Metaphysics of Feminism / Feminist Philosophy

Feminism, Feminist Philosophy: Criticism of Feminist Theory and the Feminism MovementGreek Goddess AphroditeMary Wollstonecraft: Feminism, Feminist Philosophy.Simone de Beauvoir: Feminism, Feminist Philosophy: Man's love is of man's life a thing apart, 'Tis woman's whole existence.. (Simone de Beauvoir)Simone de Beauvoir - Famous Female PhilosopherPhilosophy of Simone de Beauvoir

On Woman's True Connection to Man, Child, Nature, Sexuality, Society and Cosmos
Feminist Criticism / Feminist Theory / History of the Feminist Movement / Feminism in Australia
Famous Feminists Feminism Quotes / Quotations

How delicate her feet who shuns the ground, Stepping a-tiptoe on the heads of men. (Homer)

Today [the voice of women] is being heard loud and clear. But I do not read the welcome triumph of feminism, social, economic, and creative, as a brief for postmodernism. The advance, while opening new avenues of expression and liberating deep pools of talent, has not exploded human nature into little pieces. Instead, it has set the stage for a fuller exploration of the universal traits that unite humanity. (Edward O. Wilson, Consilience)

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Introduction - History Feminism Movement / Australia - Feminist Feminism Quotes - Philosophy of Simone de Beauvoir - Feminism & Socialism - Evolution & Feminism - Feminist Criticism / Feminist Theory - Male Philosophers on Woman - Feminism Links - Top of Page

Introduction / Introductory Quotes

..the thing that irks me the most is this shattered prison. I'm tired, tired of being enclosed here. I'm wearying to escape into that glorious world, and to be always there, not seeing it dimly through tears, and yearning for it through the walls of an aching heart; but really with it, and in it .. (Emily Bronte, Wuthering Heights)

The world is given to me only once, not one existing and one perceived. Subject and object are only one. The barrier between them cannot be said to have broken down as a result of recent experience in the physical sciences, for this barrier does not exist.
(Erwin Schrodinger)

Feminist Philosophy Feminist Philosophy

Feminism is a social theory, movement and way of life informed by the rights, experience and interests of women. Feminism advocates the political, economic and social equality of the sexes.

Feminism is the belief that society is disadvantageous to women, systematically depriving them of individual choice, political power, economic opportunity and intellectual recognition. (http://www.nelson.com/nelson/polisci/glossary.html)

The Feminist Movement is concerned with individual autonomy, rights, freedom, independence, tolerance, co-operation, nonviolence and diversity. Some themes explored and campaigned within Feminism include domestic violence, gender, stereotypes, sexuality, discrimination, sexism, objectification, patriarchy, abortion, reproduction, control of the female body, divorce, equal pay, maternity leave, breast feeding, prostitution and education.

The majority of feminists today reject the relationship between our biological and cultural evolution. Thus implying that our biological makeup has no connection to informing social roles and behaviours. This follows Simone de Beauvoir's claim that;

One is not born, but rather becomes a woman. (Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex, 1949)

Philosophy (and our western society) has been dominated by the ideas of men, and this has caused many postmodern Feminist Philosophers to rebel from this male domination / patriarchy. Using ideas of postmodern relativism, (existentialism, no absolute truth) women have sought to free themselves of male defined gender roles and define for themselves what it means to be a women and thus how women should live. While this may liberate women, it unfortunately offers little guidance and does not abide by the fact that women are constructed of matter, interact with all other matter in the universe, and have evolved certain genetic traits as part of their evolutionary ancestry. Thus there are certain absolute truths that women (all things) must abide by if they are to live by the truth and the wisdom this attains.

The metaphysics of feminism considers what it means to be a 'woman' / 'man' based on how matter exists in space, i.e. physical reality. The metaphysics of feminism understands and promotes equality at a fundamental level. Man and Woman both exist as structures of the universe / space, as does all life. How we are to live as man and woman is derived from metaphysical foundations of what actually exists (the laws of Nature). Now I understand some of you may be thinking 'this is archaic' and 'metaphysics offers nothing to me as a woman'. In fact the opposite is true, Metaphysics, and its task of correctly describing what exists and its necessary interconnections, necessarily defines what it means to be both 'Human' and a 'Woman'. The purpose of this website is to explain this correct foundation for describing reality, and thus explain how Woman is necessarily connected to Man, Child, Nature, Sexuality, Society and Cosmos. By understanding how matter exists in Space, Woman, Man and Cosmos are united as One, and only through this interconnection can a woman understand her true self and be liberated from the bondage of past customs.

There are many quotes and ideas that I plan to write up in the future (e.g. the evolutionary differences between males / females and why there has been so few woman philosophers). Below you will find a wonderfully intelligent collection of quotes on feminism and what it means to be a woman. Enjoy!

Karene Howie - Email



Introduction - History Feminism Movement / Australia - Feminist Feminism Quotes - Philosophy of Simone de Beauvoir - Feminism & Socialism - Evolution & Feminism - Feminist Criticism / Feminist Theory - Male Philosophers on Woman - Feminism Links - Top of Page

Feminism, Feminist Philosophy: Criticism of Feminist Theory and the Feminism Movement History of Feminism

The Feminist movement is not a unique product of the modern age. Its historical precedents reach back into antiquity. In the Republic, Plato advocated the abolition of the family and social roles determined by sex; in literature, the ancient Greek classical comedy, Lysistrata by Aristophanes preached feminist ideals. Mary Wollstonecraft wrote 'A Vindication of the Rights of Women' (1792) which is one of the earliest and famous feminist works. The Victorian economist and philosopher, John Stuart Mill wrote 'The Subjection of Women' in 1869 and the German socialist, Friedrich Engels in his essay 'The Origin of the Family, Property and State' (1884), proclaimed marriage as a 'dreary mutation of slavery,' urged its abolition and suggested public responsibility for the rearing of children.

In America, Feminism was the outgrowth of the movement for the abolition of slavery and the Temperance movement for the legal banning of liquor. Women who joined these organizations soon discovered that to make their cause effective, they required political power. The historical milestone of the Feminist movement was the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848 which in its manifesto, demanded women's rights to her complete control over her property and the right to divorce her husband, guardianship of the children and an end to sexual discrimination in employment along with the right to receive equal pay with men for the same work, and most important, female franchise. As the campaign for women's suffrage grew, the more conservative Feminists limited their cause to the single issue of suffrage. In 1920 with the passage of the 19th amendment to the American constitution giving women the vote, the majority of women activists as well, as the public assumed that with female franchise, women's rights had been fully obtained.

On December 14, 1961, President John F. Kennedy signed an Executive order establishing the President's Commission on the status of women. Its mandate was 'to examine and recommend remedies to combat the prejudices and obsolete customs and morals which act as obstacles to the complete realization of women's rights.' The President's Commission was the first official body ever to examine the status of in the United States.

Thus the 'silent fifties' came to an abrupt end with the beginnings of Feminist confrontation politics in the early 1960s - marches, pickets and sit-ins. College and university girls began to participate in these political activities. In contrast to the women who assembled at the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848 and merely protested against the ill-treatment and abuse of women by drunken husbands and achievement of their legitimate rights in marriage, control of property and earnings and equal pay with men for the same work, the demands of the modern successors are far more radical. In the largest most enthusiastic Feminist demonstration ever held, on August 26, 1970, hundreds of women marched down Fifth Avenue, New York City carrying placards which read:

HOUSEWIVES ARE UNPAID SLAVES! STATE PAY FOR HOUSEWORK! OPPRESSED WOMEN! DON'T COOK DINNER! STARVE YOUR HUSBAND TONIGHT! END HUMAN SACRAFICE! DON'T GET MARRIED! WASHING DIAPERS IS NOT FULFILLING! LEGALISE ABORTION! DEPENDENCY IS NOT HEALTHY STATE OF BEING!

Today feminists are implacably opposed to any social roles being determined by sex. Feminists assert the absolute and unqualified equality of men and women, not withstanding anatomical differences.
They deny that there is any inherent biological distinction between men and women on the basis of sex which determines that the wife should be the housewife and mother and the husband the breadwinner and authoritarian head of the family.
They believe that women should take just as active role in sexual intercourse as men and not be passive.
They demand the abolition of institutional marriage, home and family, asset complete female sexual freedom and that the upbringing should be a public responsibility.
They insist that all women should be given the right to complete control over their reproductive lives.
They are demanding that all restrictions must be lifted from laws governing contraception so that devices can be publicly advertised and available over the druggist counter to any women regardless of her age and marital status and purchasable without a doctor's prescription.
All laws restricting abortion should be removed and that women have a legal right to abortion at any stage of pregnancy. Abortions should not only be available at demand but should be supplied free by the state to any women who wants one so that the poor can take full advantage of facility.

http://www.sharif.org.uk/jameelah.htm

The Feminist Movement in Australia is to be written up (we are from Australia!).


Introduction - History Feminism Movement / Australia - Feminist Feminism Quotes - Philosophy of Simone de Beauvoir - Feminism & Socialism - Evolution & Feminism - Feminist Criticism / Feminist Theory - Male Philosophers on Woman - Feminism Links - Top of Page

Feminism Feminist Philosophy Feminist / Feminism Quotes on Woman

I am aware of an obvious inference: from every quarter have I heard exclamations against masculine women; but where are they to be found? If by this appellation men mean to inveigh against their ardour in hunting, shooting, and gaming, I shall most cordially join in the cry; but if it be against the imitation of manly virtues, or, more properly speaking, the attainment of those talents and virtues, the exercise of which ennobles the human character, and which raise females in the scale of animal being, when they are comprehensively termed mankind; --all those who view them with a philosophic eye must, I should think, wish with me, that they may every day grow more and more masculine. (Mary Wollstonecraft, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, p 7)

A wild wish has just flown from my heart to my head, and I will not stifle it though it may excite a horse-laugh. I do earnestly wish to see the distinction of sex confounded in society, unless where love animates the behaviour. For this distinction is, I am firmly persuaded, the foundation of the weakness of character ascribed to woman; is the cause why the understanding is neglected, whilst accomplishments are acquired with sedulous care: and the same cause accounts for their preferring the graceful before the heroic virtues. (Mary Wollstonecraft, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, 1792. p 57)

... After surveying the history of woman, I cannot help, agreeing with the severest satirist, considering the sex as the weakest as well as the most oppressed half of the species. What does history disclose but marks of inferiority, and how few women have emancipated themselves from the galling yoke of sovereign man?--So few, that the exceptions remind me of an ingenious conjecture respecting Newton: that he was probably a being of a superior order, accidentally caged in a human body. Following the same train of thinking, I have been led to imagine that the few extra-ordinary women who have rushed in eccentrical directions out of the orbit prescribed to their sex, were male spirits, confined by mistake in female frames. But if it be not philosophical to think of sex when the soul is mentioned, the inferiority must depend on the organs; or the heavenly fire, which is to ferment the clay, is not given in equal portions.
(Mary Wollstonecraft, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, p 34)

How women are to exist in that state where there is to be neither marrying nor giving in marriage [Mattthew 22:30], we are not told. For though moralists have agreed that the tenor of life seems to prove that man is prepared by various circumstances for a future state, they constantly concur in advising woman only to provide for the present. (Mary Wollstonecraft, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, p 32-3)

At the very end of her book "A Vindication of the Rights of Woman," Wollstonecraft pays homage to a lesbian and a male-to-female transgendered person ...
Mary Wollstonecraft refers to "a few women who...have acquired courage and resolution," providing for examples Sappho, Eloisa, Mrs. Macaulay, the Empress of Russia, and Madame d'Eon. Sappho was, of course, a lesbian (one may even say the "first lesbian," as she ran a college for women on the island of Lesbos, famed for its eroticism.) Madame d'Eon was a French secret agent who lived in London disguised as a woman and whose biological sex was only posthumously discovered.

The task of philosophy is not less but more essential now, in helping preserve and refresh a stream of meticulous, subtle, eloquent ordinary language, free from jargon and able to deal clearly and in detail with matters of a certain degree of generality and abstraction. (Iris Murdoch)

..the truth, terrible, delightful, funny, whose strong lively presence we recognise in great writers. (Iris Murdoch)

What were the use of my creation if I were entirely contained here?
If all else perished, and he remained, I should still continue to be; and, if all else remained, and he were annihilated, the Universe would turn to a mighty stranger. I should not seem part of it. My love for Linton is like the foliage in the woods.
Time will change it, I'm well aware, as winter changes the trees- my love for Heathcliff resembles the eternal rocks beneath- a source of little visible delight, but necessary. Nelly, I am Heathcliffe - he's always, always in my mind - not as a pleasure, any more then I am always a pleasure to myself - but, as my own being - so, don't talk of our separation again .. (Emily Bronte, Wuthering Heights)

I wish I were out of doors - I wish I were a girl again, half savage and hardy, and free .. and laughing at injuries, not maddening under them! Why am I so changed? why does my blood rush into a hell of tumult at a few words? I'm sure I should be myself were I once among the heather on the hills .. (Emily Bronte, Wuthering Heights)

.. the thing that irks me the most is this shattered prison. I'm tired, tired of being enclosed here. I'm wearying to escape into that glorious world, and to be always there, not seeing it dimly through tears, and yearning for it through the walls of an aching heart; but really with it, and in it ... (Emily Bronte, Wuthering Heights)

Some men spend a lifetime in an attempt to comprehend the complexities of women. Others pre-occupy themselves with somewhat simpler tasks, such as understanding the theory of relativity! (Albert Einstein)

The great question that has never been answered and which I have not yet been able to answer, despite my thirty years of research into the feminine soul, is 'What does a woman want? (Sigmund Freud)

Woman, whom culture has burdened with the heavier load (especially in propagation) ought to be judged with tolerance and forbearance in areas where she has lagged behind man. (Sigmund Freud)

Role playing is so automatic that we seldom notice how deeply it pervades our lives, and readily confuse its attitudes with our own natural and genuine inclinations. (Watts, Nature, Man, and Woman)

There is no reality except the one contained within us. That is why so many people live such an unreal life. (Hermann Hesse)

The most common despair is ... not choosing, or willing, to be oneself...[but] the deepest form of despair is to choose to be another than oneself. (Soren Kierkegaard, quoted by ban Breathnach, Something More, p 41)

...What is oppressive in our society is the linking of biological sex (female or male) to gender identity (woman or man), gender or sex role (feminine or masculine), sexual object choice (opposite), and sexual identity (heterosexual). The problem is the correlations, not the specific components ...(Lyndall MacCowan)

Today [the voice of women] is being heard loud and clear. But I do not read the welcome triumph of feminism, social, economic, and creative, as a brief for postmodernism. The advance, while opening new avenues of expression and liberating deep pools of talent, has not exploded human nature into little pieces. Instead, it has set the stage for a fuller exploration of the universal traits that unite humanity. (Edward O. Wilson, Consilience p 215)

The woman most desperately in need of liberation is the 'woman' every man has locked up in the dungeons of his psyche. That is the basic act of oppression that still waits to be undone, though the undoing might well produce the most cataclysmic reinterpretation of the sexual roles and of 'sexual normalcy' in all human history. (Roszak, quoted in Towards a Theology of Gay Liberation, p 76)

When I originally wrote this book, I saw femaleness and maleness as reified qualities, like liquids that could fill us. I believed, along with Jung, that each woman had within her a male self, and each man a female self. Now I find these concepts unhelpful and misleading.
Today I don't use the terms female energy or male energy. I don't identify femaleness or maleness with specific sets of qualities or predispositions. While I have found images of the Goddess empowering to me as a woman, I no longer look to the Goddesses and Gods to define for me what woman or man should be. For any quality that has been assigned to one divine gender can elsewhere be found in its opposite. If we say, for example, "Male energy is aggressive," I can easily find five aggressive goddesses without evening thinking hard. If we say, "Female energy is nurturing," we can also find male gods who nurture.
Our whole modern tendency to look at myths and deities as role models may be a misappropriation of the power of these images, born of our desperation at not knowing how to be in the world and culture in which we find ourselves. We are looking for permission to be more than our society tells us we are. But the Goddesses and Gods are not figures for us to copy--they are more like broomsticks: grab hold, and they will take us away somewhere beyond the boundaries of our ordinary lives. (Starhawk, The Spiral Dance, Introduction to the Tenth Anniversary Edition, p 8-9)

Sexual love is a troubled and problematic relationship in cultures where there is a strong sense of man's separation from nature, especially when the realm of nature is felt to be inferior or contaminated with evil. (Alan Watts, Nature, Man, and Woman, p 11)

Since sex is also a difficult game to play, the Ur-Fascist hero plays with weapons, which are his ersatz penis: his war games are due to a permanent state of penis envy. Umberto Eco, "Ur-Fascism," 1995.

http://www.angelfire.com/ri/tucker/quotations/gender1.html

(Anais Nin, Henry and June) I will always be the virgin-prostitute, the perverse angel, the two-faced sinister and saintly woman.
I suffered deeply from my own forwardness as a woman. As a man, I would have been glad to have what I desired.
You are the man who is the axis of my world.
He is angry at the amorality of women like myself. He himself practices all the disloyalties, all the treacheries, but the faithlessness of a woman hurts him.
Life is not rational; it is just mad and full of pain.
Do not seek the because - in love there is no because, no reason, no explanation, no solutions.
You are a sexual angel, but you're an angel just the same.
You are a narcissist. That is the raison d'etre of the journal. Journal writing is a disease. But it's all right. It's very interesting. (Anais Nin, Henry and June)

http://www.bellaonline.com/articles/art10778.asp


Introduction - History Feminism Movement / Australia - Feminist Feminism Quotes - Philosophy of Simone de Beauvoir - Feminism & Socialism - Evolution & Feminism - Feminist Criticism / Feminist Theory - Male Philosophers on Woman - Feminism Links - Top of Page

Philosophy of Simone de Beauvoir Philosophy of Simone de Beauvoir
Quotations from The Second Sex

One is not born, but rather becomes a woman. No biological, psychological, or economic fate determines the figure that the human female presents in society; it is civilisation as a whole that produces this creature, intermediate between male and eunuch, which is described as feminine. (Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex, 1949)

The male existent creates to maintain, the female existent maintains to create. .. The cares of maternity imprison woman in repetition and immanence. (Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex, 1949)

This world of tools could be embraced with clear concepts: rational thought, logic and mathematics now appear. Woman was bound to the reign of agriculture, the reign of irreducible duration, of contingency, of chance, of waiting, of mystery; the reign of man is of necessary consequence, of the project, of action, of reason. Woman did not share his way of working and thinking. (Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex, 1949)

The support of life became for man an activity and a project through the invention of the tool; but in maternity woman remains closely bound to her body, like an animal. (Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex, 1949)

.. her role was only nourishing, never creative ... whereas man went on monopolizing the functions which threw open that society towards nature and towards the rest of humanity .. war, hunting, fishing represented an expansion of existence, its projection towards the world. The male alone remained the incarnation of transcendence. He did not as yet have the practical means for wholly dominating Woman-Earth; as yet he did not dare to stand up to her - but already desired to break away from her. (Simone de Beauvoir, 1949)

In woman are incarnated the disturbing mysteries of nature, and man escapes her hold when he frees himself from Nature. (Simone de Beauvoir, 1949)

Man's love is of man's life a thing apart, 'Tis woman's whole existence ... (Simone de Beauvoir, 1949)

Anatomically the penis is well suited for this role; projecting free from the body, it seems like a natural little plaything, a kind of puppet. (Simone de Beauvoir, 1949)

The fact is that there are numerous cases where the little girl does take an interest in the penis of a brother, father or playmate; but that does not mean that she experiences jealousy of it in a really sexual way, still less that she feels deeply affected by the absence of that organ; she wants to get it for herself as she wants to get any and every object, but this desire can remain superficial. (Simone de Beauvoir, 1949)

To the boys the urinary function seems like a game, with the charm of all games that offer liberty of action; the penis can be manipulated, it gives opportunity for action, which is one of the deep interests of the child. (Simone de Beauvoir, 1949)

To many little girls it seems that the boy, having the right to touch his penis, can make use of it as a plaything, whereas their organs are taboo. (Simone de Beauvoir, 1949)

The male anatomy constitutes a powerful formation that often impresses itself upon the little girl’s attention. (Simone de Beauvoir, 1949)

The boy, having an organ that can be seen and grasped, can at least partially identify himself with it. ..But the little girl cannot incarnate herself in any part of herself. To compensate for this and to serve as her alter ego, she is given a foreign object, a doll. It is a statuette with a human face- or, that lacking, an ear of corn, even a piece of wood- which will most satisfyingly serve the girl as substitute for that double, the natural plaything: the penis. (Simone de Beauvoir, 1949)


Introduction - History Feminism Movement / Australia - Feminist Feminism Quotes - Philosophy of Simone de Beauvoir - Feminism & Socialism - Evolution & Feminism - Feminist Criticism / Feminist Theory - Male Philosophers on Woman - Feminism Links - Top of Page

Feminism & Socialism

In the course of his revolutionary activities Lenin often wrote and spoke about the emancipation of working women in general and peasant women in particular. To be sure, the emancipation of women is inseparably bound up with the entire struggle of the workers' cause, for socialism. (Preface to The Emancipation of Women, from the writings of V.I. Lenin, 1995)

In exile Lenin devoted much of his time to working out the Party Programme. At that time the Party had no programme. There was only a draft programme complied by the Emancipation of Labour group. Examining this programme in his article 'A Draft Programme for Our Party' and commenting on the practical part of the programme which demanded "the revision of our entire civil and criminal legislation, the abolition of social-estate divisions and of punishments incompatible with the dignity of man", Lenin wrote that it would be well to add here: "complete equality of rights for men and women".
In 1903, when the party programme was adopted, Lenin's clause was included in it.

I plan to write out more quotes on women and society from Lenin, Karl Marx and Frederick Engels. These quotes will be explained in an essay style, considering the historical relationship between feminism and socialism. Karene.


Introduction - History Feminism Movement / Australia - Feminist Feminism Quotes - Philosophy of Simone de Beauvoir - Feminism & Socialism - Evolution & Feminism - Feminist Criticism / Feminist Theory - Male Philosophers on Woman - Feminism Links - Top of Page

Evolution & Feminism / On Women's Health

You can Count on it: Women are Faster

By Roger Highfield
September 13, 2003

Women are quicker than men at carrying out a primitive, "instant judgement" type of maths, the world's largest mathematics experiment has found.
In the past few years scientists have found that bees, rats, lions, birds and other creatures can keep track of numbers and work out basic arithmetic. Now this fundamental skill has been compared among men and women by @Bristol, south-west England's leading science centre, offering an insight into why girls tend to do better than boys at arithmetic at primary school, and why boys are more at risk of dyscalculia, a basic problem with mathematics akin to dyslexia. The experiment on 20,000 people was developed by Brian Butterworth and his team at University College London, in collaboration with Dr Penny Fidler, @Bristol's neuroscientist.
The results reveal that the brain has two distinct mechanisms for doing maths. The first is the type of instant judgement made when viewing three coins on a table. The viewer instantly knows there are three without counting, an ability most of us were born with. The second type is the maths people are taught, including counting, addition, subtraction and multiplication. Animals also seem to have the first, innate type of mathematical ability - which helps with, say, looking after eggs. The experiment, which involved displays of dots, suggested there are two processes - what is called "subitising", for instant recognition, and counting.
"For one to three dots, but not for four to 10, female subjects were slightly but significantly faster than male subjects," Dr Butterworth said.
"They are the same as males on the counting range."Because our results suggest that there are sex-linked differences in subitising abilities (females are slightly better), the human genome may code for building a specific neural mechanism for subitising."

The Telegraph, London


How the Brain Reacts to Romance

Scientists say they have discovered what happens in the brain when someone falls in love.
They studied chemical reactions in men and women who were all in the early stages of relationships.
Research, published by the Society for Neuroscience, found activity in areas of the brain which are linked to energy and elation.
But scans found women's brains showed emotional responses, while men's showed activity linked to sexual arousal.
Researchers took functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans of the brains of 17 young men and women to see what was happening in the brain of someone in love.
They were alternately shown a photo of someone they loved and one of someone they knew, but were emotionally neutral towards.
In between, they were given a task to distract them from their emotional responses to the photos.
They found that feelings of intensive romantic love were linked to activity in the right caudate nucleus and right ventral tegmental
areadopamine, which have high levels of dopamine activity.

Gender differences
Dopamine is a brain chemical which produces feelings of satisfaction and pleasure.
Elevated levels are linked to increased energy, motivation to win a reward and feeling elated.
The researchers also found activity in other areas of the brain changed - including one that another study showed was active when people ate chocolate.
The more romantic someone said they were feeling, the more activity there was in these regions.
But there were differences between the genders.
Most of the women showed more activity in the body of the caudate, the septum and the posterior parietal cortex, which are areas linked to reward, emotion and attention.
Most of the men in this study showed more activity in visual processing areas, including one associated with sexual arousal.

Courtship patterns
Dr Helen Fisher, of Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, who led the research, said: "We believe romantic love is a developed form of one of three primary brain networks that evolved to direct mammalian reproduction.
"The sex drive evolved to motivate individuals to seek sex with any appropriate partner.
"Attraction, the mammalian precursor of romantic love, evolved to enable individuals to pursue preferred mating partners, thereby conserving courtship time and energy.
"The brain circuitry for male-female attachment evolved to enable individuals to remain with a mate long enough to complete
species-specific parenting duties."
The researchers plan to carry out another study where they will take brain scans of men and women who have recently been rejected by partners, interpreting and responding to social signals.


Introduction - History Feminism Movement / Australia - Feminist Feminism Quotes - Philosophy of Simone de Beauvoir - Feminism & Socialism - Evolution & Feminism - Feminist Criticism / Feminist Theory - Male Philosophers on Woman - Feminism Links - Top of Page

Feminist Criticism / Feminist Theory

To be completed ... please see below

 

 

 


Introduction - History Feminism Movement / Australia - Feminist Feminism Quotes - Philosophy of Simone de Beauvoir - Feminism & Socialism - Evolution & Feminism - Feminist Criticism / Feminist Theory - Male Philosophers on Woman - Feminism Links - Top of Page

Quotations from Male Philosophers on Woman
Plato, Pythagoras, Friedrich Nietzsche, Sigmund Freud Quotes

.. the only difference between men and women is one of physical function- one begets, the other bears children. Apart from that, they both can and should perform the same functions (though men on a whole, perform them better) and should receive the same education to enable them to do so; for in this way society will get the best value from both. (Plato, Republic)

When you say a man has a natural ability for a subject, don't you mean that he learns it easily and can pick it up himself after a little instruction; whereas a man who has no natural ability learns with difficulty, and can't remember what he's learnt even after long instruction and practice?.. Aren't these the sort of criteria by which you distinguish natural ability? (Plato, Republic)

'And can a man avoid being entirely without knowledge if he can't retain anything he's learnt, and has no memory at all? He will labour in vain and in the end be compelled to hate himself and the whole business of learning' (Plato, Republic)

'So we can't include forgetfulness as a character that qualifies a man for philosophy; we must demand a good memory'
'Yes certainly' (Plato, Republic)

..But she does not want truth: What is truth to a woman! From the very first nothing has been more alien, repugnant, inimical to woman than truth- her great art is the lie, her supreme concern is appearance and beauty. (Nietzsche)

There is a good principle, which has created order, light and man; and a bad principle, which has created chaos, darkness and woman. (Pythagoras)

Where neither love nor hate is in the game a woman is a mediocre player. (Nietzsche)

The sexes deceive themselves about one another: the reason being that fundamentally they love and honour only themselves (or their own ideal, to express it more pleasantly). Thus man wants woman to be peaceful - but woman is essentially unpeaceful, like the cat, however well she may have trained herself to present an appearance of peace. (Nietzsche)

In revenge and in love woman is more barbarous than man. (Nietzsche)

When a woman has scholarly inclinations there is usually something wrong with her sexuality. Unfruitfulness itself disposes one to a certain masculinity of taste; for man is, if I may be allowed to say so, 'the unfruitful animal'. (Nietzsche)

Comparing man and woman in general one may say: woman would not have the genius for finery if she did not have the instinct for the secondary role. (Nietzsche)

The great question that has never been answered and which I have not yet been able to answer, despite my thirty years of research into the feminine soul, is 'What does a woman want? (Sigmund Freud)

Woman, whom culture has burdened with the heavier load (especially in propagation) ought to be judged with tolerance and forbearance in areas where she has lagged behind man. (Sigmund Freud)


Introduction - History Feminism Movement / Australia - Feminist Feminism Quotes - Philosophy of Simone de Beauvoir - Feminism & Socialism - Evolution & Feminism - Feminist Criticism / Feminist Theory - Male Philosophers on Woman - Feminism Links - Top of Page

Greek Goddess Aphrodite Links / Feminism, Feminists, Philosophy, Gender, Sexuality, Women, Evolution

Philosophy: Existentialism - Jean Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir and Albert Camus - On the True Foundations of how we exist as Matter in Space.
Philosophy: Erotica vs Pornography: Gallery Erotic Art - Adult Only - On the Beauty of Women. Enjoying our Evolution for Lust, Passion and Eroticism. Free Gallery of Erotic Art: Quotes and Pictures on Sex, Eroticism, Vintage Eroticism, Lesbian Sexuality, Masturbation, Orgasm. Short Erotic 'Smut' Story and Video. Links to Free Galleries of Erotic Art and 'Feminist' Philosophy of Eroticism.
Philosophy: Love Sex Orgasm - Evolutionary Foundations of Love, Sex and Orgasm. Love as an Evolved Instinct to enhance survival. Sex / Orgasm related to Reproduction, Couple Bonding, Evolution of Immune System and Hormone Function.
Eastern Philosophy: Kama Sutra - 'Praised be the three aims of life, virtue (dharma), prosperity (artha), and love (kama), which are the subject of this work.' Kama Sutra (Kamasutra, Karma Sutra, Kama Shastra). Discussion and Quotes / Quotations, Pictures, Positions from Famous Indian Sexual Philosophy of the Kama Sutra.
Eastern Philosophy: Tantra Tantric Sex - 'Tantra' meaning to weave, web. Discussion of the Tantric belief that All is One and interconnected, Sex is a sacred and divine experience.
Evolution: Metaphysics - On What is Evolving. The Metaphysics of Space and Motion and the Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) explains the Metaphysical Foundations of Evolution. Space and Motion (Matter existing as the Spherical Wave Motion of Space) must first Exist for Evolution to Exist. i.e. The Earth spins and orbits the Sun causing Animal Evolution of Hibernation, Sleep, etc. which requires both Space and Motion to first exist.
Evolution: Ecology: Nature - Ecological Interconnection and the Importance of Nature explained by Wave Structure of Matter. Life (and Humanity) evolved from Nature and depend upon Nature for Survival.
Evolution: Nature One Gaia Cosmos - WSM explains both Ecology of Matter in the Universe and the Ecology of Life on Earth (Gaia).

http://www.totoro.org/jen/erotica.shtml - Academic essay on Gender and the Erotica of Anaïs Nin
http://www.bellaonline.com/articles/art10776.asp - Anais Nin: A Modern Pioneer in Literary Erotic Fiction
http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~sousa/sexphil.html - Philosophy, Sex and Feminism. Academic essay by Ronald B. de Sousa and Kathryn Pauly Morgan from the Department of Philosophy, University of Toronto.
http://www.ipce.info/ipceweb/Library/history_of_sexuality.htm - Academic essay on The History of Sexuality - About Foucault.





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Albert Einstein"When forced to summarize the general theory of relativity in one sentence: Time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter. ... Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended. In this way the concept 'empty space' loses its meaning. ... The particle can only appear as a limited region in space in which the field strength or the energy density are particularly high. ...
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Biography: Geoffrey Haselhurst, Philosopher of Science, Theoretical Physics, Metaphysics, Evolution. Our world is in great trouble due to human behaviour founded on myths and customs that are causing the destruction of Nature and climate change. We can now deduce the most simple science theory of reality - the wave structure of matter in space. By understanding how we and everything around us are interconnected in Space we can then deduce solutions to the fundamental problems of human knowledge in physics, philosophy, metaphysics, theology, education, health, evolution and ecology, politics and society.

This is the profound new way of thinking that Einstein realised, that we exist as spatially extended structures of the universe - the discrete and separate body an illusion. This simply confirms the intuitions of the ancient philosophers and mystics.

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