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## Glossary / Terminology for Wave Structure of Matter (WSM)

### On Language, Logic and Scientific Truth

As Wittgenstein simply says, philosophical problems arise when language goes on holiday!

Logic is always founded on Principles (existential statement, assumption, axiom, postulate ) which then causes certain limiting consequences in the language used (i.e. a tautology which is necessarily true and certain). So to discuss the Wave Structure of Matter in a logical way that we can all understand, requires that a new language be developed that then correctly deduces what we observe by observation and experiment.

### Terminology

Space - The Space we Sense around us Exists as a Wave Medium. (One Prinicple - Existential Statement.) Space is Infinite and Eternal.
Quantum Waves - Quantum Waves were first described by Heisenberg, Schrodinger, de Broglie and others. Originally, Quantum Waves were Waves which are solutions of the Schrodinger Equation. The special 'Quantized' meaning is because Energy Transfers always occur in Discrete amounts or "Quanta".
Quantum Waves are Scalar Waves - A Scalar quantity needs only ONE number at each point in space to describe it, thus Quantum Waves are described by a Wave Amplitude for each point in Space. (E.g. Sound waves, earth quake waves, and underwater waves are all scalar waves where the wave amplitude is pressure in the medium. See below for Vector Waves / Electromagnetic Waves)
Space is Three Dimensional - Matter exists in Space as Spherical Waves which can be described by three variables.
Velocity of Light c - The Velocity of Quantum Waves Propagating through Space. (3*10^8 m/s)
Spherical Standing Waves - Spherical Quantum Waves propagating IN and OUT through their Wave Center cause Space to Spherically Resonate about this central point. This is the Cause of ALL Matter.
Wave Center - We see this point-like effect of the Wave Centre as Atomic Matter in Space. (Particle, Electron, etc.)
Universe - Matter, as Finite Spherical Standing Waves determine the size of our Finite Spherical Universe within an Infinite Space.
Spherical In-Wave - A Spherical Quantum Wave Propagating IN towards the Wave Center, and being formed from the Huygens' Combination of the Out-Waves of all other Spherical Standing Waves in the Universe.
Spherical Out-Wave - After the In-Wave propagates through the Wave Center, it becomes an Out-Wave.
Energy - Scalar Quantum Waves are not energy transfers until an atom or molecule changes its quantum state. These quantized changes are what our human sensory system and lab apparatus observe. The Energy is proportional to the Frequency.
Mass-energy density - The total mass-energy density of Space is due to the sum contribution (Scalar Wave Amplitudes squared) from all the Spherical Standing Waves in the Universe.
Time - The Wave-Motion of Space Causes the Human perception of Time. As Waves in Space have a Finite/Limited Velocity, it takes Time for a Wave to Propagate from Place to Place. The Measure of Time is the Period of the Spherical Standing Waves which have a common Frequency. This is the cosmic clock.
Dimension / Length - Matter interacts Spherically/Ellipsoidally*, hence Dimension is proportional to the Wavelength and Shape of Spherical/Ellipsoidal Standing Waves in Three Dimensional Space.
Spherical Vs Ellipsoidal - The word Spherical is used loosely to mean both exactly Spherical and approximately Spherical (i.e. Ellipsoidal). Where it is important to distinguish between Exactly Spherical and Ellipsoidal ( due to motion/acceleration. e.g. Inertia/Relativity/Gravitation) then precise terminology will be used.
(If wave centers are observed with no relative motion, they are observed to be exactly Spherical, otherwise they are observed to be Ellipsoidal as per the Lorentz Transformation.)
Vector Waves - Vector Waves require TWO quantities at each point to describe the wave, the amplitude and the direction. The combination of these two quantities is termed a vector. A vector can always be represented by an arrow where the direction is the way the arrow points and the amplitude is the length of the arrow. The most important example is electromagnetic (e-m) waves which are mathematical waves approximating many discrete Quantum Wave interactions.
(It is important to remember that e-m Waves are mathematical constructions used by Physicists to describe how matter effects other matter, only Scalar Quantum Waves actually exist in Physical Space.)
Properties of Space
1. Space acts like a Rigid Wave Medium. ( i.e. Principle I)
2. Wave Velocity is Slower in Space of Higher mass-energy density. (i.e. Principle II)
3. Waves Tend to Minimize their Amplitude.( i.e. Principle III - Minimum Amplitude Principle - M.A.P.)
4. Space has No Parts. (Space is a Homogeneous Medium - only One Physical Substance Exists.)

### Further comments / discussion by Milo Wolff and Geoff Haselhurst.

Geoff Haselhurst - Space, Aether, Ether, Wave Medium and Quantum Wave Medium are all the same and describe this common space we all sense about us.
So Milo, please explain the meaning of quantum, and why they are quantum waves in space, rather than simply waves in space, and how these Waves propagate through Space.

Milo Wolff - Quantum waves were first described by Heisenberg, Schrodinger, de Broglie and others. They originated the word. We use the same name as those quantum waves which are already known by that name because such waves have already been discovered. The special 'quantized' meaning is because the energy transfers always occur in discrete amounts or 'quanta". I suppose we could avoid the use of the word 'quantum waves' if we wanted to. But that would be a sort of scientific plagiarism. I see the problem here: Most people have no feeling for the word quantum so it is useless to use it until they do. We could start off with just 'waves' and then add the less-observable quantum wave meaning later, with a careful explanation. This is a knotty problem.
My book 'Exploring the Physics of the Unknown Universe' has a chapter titled "All about Waves" which discusses some of your questions. But the clear distinction between vector and scalar waves HAS to be made in the readers mind, otherwise the logic following will have no impact. So we have to bring this out with strong emphasis. I will use examples.
SCALAR WAVES. - Pressure is a scalar quantity because it needs only ONE number at each point in space to describe it. That quantity is always an AMPLITUDE of the quantity at each point. Thus sound waves, earth quake waves, and underwater waves are all scalar waves where the wave amplitude is pressure in the medium. Money, counting, age, etc are also scalar quantities.
VECTOR WAVES. - These waves are already familiar to you. The most important example is electromagnetic waves which need to have TWO quantities at each point to describe the wave. The two quantities are amplitude and direction. This combination of these two quantities is termed a vector. A vector can always be represented by an arrow where the direction is the way the arrow points and the amplitude is the length of the arrow.
Vector waves simply do NOT have either the physical or math properties needed. Did I tell you of the math saying, "You cannot comb the hair on a billiard ball". This proves in a simple way that spherical waves CANNOT be vector. Combed hair is a vector. If you try to place it on a sphere (ball), you will get a 'cowlick' in one place, so the spherical symmetry is impossible.

Geoff Haselhurst - I agree, but why are vector waves like hair on a billiard ball?

Milo Wolff - Each hair is a vector because it has a position on the spherical head and it has a direction - that is the way the hair points. It is impossible to create an alignment of the hairs in any symmetrical way. The hair is not a wave, it is motionless. But you can see that a wave frozen in one position could be represented by hair. Most people have little trust in their own mind and logic. Before they will believe something (recognize reality) they want to either see it or feel it. It is basic emotional response of our primitive human mind, not logical. This is why the word wave means a 'vector wave' to most people; like water waves and waves on strings which they can see. On the other hand, sound waves are scalar (compression) waves, just like quantum waves, but people can't see or feel them as scalar. They are ignored. Reality is missed. This basic problem of demanding to see and feel plagues the entire quantum Wave Structure of Matter. That is why there is so little recognition of Quantum Wave Structure of Matter in the science community.

Geoff Haselhurst- I need to understand what you (Milo) mean by scalar quantum waves in space, and how they propagate through space/wave medium. Are quantum waves compression waves?

Milo Wolff - Both your question and the answer (if I attempt one) are illogical. This is because quantum waves are the basis of everything. Thus they lie at the bottom of everything in the tree of logical dependence. But it is illogical to use anything at the top of the tree to explain something at the bottom. You are doing this when you ask me if the (basic) waves are like a mechanical compression. Compression has to be explained by the basic waves, not visa-versa. So you cannot use compression to understand the basic waves. The reasoning is circular. We have to accept the quantum waves because they are part of Principle I which is one of the three basic principles which underlie everything.

Geoff Haselhurst - Milo I kinda agree with this BUT... It seems to me quite reasonable that space can exist as a compressible medium, that Quantum waves are compression waves, and this is the cause of sound waves also being compression waves. i.e. How does the wave move through space - what is "waving" so to speak?

Milo Wolff - I don't know. This knowledge is still to be discovered.

Geoff Haselhurst - I imagined a compression wave and a displacement wave to be the same thing. This is how I imagine space, as a physical substance which is slightly elastic, it can be stretched and compressed.(Though it is very rigid.) It has a density if you like, when it is compressed it has a higher density, and the wave moves more slowly. So I guess I do see it as a back and forth (and side to side, i.e. both longitudinal and transverse together) motion of space as a wave propagates through it - just that there are no particles, it is one substance - no parts. Milo - Can you describe quantum waves using any of the above language of mine?

Milo Wolff (replied patiently!) - No. If I am honest I don't yet know such detailed properties of the medium of the waves. That is future physics research. What I know is only what is contained in Principles I and II and III. No more. The three principles are the logical beginning and we can't use results of the principles to explain the principles. Indeed, the inability of this mechanical model to explain wave propagation is one of the reasons why the imaginary 'photon' was invented. But the photon only avoided discussing the problem - swept it under the rug.

Geoff Haselhurst - Interesting. Yes, mathematical constructions (photons, e-m waves, particles) need no medium nor spatial sense. (Though humans need a spatial medium in which to exist and create these mathematical concepts!)

Milo Wolff - Yes! You are very observant! I had not yet noticed this common fault of the mathematical constructions.

#### On Einstein's four Dimensional "SpaceTime Continuum"

Milo Wolff - In Modern Physics SpaceTime is the mathematical medium of 'light waves' in General Relativity, which is calculated using the mass density and the electromagnetic energy density of the universe.

Geoff Haselhurst - I do not think that SpaceTime is a good name as I relate this word to Minkowsky four dimensional spacetime continuum, and Einstein's general relativity, which is a mathematical construction. Further, I find the term has mystical connotations which should be avoided.

Milo Wolff - Ultimately different geometries of waves are recognized as "particles", "force fields", "spacetime", and "quantum vacuum fluctuations". But when you recognize that all of those concepts are simply the result of waves interacting with waves of different geometry, only then can you begin to study the geometries that waves can take on. When you arrive at that point, you can then talk about the kinds of geometries and you can correlate those to our present terms:
"Quantum Waves in Space": to replace "Spacetime". "Spherical Standing Wave" to replace "Matter"
"Wave Center" of a Spherical Standing Wave is the Cause of the "Particle" Effect of Matter we observe in Space.

#### Energy

Milo Wolff - Energy transfer has been greatly neglected in classical physics even though it is at the heart of the force laws and is the basis of all observational data of science. I have always devoted a small paragraph to energy transfer in each article I write but now your words suggest that in our book we should devote an entire chapter to it.

Geoff Haselhurst - Waves carry Energy.

Milo Wolff - I don't like the word 'carry' as if the energy were moving. Instead, the waves are the cause of two local energy shifts at the source and sink. Energy is our perception of local wave states of matter. I think 'energy' requires a very careful definition, in view of its central importance as the observable thing from our human perspective.

Geoff Haselhurst - This is a quote from Einstein/Infeld about energy and waves. From my Physics book.
"The particles constituting the medium perform only small vibrations, but the whole motion is that of a progressive wave. The essentially new thing here is that for the first time we consider the motion of something which is not matter, but energy propagated through matter."

Milo Wolff - It describes a medium of particles, like a solid or water. The wave moves through the medium by successive mechanical motion of the particles. Each vibrating particle transfers its kinetic energy to its neighbour and so on through the medium. The 'wave' is the average motion of the particles along the line of travel. Mechanical models made of balls on springs are often used to demonstrate this kind of wave. That book description was written for those people who need to see and feel waves mechanically and cannot respond to logic. I cannot believe that Einstein wrote this. It is naive. Although this is OK for water waves or vibration in a solid, it is NOT a description of electromagnetic waves in 'empty' space. First, there are no particles in space. Second, Einstein knew Maxwell's e-m equations very well, and this is NOT a description of e-m wave solutions. Einstein did not write it.

Geoff Haselhurst - It is from a book by Einstein and Infeld -so you may well be right - but it was about waves in general, NOT e-m waves. What you are saying though, I think, is that all true waves in nature are a result of underlying quantum waves, and hence what you call resonant coupling between pairs of standing waves, which is the cause of energy exchanges. The particles in a mechanical wave are human constructions, exactly the same problem they have for saying that matter is a particle, or that space is made up of particles. Further, the e-m wave is also a human construction, this is why it requires no medium. (But as you say, Einstein certainly would not describe e-m waves in terms of motions of small particles back and forth.) Surely though Milo, a wave propagating through space carries energy through space. The energy does not change at one electron (Wave-Center) and miraculously appear at another electron some time later.

Milo Wolff - No. It is not a miracle. The Quantum wave induces the transfer,the waves travelling at velocity of light c. The transfers at source and sink (wave-centers) are what we observe. This explanation fits the facts.

Geoff Haselhurst (stubborn and ignorant, replied) - I agree with what you say if you are describing the energy of a photon E=hf.
1. Firstly, consider this everyday example of waves. Imagine my surfboard lying on the sand on the beach - I am able to stand on it, but I stay still. (Friction and Inertia) It would require energy to cause me to move. Now if I paddle out into the water of the Southern Ocean, then these scary big waves come crashing in to shore, and if I am clever/crazy enough, I can catch them, surf them in. The energy to do this comes from the water waves. Hence waves carry energy.
2. I thought that E=mcc tells us the equivalence of matter and energy. If so, then as matter exists as Spherical Standing Waves propagating through space, waves must contain energy. Without these waves, then space would be still, devoid of both energy and matter.
Hence waves carry/contain energy.

Milo Wolff - We have to keep in mind the fundamental character of the scalar quantum waves; that they are not energy transfers until an atom or molecule changes its quantum state. These quantized changes are what our human sensory system and lab apparatus can observe.

Geoff Haselhurst - I assumed that the energy of waves in space is a balance of Energy of Motion of Space (causing compression/increased density) and Energy of elasticity/compressibility of space (tends to return to uniform density - equivalent to kinetic and potential energy I guess.) Would this be a scalar or a vector wave?

Milo Wolff - A pressure/compression wave is scalar because one quantity at each point in space can describe the wave. It is logical to state that they are similar to scalar quantum waves but the two kinds are NOT necessarily identical. They are not identical because pressure waves require the existence of particles in space for us to mathematically calculate the pressure. The fact is we don't yet know all the properties of the quantum wave medium.

Geoff Haselhurst - I understand what you are saying, that we only observe an energy exchange at the wave center, but I think this definition of energy being carried by waves is both sensible, logical and necessary. Your further thoughts?

Milo Wolff - The energy in the wave concept is mechanically satisfying to our emotions but it is not logical because it does not fit the observations.

Geoff Haselhurst - I think I understand what you are saying - it depends on how you define energy. It seems to me that if you define energy as photon exchanges then this is true. But if matter and energy are equivalent then a more general meaning of energy would be required - where energy exists in waves.

#### On why electromagnetic (e-m) waves neither carry energy nor describe reality.

Milo Wolff - Energy carried by an e-m wave fails to explain the observations. Consider a spherical wave from a radio station in 'empty' space. If the wave carries it, energy must go equally in all directions. But in reality, energy is only transferred mostly to small resonant receiver antennas whose cross-section is much smaller than the 4pi angle of spherical radiation. This is a paradox. There is an even worse math problem. THERE ARE NO WAVE SOLUTIONS to Maxwell's Equations of electromagnetism (e-m) in spherical coordinates ("You can't comb the hair on a billiard ball."). Thus you have to discard the equations and all of electromagnetism with it and find another theory. It is amazing to me, that every e-m textbook ignores this problem by sweeping it under the rug. They do this by inventing spherical solutions when they need them. They just write them - pull them out of a hat. Pretend everything is OK. Proceed glibly to the next chapter. I guess this sounds as if physicists are hypocrites when forced to the wall. Sorry, brothers!

Geoff Haselhurst - I agree, e-m waves do not carry energy because they don't physically exist and are merely human constructions. The electron is a universally large spherical standing wave. I imagine that energy is stored in the wave action of each spherical standing wave about the wave center. Part of that wave energy can be transferred to another standing wave system/center due to resonant coupling. (The IN and OUT waves minimising wave amplitudes.) This changes the wave structure of each, and also the energy of each. We see this energy exchange as quantum/photon events. The sum total energy of both standing waves remains the same - energy is conserved.

Milo Wolff - Now that you raise the question of conservation of energy involving the behaviour of the waves themselves, I admit we have to deduce that there must be a readjustment of mass-energy density in all space, after every transfer, as required by Principle III. I have used this already as part of the explanation of 'Action at a Distance' but it must be universal in every exchange, as you suggest. Ross Tessien may be describing this kind of Principle III transfer in his observations of the huge energy transfers of stars, nova, quasars, and galaxies. I have not yet thought much about huge transfers. I have only thought of the simple basic ones. There is a lot still to be learned. You have posed very stimulating questions and proposals which are tempting to work on. I agree that more thinking is needed on possible relationships between quantum mass-energy density and energy density, as above.

#### Dimension = Wavelength and Ellipsoidal Shape of Spherical Standing Waves.

Milo Wolff - AGAIN. SOLID AGREEMENT. The meaning of length (space) derives from the wavelength of the electron waves. The force laws of electrons translate length into the laws of physics. Length is the same everywhere because the medium of the waves is the same everywhere (almost).

Geoff Haselhurst - I think this language is too loose. Space is the substance which exists (the ether/wave medium). What we are talking about here is Dimension or Length which relates to how matter interacts with other matter. This is determined by BOTH wavelength and ellipsoidal shape (which relates to motion of the Wave Center as per the Lorentz Transformations).

#### Time

Milo Wolff - Time is made by the waves of the electrons. All are the same. Time is thus universal. This is the time which is used in the laws of physics which depends on the force laws of the electron. The cosmic clock of our world is the frequency of the quantum waves of the electron which is the basis of all energy transfers which show the property of time. Time is almost uniform through the universe because electron wave frequency is a property of the quantum wave medium, which is almost the same everywhere in the universe.
Geoff Haselhurst - I agree with the concept of time being caused by the limited / finite velocity of waves in space, and particularly the existence of spherical resonators acting as universal cosmic clocks with common frequency.

## Help Humanity

"You must be the change you wish to see in the world."
(Mohandas Gandhi)

"When forced to summarize the general theory of relativity in one sentence: Time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter. ... Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended. In this way the concept 'empty space' loses its meaning. ... The particle can only appear as a limited region in space in which the field strength or the energy density are particularly high. ...
The free, unhampered exchange of ideas and scientific conclusions is necessary for the sound development of science, as it is in all spheres of cultural life. ... We must not conceal from ourselves that no improvement in the present depressing situation is possible without a severe struggle; for the handful of those who are really determined to do something is minute in comparison with the mass of the lukewarm and the misguided. ...
Humanity is going to need a substantially new way of thinking if it is to survive!" (Albert Einstein)

Our world is in great trouble due to human behaviour founded on myths and customs that are causing the destruction of Nature and climate change. We can now deduce the most simple science theory of reality - the wave structure of matter in space. By understanding how we and everything around us are interconnected in Space we can then deduce solutions to the fundamental problems of human knowledge in physics, philosophy, metaphysics, theology, education, health, evolution and ecology, politics and society.

This is the profound new way of thinking that Einstein realised, that we exist as spatially extended structures of the universe - the discrete and separate body an illusion. This simply confirms the intuitions of the ancient philosophers and mystics.

Given the current censorship in physics / philosophy of science journals (based on the standard model of particle physics / big bang cosmology) the internet is the best hope for getting new knowledge known to the world. But that depends on you, the people who care about science and society, realise the importance of truth and reality.

## It is Easy to Help!

Just click on the Social Network links below, or copy a nice image or quote you like and share it. We have a wonderful collection of knowledge from the greatest minds in human history, so people will appreciate your contributions. In doing this you will help a new generation of scientists see that there is a simple sensible explanation of physical reality - the source of truth and wisdom, the only cure for the madness of man! Thanks! Geoff Haselhurst (Updated September, 2018)

A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it. (Max Planck, 1920)

"All that is necessary for evil to succeed is for good people to do nothing."
(Edmund Burke)

"In a time of universal deceit - telling the truth is a revolutionary act."
(George Orwell)

"Hell is Truth Seen Too Late."
(Thomas Hobbes)