a billion billion billion standing waves, each vibrating a billion trillion times a second. i.e. These standing waves are very small, and vibrate very fast, thus explaining how such complex standing wave structures (like us) can evolve in space.

The fundamental equation of the universe is the simple wave equation;

Velocity (C) = Frequency (f) * Wavelength (y)

Combined with the equation of the sphere (which is also Pythagoras' Theorem and the metric equation of Special Relativity), and explains the geometric foundations of reality, why space is three dimensional.

x^2 + y^2 + z^2 = r^2

And as I shall explain in Einstein's relativity, when we apply this one law, where the wave velocity changes the wavelength also has a corresponding change such that we can never observe this change.

This relates to the Lorentz transformations, the negative solution of the Michelson Morley experiment, and why we always measure a constant velocity of light even when it changes, thus why we cannot measure our motion through absolute space.

With respect to time, physics was always telling us that time is caused by frequency (and fundamentally by motion as the wave motion of space), since time equals the inverse of frequency t=1/f.

From our wave equation we see that while the velocity and wavelength change, the frequency remains constant, giving rise to an absolute time in the universe. This was one central problem of Einstein's relativity, he changed time and maintained a constant velocity of light, when the opposite is true. (Yes, this one property of waves from this simple wave equation has caused us so much confusion!).

## Metaphysics

Aristotle was actually very close to the truth in his foundation of metaphysics, that there must be one substance that causes and connects the world and gives rise to the motion of things - the prime mover. He realized the importance of motion, just lacked knowledge of wave motion.

"Since nature is a principle of motion and change, and since our inquiry is about nature, we must not overlook the question of what motion is. For without understanding motion, we could not understand nature." (Aristotle)

Leibniz was also close to the truth, but again did not realize this activity was caused by the wave motion of space;

Reality cannot be found except in One single source, because of the interconnection of all things with one another. ... I maintain also that substances, whether material or immaterial, cannot be conceived in their bare essence without any activity, activity being of the essence of substance in general. (Leibniz, 1670)

And Nikola Tesla was correct;

If you want to find the secrets of the universe, think in terms of energy, frequency and vibration. (Nikola Tesla)

The problem was that Newton's metaphysics was founded on the motion of particles in an absolute Space and Time, and due to its extraordinary success, we became accustomed to thinking of matter in terms of discrete separate particles that moved about in an apparently empty space, where motion applied to matter (and this is how we experience the external world, so it is psychologically appealing).

And this is the fundamental error.

Once we apply motion directly to space itself, as the wave motion of space, we find that this then causes matter and time.

Thus our new metaphysics of space and motion replaces the metaphysics of space and time (that led to the mistaken 4 dimensional space-time continuum of Einstein's relativity).

We can see this error in Kant's reasoning in his transcendental aesthetic, where he argued that both space and time are synthetic apriori knowledge, he writes;

... even that of motion, which unites in itself both elements
(Space and Time), presuppose something empirical. Motion, for example,
presupposes the perception of something movable. But **space considered
in itself contains nothing movable**; consequently motion must be
something which is found in space only through experience -in other words,
is an empirical datum. (**Kant**, 1781)

Once we understand that Space is an elastic solid wave medium with vibratory motion then we can clearly see this error of reasoning that has caused all our problems.

Likewise it is well known that there is a connection between motion and time, if there was no motion there would be no measure of time (all clocks work on repeating motion of matter, which is actually repeating standing wave patterns in space).

Motion must always have been in existence, and the same can be said for time itself, since it is not even possible for there to be an earlier and a later if time does not exist. Movement, then, is also continuous in the way in which time is - indeed time is either identical to movement or is some affection of it. (**Aristotle**, Metaphysics)

And now we can solve the fundamental problems of metaphysics - the problems of uniting the One and the Many, Infinite and Finite, Eternal and Temporal, Continuous and Discrete, Simple and Complex, Absolute and Relative.

One substance, Absolute Space, exists, that is necessarily infinite, eternal, continuous and simple, and which naturally creates the relative motion of many finite, temporal, discrete, complex standing wave patterns (matter in space).

I end this metaphysics section with three quotes from David Hume, since he so clearly and elegantly explained that without knowledge of causal connection there could be no certainty of knowledge (it led to the problem of induction, where we had to assume, without evidence, that the future was like the past).

When we look about us towards external objects,
and consider the operation of causes, we are never able, in a single instance,
to discover any power or necessary connexion; any quality, which binds the
effect to the cause, and renders the one an infallible consequence of the
other. There is required a medium, which may enable the mind to draw such
an inference, if indeed it be drawn by reasoning and argument. What that
medium is, I must confess, passes my comprehension, ...
I cannot find, I cannot imagine any such reasoning. But I keep my mind still
open to instruction, if any one will vouchsafe to bestow it upon me. (**David
Hume**, 1737)

I must confess that a man is guilty of unpardonable arrogance who concludes,
because an argument has escaped his own investigation, that therefore it
does not really exist. I must also confess that, though all the learned,
for several ages, should have employed themselves in fruitless search upon
any subject, it may still, perhaps, be rash to conclude positively that
the subject must, therefore, pass all human comprehension. (**David
Hume**, 1737)

And though the philosopher may live remote
from business, the genius of philosophy, if carefully cultivated by several,
must gradually diffuse itself throughout the whole society, and bestow a
similar correctness on every art and calling. (**David Hume**,
1737)

## Quantum Physics

### The Particle Wave Duality

The apparent contradiction of the particle wave duality is odd, both in the simplicity of the solution, and that philosophers trained to use language carefully did not see the error.

We do not observe discrete particles, we observe discrete energy exchanges in discrete locations in space - this is the empirical fact, the discrete particle is a theoretical construct to explain this.

Because modern physics was so fundamentally influenced by Newton's mechanics, this particle concept is natural. But when considered with our modern knowledge it is actually very strange, since it is Schrodinger's wave equation that deduced these discrete energy states (taking his ideas from de Broglie and using a circular rotating standing wave to represent an orbiting electron) where only discrete wavelengths formed stable standing wave patterns, thus deducing the discrete energy states of electron 'orbits' and light quanta.

So we actually have a discrete standing wave, continuous traveling wave unity, not a particle wave duality.

(And I hope to make it obvious that it was this conception of matter being a discrete inactive particle to describe a continuously connected, active reality that created these problems of knowledge, since we had to make up more things to explain how these particles were actively connected (forces, fields) that ultimately resulted in post modernism and a skepticism of absolute truth.)

### Relative Motion - The de Broglie Wave and Relativistic Mass Increase

We can now easily test this spherical standing wave structure of matter. We know that for relative motion we get a de Broglie wave (quantum physics) and a mass increase (Einstein's special relativity). These were both mathematically deduced, there was no physical explanation for them.

With the Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) we can calculate the Doppler shifts of the in and out waves for relative motion. When we do this we find that it directly deduces both the de Broglie wave and the mass increase in the solution to these Doppler shifted waves (mathematical physicist Professor Milo Wolff deduced this).

This is remarkable, just this one deduction is enough for all scientists to stop and think, to take this very seriously.

### Copenhagen (Probability Wave Function) Interpretation Vs de Broglie / Bohm Non-Local Determinism

The de Broglie wave is a non local phase wave, where its phase velocity = C^2 / relative velocity. For example, if the relative velocity is one thousandth the speed of light C, then the de Broglie phase wave has a velocity of 1000C.

And now we can solve this strangeness of the probability wave (Copenhagen) interpretation of quantum physics. For example, in the two slit experiment it is assumed that a particle 'transforms' into a probability wave, interferes through the two slits, and when observed on the screen, the probability wave function 'collapses' back to a particle.

Both Einstein and Schrodinger thought this was just a mathematical solution, that the real cause of the probability was lack of knowledge of a connected system (they were correct), and that it was insane to think the probability wave was real (that led to Schrodinger's cat, which cannot be both alive and dead at the same time). And yet the probability wave had to be real to interfere through the slits!

And now we can confirm that is was David Bohm who found the solution. He showed that you get the same probability function if reality is deterministic, but there must be a non-local hidden variable, what he called the pilot wave, that affects the experiment. However, rather than just postulating that a particle is guided by a non local pilot wave, we have now deduced that these spherical standing waves create a non local phase wave that affects their behavior.

Einstein partly liked Bohm's solution, it removed the probability wave, but introduced non locality that contradicted his relativity. And this error of Einstein's relates to his incorrect foundation of representing matter as continuous fields in space time, rather than discrete standing waves in space (thus also explaining discrete quantum effects that Einstein could not with his continuous fields, this is explained shortly when we consider relativity).

### Quantum Entanglement (Einstein's spooky action at a distance!)

Once we understand that matter is not a discrete particle, but an extended wave structure in space, then we can more easily understand this entanglement. For example, for two standing wave 'particles', irrespective of their distance apart, with no relative motion they are instantly connected by their phase waves, and this infers certain properties upon their behavior. This relates to the Einstein Podolsky Rosen (EPR) thought experiment, which when finally performed (Alain Aspect) resulted in favor of quantum physics and non locality. Most importantly, the WSM deduces this non locality and entanglement.

### The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

It is actually common knowledge that the uncertainty principle is a wave phenomena (search Google). In simplistic terms, if you know the position of a wave then you do not know its motion or wavelength, and if you know its motion and wavelength then you do not know its position. Secondly, to make an observation of a standing wave particle, you must have a wave interaction with that standing wave, which changes its position and motion.

### Spin

Spin is intriguing and gets a little complex, as we need to understand the Euler formula e^ix = cosx + i sinx, since Schrodinger used this relationship to generate rotating waves. What most people don't realize is that the formula shows that if you have two plane waves 90 degrees out of phase (sin and cos), and one is rotated 90 degrees to the other (using the imaginary number i), then the resultant of these two intersecting plane waves is a circularly rotating phase wave. So it is possible that our spherical standing wave has this spherical rotation of the in and out waves, creating the electron spin. I have written a second essay on this, also important, as it relates to Euler's number, and its connection to spherical geometry and physical reality, which explains the physical foundations of mathematics, why mathematics is so good at describing physical reality.

See; https://www.spaceandmotion.com/euler-equation.htm

## Unification of the Fundamental Forces (Charge / Light, Gravity)

Let us now put our one law to work to explain and unite charge, light and gravity, since all matter interactions (causal connection) are a result of this one law, bigger waves travel faster. (Though this is now obvious to me, it took me 25 years to realise that causal connection must involve a change in velocity, since acceleration is always involved in matter interactions, as per newton's law of inertia, Force = Mass * Acceleration.)

### Charge

When an in phase plane wave flows through a high wave amplitude wave center, the wave travels faster and the wave front is advanced (hill). This occurs between electrons, and also between positrons, and the result of this advanced wave is that it causes electrons to repel one another, and positrons to repel one another (each advanced 'hill' on the wave front acts like a small 'push' when it flows through another standing wave, see below).

However, if you have an electron and a positron interacting, then the waves are opposite phase, cancel one another, the total wave amplitude is lower, the wave travels more slowly, causing a retarded wave front (hollow), and this causes opposite phase standing waves (electrons and positrons) to attract one another.

### Light and the 'Electromagnetic Wave'

If the electron is bound in an atom or molecule, then it has a repeating wave pattern, and this pattern of advanced 'hills' on successive plane waves forms a wave pattern that is the cause of the 'electromagnetic' light wave. It is a resonant phenomena, where the pattern of advanced curves must match the standing wave pattern of the electron it interacts with (like pushing a swing, you must push at the correct phase for the swing to absorb the energy and swing higher). The energy is discrete (quanta / photon) because the change from one standing wave pattern to another is discrete. de Broglie first proposed this, without understanding the true wave mechanism behind it (he still worked with a particle wave duality for matter).

### Acceleration and Ellipsoidal Geometry

If you have a stationary standing wave in space then it is perfectly spherical. The diagram below shows this and why Pythagoras theorem is actually a property of spheres.

However, if the incoming plane wave from one direction has an advanced 'hill' on the surface of the wave, then this causes the stationary standing wave to move in the direction of the 'hill', and it changes its shape from spherical to ellipsoidal (like an egg!).

In the diagram below, imagine the incoming plane waves from the left have an advanced hill on them, this then changes the ellipsoidal shape of the standing wave and it begins to move to the right.

The ellipsoidal wave is stretched in the direction of motion (right side), thus the same wave energy is spread over a larger surface area and has a lower wave amplitude and thus velocity and wavelength, as per our one law.

On the opposite side the effects are reversed, the ellipsoidal wave is squashed, has a smaller surface area, a higher wave amplitude, the wave travels faster and has a longer wavelength.

This changing ellipsoidal geometry and wavelength / velocity is the foundation of inertia, since when you accelerate the standing wave, its resultant ellipsoidal shape changes, as does the in wave velocity which is slower in the direction of motion, faster on the opposite side, which then maintains its new velocity through space.

Importantly, the Lorentz Transformations have the electron becoming a squashed ellipsoid on both sides with motion, whereas the Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) has the electron as a stretched ellipsoid in the direction of motion (with slower in waves and shorter wavelength) and a squashed ellipsoid on the opposite side (with faster in waves and longer wavelength.

This difference in ellipsoidal geometry from one side to the other is the foundation of the
Doppler effect, magnetic moment, and also the Lorentz transformations and Einstein's general relativity.

Note - Perhaps there is some experiment that could distinguish between Lorentz's squashed ellipsoid Vs the WSM where it is stretched in the direction of motion.

Most profoundly, we now have a physical reason for why acceleration is related to curvature and ellipsoidal geometry, since whenever a wave changes velocity there is a change in ellipsoidal curvature of the wave front (Einstein's matter-energy curves space-time). However, Einstein changed the length and time when he should have changed the length and wave velocity and kept the time (frequency) constant. In this way, even though the velocity of the waves changes, so does the wavelength such that you always measure the same velocity of light (which is also why Pythagoras' Theorem is true irrespective of motion and ellipsoidal geometry).

Gravity

And now, finally, we can solve this longstanding puzzle of understanding gravity and how it is united with light.

To do this we must first understand where all the antimatter / positrons are, since positrons and electrons (opposite phase standing waves) are created equally, and both contribute to gravity.

Positrons are naturally produced due to radioactive decay of certain isotopes, and can be artificially produced using high energy laser beams fired at gold. In Beta+ decay the proton emits a positron and becomes a neutron, likewise, the neutron can emit an electron and become a proton in Beta- decay.

The obvious conclusion from this
is that positrons and electrons make up the structure of the proton, with one extra positron to account for the positive charge. What this exact structure is is unknown, but if the quark theory of protons is correct then the quarks are most likely positronium (a bound positron and electron).

However, this exact structure of protons and neutrons is not needed, all we need to know is that in a neutral atom there are equal numbers of positrons and electrons.

So now let us consider a plane wave flowing through a large body like the Earth, that has roughly the same number of positrons as electrons.

If the plane waves are in phase with the electrons then they will get an advanced curve (hill) on their wavefront, and they will get a retarded curve (hollow) when travelling through positrons. The result is that you get as many advanced curves as retarded curves, and they will cancel one another out. i.e. It is a neutral body and there is no charge effect.

And now finally we can unite light and gravity (though it took me 20+ years to work this out, even though it is simple and obvious, deduced from our one law).

The solution. When the plane waves have advanced or retarded curves on their wave front, then the same wave energy is spread over a larger surface area, so the curved part of the wave front has a smaller wave amplitude, and thus a slower wave velocity. Thus an advanced curve will get smaller over time (the 'push force' decreases the further the wave travels through space), and the retarded curve will do the opposite and get bigger over time (the 'pull force' increases the further the wave travels through space).

So the push and pull 'forces' of advanced and retarded curves on the plane waves do not exactly cancel each other out, instead, there must always be a slight attractive force due to the slowing of the curved wave fronts due to our one law.

This slight attractive force is the cause of gravity.

Note - I will add a wave diagram here soon to show this.

## Cosmology

The beauty of this solution to gravity, and its unification with light is that it leads to a beautiful solution to the problems of cosmology.

The Big Bang theory was always problematic, based on two fundamental pillars - the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) and the redshift with distance. However, it deduced a universe that was far smaller than what we observe (so they simply added the inflationary phase of the early universe where it expanded faster than the speed of light) and it requires more matter in the universe than what we observe (dark energy and dark matter).

And now, with the James Webb telescope, we can see back to the 'early universe' of the big bang model. We find a universe that is not young, it is mature and similar to the mature galaxies we observe near us, thus contradicting the big bang theory.

So let us now consider the CMBR and redshift with distance.

What most people don't realise is that the CMBR was correctly deduced 70 years before it was observed by Penzias and Wilson in 1964, and it was deduced due to the heating effect of starlight on the small amounts of intergalactic matter in space.

See:

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/2938670_History_of_the_27_K_Temperature_Prior_to_Penzias_and_Wilson

And since there is only one CMBR, and it is deduced as the temperature of matter in intergalactic space, then this also contradicts the big bang.

The redshift with distance is an empirical fact. Strangely though we have the theoretical interpretation that it is caused by the Doppler effect of receding motion. Yet the big bang does not assume this, rather, it assumes that space itself is expanding, so it is not actually a Doppler effect of receding motion, it is a stretching of space that causes matter to become further apart, which is not a Doppler effect.

But now, with the Wave Structure of Matter, we have deduced that the energy of light (the advanced curves on the plane waves) must get smaller the further they flow through space, due to our one law.

And so we realise that the redshift with distance is actually a 'tired light' effect of light losing energy the further it travels through space, which as we explained above is also the cause of gravity.

Importantly, once we assume that the universe is not expanding, but light loses energy with distance, then you get what is called a Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND), and over the past 40 years it has been shown to predict correctly the motion of galaxies without the need for dark matter. i.e. It predicts what we observe without having to fill the universe with dark matter as the big bang does.

See;

http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/The_MOND_paradigm_of_modified_dynamics

A Mathematical Model for Redshift

https://www.scirp.org/html/3-7404366_98764.htm

Dark Energy

In the big bang model, Dark Energy is needed to prevent a finite universe from gravitationally collapsing, and to explain the accelerated expansion with distance. Einstein first proposed this, calling it the cosmological constant. However, with the Wave Structure of Matter, Space, as the only substance that exists, is necessarily infinite (it cannot be bounded by a second substance). Thus in infinite space there is no problem of the collapsing finite universe, and the dark energy is simply the gravitational force of matter outside our observable universe.

Importantly, I made this prediction back in 2003, that we should observe distant galaxies to behave as if they are surrounded by matter, whereas in the big bang cosmology there would only be matter on one side (the inside, as there is no 'outside').

You can use the wayback machine to view our cosmology page dated 11th of February 2003 to confirm this (see section 1.6).

https://web.archive.org/web/20030211123857/https://spaceandmotion.com/Cosmology.htm

This was confirmed by observation of distant galaxies in 2008 (and was subsequently attacked and dismissed by Big Bang cosmologists - for the obvious reason that it contradicts Big Bang cosmology!).

*ScienceDaily (Sep. 24, 2008) -- Using data from NASA's Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), scientists have identified an unexpected motion in distant galaxy clusters. The cause, they suggest, is the gravitational attraction of matter that lies beyond the observable universe.*

*"The clusters show a small but measurable velocity that is independent of the universe's expansion and does not change as distances increase," says lead researcher Alexander Kashlinsky at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. "We never expected to find anything like this. .. T**he distribution of matter in the observed universe cannot account for this motion."*

Journal reference: A. Kashlinsky, F. Atrio-Barandela, D. Kocevski, H. Ebeling. **A measurement of large-scale peculiar velocities of clusters of galaxies: results and cosmological implications**. *Astrophysical Journal Letters*, Print edition October 20, 2008; online week of September 22, 2008. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/09/080923104410.htm

## Conclusion

I have come to the painful conclusion that our human minds are much more feeble than we realise, we can only think what we are programmed to think, we do not have true free will, and pre-existing ideas often blind us to novel truths.

This is why such a simple obvious description of physical reality could remain hidden from us for thousands of years - and why a natural philosopher outside the system could stumble upon these truths.

I can also assure you that to understand new knowledge, we must read it and think about it many times. This essay will become much easier to understand with several readings!

What remains to be done is for mathematical physicists to calculate this relationship between wave amplitude, wave velocity, and ellipsoidal curvature. Einstein was correct to relate gravity to ellipsoidal curvature, but we now need to correct the error of Einstein working from continuous fields in space-time rather than discrete standing waves in space, and his changing of time rather than wave velocity as occurs with the Wave Structure of Matter.

And please excuse my rather abrupt ending. I am currently writing this essay on my boat in Tahiti, but today set sail for Samoa, and I wanted to get this online before leaving.

Geoff Haselhurst

June 25th, 2023

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