Important Note (September, 2012) - I have submitted an essay to a competition on the foundations of physical reality. It explains how matter and fields are just two different ways that space vibrates. It is very simple and obvious once understood, has profound consequences for humanity, our sense of self in the universe knowing that we vibrate with everything around us. Please read it, rate it, and I will reply to all comments. Thanks, Geoff haselhurst (11th Sept. 2012)

Site Introduction (2012): Despite several thousand years of failure to correctly understand physical reality (hence the current postmodern view that this is impossible) there is an obvious solution.
Simply unite Science (Occam's Razor / Simplicity) with Metaphysics (Dynamic Unity of Reality) and describe reality from only one substance existing, as Leibniz wrote;
'Reality cannot be found except in One single source, because of the interconnection of all things with one another'.
Given we all experience many minds and many material things, but always in one common Space, we are thus required to describe physical reality in terms of Space. We then find there is only one solution, a Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) where the electron is a spherical standing wave. See Wave Diagrams.
In hindsight the error was obvious, to try and describe an interconnected reality with discrete 'particles', which then required forces / fields to connect them in space and time. This was always just a mathematical solution which never explained how matter was connected across the universe.

I realise that there are a lot of 'crackpot' theories about truth and reality on the internet, but it is easy to show that the Wave Structure of Matter is the correct solution as it deduces the laws of Nature (the fundamentals of Physics & Philosophy) perfectly (there are no opinions). While the Wave Structure of Matter is obvious once known, to begin it will seem strange simply because it takes time for our minds to adjust to new knowledge.

For those who are religious / spiritual, I think Albert Einstein expresses the enlightened view of God. He writes 'I believe in Spinoza's God who reveals himself in the orderly harmony of what exists, not in a God who concerns himself with the fates and actions of human beings.' This harmony arises from a Wave Structure of Matter in Space (we are all interconnected in this space that we all commonly experience). This unity of reality (God, Brahman, Tao, Spirit, Energy, Light, Vibration) is central to all major world religions, thus their common moral foundation of 'Do unto others as to thyself' as the other is part of the self.

Please help our world (human society / life on earth) by sharing this knowledge.
Clearly our world is in great trouble due to human overpopulation and the resultant destruction of Nature, climate change and the pollution of air, land and water. The best solution to these problems is to found our societies on truth and reality rather than past myths and customs (which invariably cause harm).
We are listed as one of the Top Philosophy Websites on the Internet with around 600,000 page views each week, and rank in the top 20 in Google for many academic search terms - so we just need a bit of help to get in the top five. Given the Censorship in Physics / Philosophy of Science Journals (founded on the standard model / particle physics) the internet is clearly the best way to get new knowledge visible to the world.
A world now in great need of wisdom from truth and reality.
Sincerely,
Geoff Haselhurst - Karene Howie - Full Introduction - Email - Nice Letters - Share this Knowledge

In a time of universal deceit - telling the truth is a revolutionary act. (George Orwell)
You must be the change you wish to see in the world. (Mohandas Gandhi)
All that is necessary for evil to succeed is for good men to do nothing. (Edmund Burke)
Hell is Truth Seen Too Late. (Thomas Hobbes)

David Hume

Philosophy / Metaphysics of David Hume (1711 - 76)
Explaining philosopher David Hume's Problem of Causation, Necessary Connection and Skepticism with the Wave Structure of Matter (WSM)

David Hume quotes, 'Enquiries Concerning the Human Understanding and Principles of Morals'. Pictures, Biography, Life

(David Hume, 1737) 'Accuracy is, in every case, advantageous to beauty, and just reasoning to delicate sentiment. In vain would we exalt the one by depreciating the other.'And though the philosopher may live remote from business, the genius of philosophy, if carefully cultivated by several, must gradually diffuse itself throughout the whole society, and bestow a similar correctness on every art and calling. (David Hume, 1737)If I ask you why you believe any matter of fact, you must tell me some reason; and this reason will be some other fact, connected with it. But as you cannot proceed after this manner, in infinitum, you must at last terminate in some fact, which is present to your memory or senses; or must allow that your belief is entirely without foundation. (David Hume, 1737)

And though the philosopher may live remote from business, the genius of philosophy, if carefully cultivated by several, must gradually diffuse itself throughout the whole society, and bestow a similar correctness on every art and calling. (David Hume, 1737)

When we look about us towards external objects, and consider the operation of causes, we are never able, in a single instance, to discover any power or necessary connexion; any quality, which binds the effect to the cause, and renders the one an infallible consequence of the other. There is required a medium, which may enable the mind to draw such an inference, if indeed it be drawn by reasoning and argument. What that medium is, I must confess, passes my comprehension; and it is incumbent on those to produce it, who assert that it really exists, and is the origin of all our conclusions concerning matter of fact. This question I propose as much for the sake of information, as with an intention of raising difficulties. I cannot find, I cannot imagine any such reasoning. But I keep my mind still open to instruction, if any one will vouchsafe to bestow it upon me. (David Hume, 1737)

We find in the course of nature that though the effects be many, the principles from which they arise are commonly few and simple, and that it is the sign of an unskilled naturalist to have recourse to a different quality in order to explain every different operation.
(David Hume, 1737)

If I ask you why you believe any particular matter of fact, which you relate, you must tell me some reason; and this reason will be some other fact, connected with it. But as you cannot proceed after this manner, in infinitum, you must at last terminate in some fact, which is present to your memory or senses; or must allow that your belief is entirely without foundation. (David Hume, 1737)


Introduction - Hume's Problem of Causation & Necessary Connection - WSM explains Causation / Necessary Connection - Solution to Hume's Problem of Induction - Hume Solidity Extension Motion Force - David Hume Quotes - Links David Hume - Top of Page

Introduction - David Hume

The Philosopher David Hume is famous for making us realize that until we know the Necessary Connection / cause of things then all human knowledge is uncertain, merely a habit of thinking based upon repeated observation (induction), and which depends upon the future being like the past.
We should respect Hume's open mind, which is necessary if we are to ever consider new ideas and thus advance Human knowledge.

I cannot find, I cannot imagine any such reasoning. But I keep my mind still open to instruction, if any one will vouchsafe to bestow it upon me. (David Hume, 1737)
I must confess that a man is guilty of unpardonable arrogance who concludes, because an argument has escaped his own investigation, that therefore it does not really exist. I must also confess that, though all the learned, for several ages, should have employed themselves in fruitless search upon any subject, it may still, perhaps, be rash to conclude positively that the subject must, therefore, pass all human comprehension. (David Hume, 1737)

David Hume is one of the most elegant of the philosophers, so his quotes are well worth reading from a purely literary sense. He is also one of the most important philosophers to write on metaphysics, as he makes it clear that until we know the causal connection between things all knowledge is empirical / inductive and thus uncertain (the current state of modern physics).

However, and very importantly, there is actually a very simple solution. We just had to describe reality in terms of one thing, Space, and its wave motions, rather than many things, discrete matter particles in Space and Time (how are they interconnected?).

This Metaphysics of Space and Motion and the Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) explains the necessary connection of matter (cause and effect) due to the interconnection of the Spherical In and Out-waves with all the other matter in the universe. i.e. By describing reality in terms of One Substance which exists (Space) and its Properties (Wave-Medium) we can then explain the necessary connection between the many things which exist - matter as spherical standing waves in Space (the wave centers form the 'particle' effects that we see).

This knowledge is very important to humanity as it allows us to determine the truth about matter and its interactions, as the foundation for determining the truth for how we can live wisely here on earth as part of the universe (and our world is now in great need of some truth and wisdom!)

I hope you enjoy reading the following David Hume quotes. Most are explained from this new foundation of the Wave Structure of Matter in Space - the solution to his problem of causation and necessary connection is simple and obvious once known.

Geoff Haselhurst



Introduction - Hume's Problem of Causation & Necessary Connection - WSM explains Causation / Necessary Connection - Solution to Hume's Problem of Induction - Hume Solidity Extension Motion Force - David Hume Quotes - Links David Hume - Top of Page

Hume's Problem of Causation and Necessary Connection (and thus Induction)

It appears that, in single instances of the operation of bodies, we never can, by our utmost scrutiny, discover any thing but one event following another, without being able to comprehend any force or power by which the cause operates, or any connexion between it and its supposed effect. The same difficulty occurs in contemplating the operations of mind on body- where we observe the motion of the latter to follow upon the volition of the former, but are not able to observe or conceive the tie which binds together the motion and volition, or the energy by which the mind produces this effect. The authority of the will over its own faculties and ideas is not a whit more comprehensible: So that, upon the whole, there appears not, throughout all nature, any one instance of connexion which is conceivable by us. All events seem entirely loose and separate. One event follows another; but we never can observe any tie between them. They seemed conjoined, but never connected. And as we can have no idea of any thing which never appeared to our outward sense or inward sentiment, the necessary conclusion seems to be that we have no idea of connexion or force at all, and that these words are absolutely without meaning, when employed either in philosophical reasonings or common life. (David Hume, 1737)

Hume's Problem of Causation has remained unsolved for 250 years (Neither Kant nor Popper positively solved it!) and this lack of certainty, at the very heart of Human Scientific Knowledge, has greatly prejudiced our belief in the possibility of Metaphysics and the certainty of Science, and has ultimately led to the extreme skepticism (Postmodernism) of our currently troubled and confused times. It is a delight to read David Hume, who writes brilliantly - beautifully blending clarity, content and style. As his skills far exceed my own, I shall gladly limit myself to ordering and presenting his words and ideas, such that I may clearly demonstrate his Problem of Causation (and as a consequence, Induction). Most importantly though, by doing this it becomes possible to show how these profound problems can now, finally, be sensibly solved.

It must certainly be allowed, that nature has kept us at a great distance from all her secrets, and has afforded us only the knowledge of a few superficial qualities of objects; while she conceals from us those powers and principles on which the influence of those objects entirely depends. (David Hume, 1737)

When we look about us towards external objects, and consider the operation of causes, we are never able, in a single instance, to discover any power or necessary connexion; any quality, which binds the effect to the cause, and renders the one an infallible consequence of the other. (David Hume, 1737)

... experience only teaches us, how one event constantly follows another; without instructing us in the secret connexion, which binds them together, and renders them inseparable. (David Hume, 1737)

We then call the one object, cause; the other, effect. We suppose that there is some connexion between them; some power in the one, by which it infallibly produces the other, and operates with the greatest certainty and strongest necessity. (David Hume, 1737)

I say then, that, even after we have experience of the operations of cause and effect, our conclusions from that experience are not founded on (a priori) reasoning, or any process of the understanding.(David Hume, 1737)

It is allowed on all hands that there is no known connexion between the sensible qualities and the secret powers; and consequently, that the mind is not led to form such a conclusion concerning their constant and regular conjunction, by anything which it knows of their nature.(David Hume, 1737)

Hume correctly explains that Humans do not know the 'Necessary Connexion' between objects and thus do not know the relationship between cause and effect. This quite simply is the Problem of Causation - that until we know 'what exists' and the 'necessary connexions' between these things that exist, then it is impossible for Humanity to have certainty of knowledge.

This then leads to the further Problem of Induction, for if we do not know the a priori cause of events then we have no Principles from which to logically deduce our conclusions. We are left simply observing that one event follows another and seems connected, but we do not know how or why, thus we must depend upon repeated observation (Induction) to determine the laws of Nature (the current state of Modern Physics) and hence tacitly assuming (without reason) that the future is like the past. (It is simply a habit of thinking to connect two events which seem to occur in conjunction and necessarily assumes that the future will be like the past)

..all arguments concerning existence are founded on the relation of cause and effect; that our knowledge of that relation is derived entirely from experience; and all our experimental conclusions proceed upon the supposition that the future will be conformable to the past. .... Without the influence of custom, we should be entirely ignorant of every matter of fact beyond what is immediately present to the memory and senses. (David Hume, 1737)

I shall venture to affirm, as a general proposition, which admits of no exception, that the knowledge of this relation is not, in any instance, attained by reasonings a priori; but arises entirely from experience, when we find that any particular objects are constantly conjoined with each other. (David Hume, 1737)

It is impossible, therefore, that any arguments from experience can prove this resemblance of the past to the future; since all these arguments are founded on the supposition of that resemblance. Let the course of things be allowed hitherto ever so regular; that alone, without some new argument or inference, proves not that, for the future, it will continue so. (David Hume, 1737)


Introduction - Hume's Problem of Causation & Necessary Connection - WSM explains Causation / Necessary Connection - Solution to Hume's Problem of Induction - Hume Solidity Extension Motion Force - David Hume Quotes - Links David Hume - Top of Page

The Metaphysics of Space & Motion & the Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) Solves Hume's Problem of Causation and Necessary Connection

Let us now apply our knowledge of the Metaphysics of Space and Motion and the Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) to this greatest of all Human intellectual problems, Hume's Problem of Causation and Necessary Connection, which can only be solved by understanding how Matter exists and is interconnected within this Space of the Universe.

First, Hume agrees that there obviously is a 'necessary connexion' between objects (Matter) in Space. This is obvious by the fact that Physics is able to describe many events with mathematical precision. Thus if we had knowledge of this 'secret connexion' or Force we could accurately predict (logically deduce) the future (from cause to effect) without need of induction from repeated observation and thus having to assume the future is like the past.

David Hume - Philosophy: Problem of Causation and Necessary Connection -  This question I propose as much for the sake of information, as with an intention of raising difficulties. I cannot find, I cannot imagine any such reasoning. But I keep my mind still open to instruction, if any one will vouchsafe to bestow it upon me. It is universally allowed that matter, in all its operations, is actuated by a necessary force, and that every natural effect is so precisely determined by the energy of its cause that no other effect, in such particular circumstances, could possibly have resulted from it. (David Hume, 1737)

The generality of mankind never find any difficulty in accounting for the more common and familiar operations of nature - such as the descent of heavy bodies, the growth of plants, the generation of animals, or the nourishment of bodies by food: But suppose that, in all these cases, they perceive the very force or energy of the cause, by which it is connected with its effect, and is for ever infallible in its operation. (David Hume, 1737)

From the first appearance of an object, we never can conjecture what effect will result from it. But were the power or energy of any cause discoverable by the mind, we could foresee the effect, even without experience; and might, at first, pronounce with certainty concerning it, by mere dint of thought and reasoning. (David Hume, 1737)

Now it seems evident that, if this conclusion were formed by reason, it would be as perfect at first, and upon one instance, as after ever so long a course of experience. (David Hume, 1737)

This question I propose as much for the sake of information, as with an intention of raising difficulties. I cannot find, I cannot imagine any such reasoning. But I keep my mind still open to instruction, if any one will vouchsafe to bestow it upon me. (David Hume, 1737)

The solution to Hume's Problem of Causation is realised by understanding how Matter exists in Space as a Spherical Standing Wave whose Wave-Center (Focal Point) creates the 'Particle' effect of Matter. By understanding the cause of the 'Particle' effect, the Wave Structure of Matter explains how these matter 'particles' are necessarily interconnected by their spherical waves in a continuously connected Space (existing as a wave medium). We can thus logically deduce the Motion of the Focal Point ('Particle') by simply considering how the Velocity of the Spherical In-Wave changes as they flow in through other matter in the Space around them. This then necessarily determines where these Spherical In-Waves will meet at their Wave-Center 'particle' thus we can determine the future motion of the 'Particle' effect. A simple example of this is to consider gravity, and Hume's simple problem of why a stone falls to the earth;

Would we, therefore, form a just and precise idea of necessity, we must consider whence that idea arises when we apply it to the operation of bodies. ... A stone or piece of metal raised into the air, and left without any support, immediately falls: but to consider the matter a priori, is there anything we discover in this situation which can beget the idea of a downward, rather than an upward, or any other motion, in the stone of metal? (David Hume, 1737)

Firstly, we must realise that the stone exists as many trillions of Spherical (Ellipsoidal) Standing Waves whose Wave-Centers / Focal Points are trapped resonating together in the Space that we call the Matter of the stone. Thus the reason why the stone falls to the Earth is simply because the Spherical (Ellipsoidal) In-Waves travel more slowly through the higher mass-energy density of Space that we call the matter of Earth than they do in the opposite direction from Space through the Earth's atmosphere. This causes the Focal Point (where the Spherical In-Waves meet at their Wave-Center) to move (accelerate) towards the earth - which we see as the stone falling. Thus as Hume demanded, we have replaced Inductive Logic from repeated observation of effects with Deductive Logic from the Principles of the WSM, which explain matter's necessary connection by explaining the cause of the 'Particle' effect.


Introduction - Hume's Problem of Causation & Necessary Connection - WSM explains Causation / Necessary Connection - Solution to Hume's Problem of Induction - Hume Solidity Extension Motion Force - David Hume Quotes - Links David Hume - Top of Page

The Solution to Hume's 'Problem of Induction'

For the most part, attempts to solve the problem of induction have taken the form of trying to fit inductive arguments into a deductive mould. (Ayer, 1956)

Finally, why does Induction work, why is the future like the past? (And it is obvious that it is else all our science would be nonsense.)

Without True Knowledge of Reality it is impossible to understand cause and effect - we are simply limited to describing the effects of things upon us, without understanding the cause of these effects. As we did not know how matter interacted with other matter in the Space around it (action-at-a-distance) we consequently did not understood how our human senses were connected to the world of objects in Space around us and thus what caused the perceived effects of our senses.

This lack of knowledge then leads to (what Popper termed) Hume's 'Problem of Induction'. This problem can again be demonstrated using Hume's simple example of dropping a stone such that when I let go of the stone it falls to earth. I can then repeat this experiment any number of times but despite this number of repetitions does this logically (inductively) infer that the stone must fall the next time I let it go. Hume argued that it does not, that it is simply a habit of thinking and that it is quite possible that at some stage in the future the stone will not fall. This leads to the realization that the logic of induction depends upon repeated observation and thus the assumption that the future is like the past. As Hume explains;

David Hume - Philosophy: Problem of Causation and Necessary Connection -  The supposition that the future resembles the past, is not founded on arguments of any kind, but is derived entirely from habit. The supposition that the future resembles the past, is not founded on arguments of any kind, but is derived entirely from habit.(David Hume, 1737)

Thus Hume's skepticism is valid and has subsequently plagued Philosophy and the sciences with a terribly destructive doubt and a fertile environment for all kinds of absurdity and mysticism. Ultimately all science depends upon observation of the world for its knowledge, and thus Hume's problem of induction must be solved if we are to have certainty of knowledge. As Ayer explains of the philosophical skeptic;

... his contention is that any inference from past to future is illegitimate ... that it is to be doubted whether the exercise of sense-perception can in any circumstances whatever afford proof of the existence of physical objects. (Ayer, 1956)

The solution to this profound problem is in two parts and is beautiful in its simplicity.
i) Once we understand reality, then we understand the cause of the effect. Thus we no longer depend upon repeated observation to inductively deduce that the stone falls when I let it go, for we can now use deductive logic from first principles to deduce that the stone falls to the earth because its In-Waves are traveling more slowly through the Space of the Earth.
ii) We can also explain why the future is like the past because the In-Waves (our future) after flowing through the Wave-Center (our present) become the Out-Waves (our past) and thus the future causes the past and must therefore be like the past. This then explains why we can trust inductive reasoning, for its assumption that the future is like the past is valid, and this also then explains why science has been so successful even though it was founded on an inductive logic whose validity until now could not be shown to be true.

Now the skeptic can still argue that while I may have replaced induction with deduction, nonetheless I still depend upon induction, i.e. upon repeated observation of events, to confirm the truth of the deductive theory.
This is true, but I then can justify this use of induction to support deduction, by showing that this wave theory of matter explains why the future is similar to the past, and therefore deduce that induction is valid.


Introduction - Hume's Problem of Causation & Necessary Connection - WSM explains Causation / Necessary Connection - Solution to Hume's Problem of Induction - Hume Solidity Extension Motion Force - David Hume Quotes - Links David Hume - Top of Page

Explaining Hume's Solidity, Extension, Motion, and Force

Hume astutely points to the heart of the problem when he writes;

Solidity, Extension, Motion; these qualities are all complete in themselves, and never point out any other event which may result from them. The scenes of the universe are continually shifting, and one object follows another in an uninterrupted succession; but the power of force, which actuates the whole machine, is entirely concealed from us, and never discovers itself in any of the sensible qualities of body. (David Hume, 1737)

We can now simply explain these four things, Solidity, Extension, Motion, and Force from the Metaphysics of Space and Motion and the Two Principles of the Wave Structure of Matter (WSM).

Solidity and Extension are Properties of Space. Solid objects like rocks exist in Space as a collection of Spherical Standing Waves whose Wave-Centers (Focal-Points) make up the many trillions of Particles that constitute the matter of the rock.
These Wave-Centers become trapped in standing wave arrays (e.g. crystals) and thus take on the nearly rigid properties of Space with their relative motion to one another (e.g. it is hard to squash a rock because you can't push the Wave-Centers closer together with the Wave-Centers of your body - At a certain number of standing waves apart your Wave-Centers become trapped with those on the surface of the rock - because the In and Out Waves pair up with each other). This then prevents the Wave-Centers from moving closer together which we sense as a solid rock in Space.

Motion exists in two different though directly related ways;

i) The Velocity of Wave motion of the Spherical In and Out Waves (Velocity of Light c)

Which then determines;

ii) The Motion of the Wave-Center / Focal Point ('Particle' effect) through Space.

Finally, Force, is caused by a change in Velocity of the In-Waves, which then causes a change in the future location of where these In-Waves will meet at their Wave-Center, which we see as the accelerated motion of the 'Particle'. (Thus explaining Newton's Law of Inertia, Force = Mass times Acceleration.).

References

Hume, David Enquiries Concerning The Human Understanding and Concerning The Principles of Morals (1737) Oxford University Press 2nd Ed. 1957


Introduction - Hume's Problem of Causation & Necessary Connection - WSM explains Causation / Necessary Connection - Solution to Hume's Problem of Induction - Hume Solidity Extension Motion Force - David Hume Quotes - Links David Hume - Top of Page

David Hume Quotes: Quotations from 'Enquiries Concerning The Human Understanding and Concerning The Principles of Morals' (1737) By David Hume

It is easy for a profound philosopher to commit a mistake in his subtle reasonings; and one mistake is the necessary parent of another, while he pushes on his consequences, and is not deterred from embracing any conclusion, by its unusual appearance, or its contradiction to popular opinion. (David Hume, 1737)

... Abstruse thought and profound researches I prohibit, and will severely punish, by the pensive melancholy which they introduce, by the endless uncertainty in which they involve you, and by the cold reception which your pretended discoveries shall meet with, when communicated. Be a philosopher; but, amidst all your philosophy, be still a man. (David Hume, 1737)

Accuracy is, in every case, advantageous to beauty, and just reasoning to delicate sentiment. In vain would we exalt the one by depreciating the other.
Besides, we may observe, in every art or profession, even those which most concern life or action, that a spirit of accuracy, however acquired, carries all of them nearer their perfection, and renders them more subservient to the interests of society. And though the philosopher may live remote from business, the genius of philosophy, if carefully cultivated by several, must gradually diffuse itself throughout the whole society, and bestow a similar correctness on every art and calling. The politician will acquire greater foresight and subtlety, in the subdividing and balancing of power; the lawyer more method and finer principles in his reasoning; and the general more regularity in his discipline, and more caution in his plans and operations. (David Hume, 1737)

In short, all the materials of thinking are derived either from our outward or inward sentiment: the mixture and composition of these belongs alone to the mind and will. Or, to express myself in philosophical language, all our ideas or more feeble perceptions are copies of our impressions or more lively ones. (David Hume, 1737)

When we entertain, therefore, any suspicion that a philosophical term is employed without any meaning or idea (as is but too frequent), we need but enquire, from what impressions is that supposed idea derived? And if it be impossible to assign any, this will serve to confirm our suspicion. By bringing ideas into so clear a light we may reasonably hope to remove all dispute, which may arise, concerning their nature and reality. (David Hume, 1737)

All reasonings concerning matter of fact seem to be founded on the relation of cause and effect. (David Hume, 1737)

The mind can never possibly find the effect in the supposed cause, by the most accurate scrutiny and examination. For the effect is totally different from the cause, and consequently can never be discovered in it. (David Hume, 1737)

It is impossible, therefore, that any arguments from experience can prove this resemblance of the past to the future; since all these arguments are founded on the supposition of that resemblance. Let the course of things be allowed hitherto ever so regular; that alone, without some new argument or inference, proves not that, for the future, it will continue so. (David Hume, 1737)

My practice, you say, refutes my doubts. But you mistake the the purport of my question. As an agent, I am quite satisfied in the point; but as a philosopher, who has some share of curiosity, I will not say scepticism, I want to learn the foundation of this inference.
No reading, no enquiry has yet been able to remove my difficulty, or give me satisfaction in a matter of such importance. Can I do better than propose the difficulty to the public, even though, perhaps, I have small hopes of obtaining a solution? We shall at least, by this means, be sensible of our ignorance, if we do not augment our knowledge. (David Hume, 1737)

I must confess that a man is guilty of unpardonable arrogance who concludes, because an argument has escaped his own investigation, that therefore it does not really exist. I must also confess that, though all the learned, for several ages, should have employed themselves in fruitless search upon any subject, it may still, perhaps, be rash to conclude positively that the subject must, therefore, pass all human comprehension. (David Hume, 1737)

It is certain that the most ignorant and stupid peasants- nay infants, nay even brute beasts- improve by experience, and learn the qualities of natural objects, by observing the effects which result from them. When a child has felt the sensation of pain from touching the flame of a candle, he will be careful not to put his hand near any candle; but will expect a similar effect from a cause which is similar in its sensible qualities and appearance. (David Hume, 1737)

Nothing can be more contrary than such a philosophy to the supine indolence of the mind, its rash arrogance, its lofty pretensions, and its superstitious credulity. Every passion is mortified by it except the love of truth; and that passion never is, nor can be, carried to too high a degree. (David Hume, 1737)

Nature will always maintain her rights, and prevail in the end over any abstract reasoning whatsoever. (David Hume, 1737)

If I ask you why you believe any particular matter of fact, which you relate, you must tell me some reason; and this reason will be some other fact, connected with it. But as you cannot proceed after this manner, in infinitum, you must at last terminate in some fact, which is present to your memory or senses; or must allow that your belief is entirely without foundation. (David Hume, 1737)

Nothing is more free than the imagination of man; and though it cannot exceed that original stock of ideas furnished by the internal and external senses, it has unlimited power of mixing, compounding, separating, and dividing these ideas, in all the varieties of fiction and vision. (David Hume, 1737)

When I throw a piece of dry wood into a fire, my mind is immediately carried to conceive, that it augments, not extinguishes the flame. This transition of thought from the cause to the effect proceeds not from reason. It derives its origin altogether from custom and experience. (David Hume, 1737)

It seems evident, that, when the mind looks forward to discover the event, which may result from the throw of such a dye, it considers the turning up of each particular side as alike probable; and this is the very nature of chance, to render all the particular events, comprehended in it, entirely equal. (David Hume, 1737)

There are no ideas, which occur in metaphysics, more obscure and uncertain, than those of power, force, energy or necessary connexion, of which it is every moment necessary for us to treat in all our disquisitions. (David Hume, 1737)

It seems a proposition, which will not admit of much dispute, that all our ideas are nothing but copies of our impressions, or, in other words, that it is impossible for us to think of any thing, which we have not antecedently felt, either by our external or internal senses. I have endeavoured to explain and prove this proposition, and have expressed my hopes, that, by a proper application of it, men may reach a greater clearness and precision in philosophical reasonings, than what they have hitherto been able to attain. Complex ideas may, perhaps, be well known by definition, which is nothing but an enumeration of those parts or simple ideas, that compose them. But when we have pushed up definitions to the most simple ideas, and find still some ambiguity and obscurity; what resource are we then possessed of? By what invention can we throw light upon these ideas, and render them altogether precise and determinate to our intellectual view? (David Hume, 1737)

Produce the impressions or original sentiments, from which the ideas are copied. These impressions are all strong and sensible. They admit not of ambiguity. They are not only placed in a full light of themselves, but may throw light on their correspondent ideas, which lie in obscurity. And by this means, we may, perhaps, attain a new microscope or species of optics, by which, in the moral sciences, the most minute, and most simple ideas may be so enlarged as to fall readily under our apprehension, and be equally known with the grossest and most sensible ideas, that can be the object of our enquiry. (David Hume, 1737)

It is universally allowed that matter, in all its operations, is actuated by a necessary force, and that every natural effect is so precisely determined by the energy of its cause that no other effect, in such particular circumstances, could possibly have resulted from it. (David Hume, 1737)

Would we, therefore, form a just and precise idea of necessity, we must consider whence that idea arises when we apply it to the operation of bodies. (David Hume, 1737)

.. they are thence apt to suppose, that there is a difference between the effects which result from material force, and those which arise from thought and intelligence. (David Hume, 1737)

Necessity, according to the sense in which it is here taken, has never yet been rejected, nor can ever, I think, be rejected by any philosopher. It may only, perhaps, be pretended that the mind can perceive, in the operations of matter, some farther connexion between the cause and effect; and connexion that has not place in voluntary actions of intelligent beings. Now whether it be so or not, can only appear upon examination; and it is incumbent on these philosophers to make good their assertion, by defining or describing that necessity, and pointing it out to us in the operations of material causes.
It would seem, indeed, that men begin at the wrong end of this question concerning liberty and necessity, when they enter upon it by examining the faculties of the soul, the influence of the understanding, and the operations of the will. Let them first discuss a more simple question, namely, the operations of body and of brute unintelligent matter; and try whether they can there form any idea of causation and necessity, except that of a constant conjunction of objects, and subsequent inference of the mind from one to another. (David Hume, 1737)

By liberty, then, we can only mean a power of acting or not acting, according to the determinations of the will; that is, if we choose to remain at rest, we may; if we choose to move, we also may. (David Hume, 1737)

Necessity may be defined in two ways, conformably to the two definitions of cause, of which it makes an essential part. It consists either in the constant conjunction of like objects, or in the inference of the understanding from one object to another. (David Hume, 1737)

It is experience only, which gives authority to human testimony; and it is the same experience, which assures us of the laws of Nature. (David Hume, 1737)

.. the knavery and folly of men are such common phenomena, that I should rather believe the most extraordinary events to arise from their concurrence, than admit of so signal a violation of the laws of Nature. (David Hume, 1737)

Our most holy religion is founded on Faith, not on reason ... (David Hume, 1737)

And whoever is moved by Faith to assent to it, is conscious of a continued miracle in his own person, which subverts all the principles of his understanding, and gives him a determination to believe what is most contrary to custom and experience. (David Hume, 1737)

If the cause, assigned for any effect, be not sufficient to produce it, we must either reject that cause, or add to it such qualities as will give it a just proposition to the effect. But if we ascribe to it farther qualities, or affirm it capable of producing other effects, we can only indulge the licence of conjecture, and arbitrarily suppose the existence of qualities and energies, without reason or authority. ... The same rule holds, whether the cause assigned be brute unconscious matter, or a rational intelligent being. If the cause be known only by the effect, we never ought to ascribe to it any qualities, beyond what are precisely requisite to produce the effect: Nor can we, by any rules of just reasoning, return back from the cause, and infer other effects from it, beyond those by which alone it is known to us. (David Hume, 1737)

I deny a providence, you say, and supreme governor of the world, who guides the course of events, and punishes the vicious with infamy and disappointment, and rewards the virtuous with honour and success, in all their undertakings. But surely, I deny not the course itself of events, which lies open to every one's inquiry and examination. I acknowledge, that, in the present order of things, virtue is attended with more peace of mind than vice, and meets with a more favorable reception from the world. I am sensible, that, according to the past experience of mankind, friendship is the chief joy of human life, and moderation the only source of tranquility and happiness. I never balance between the virtuous and the vicious course of life; but am sensible, that, to a well-disposed mind, every advantage is on the side of the former. And what can you say more, allowing all your suppositions and reasonings? (David Hume, 1737)

It is still open for me, as well as you, to regulate my behavior, by my experience of past events. (David Hume, 1737)

While we argue from the course of nature, and infer a particular intelligent cause, which first bestowed, and still preserves order in the universe, we embrace a principle, which is both uncertain and useless. It is uncertain; because the subject lies entirely beyond the reach of human experience. It is useless; because our knowledge of this cause being derived entirely from the course of nature, we can never, according to the rules of just reasoning, return back from the cause with any new inference, or making additions to the common and experienced course of nature, establish any new principles of conduct and behavior. .. But allowing you to make experience (as indeed I think you ought) the only standard of our judgment concerning this, and all other questions of fact. (David Hume, 1737)

... thus speech and words and language are fixed by human convention and agreement. (David Hume, 1737)

And as this is the obvious appearance of things, it must be admitted, till some hypothesis be discovered, which by penetrating deeper into human nature, may prove the former affections to be nothing but modifications of the latter. All attempts of this kind have hitherto proved fruitless, and seem to have proceeded entirely from that love of simplicity which has been the source of much false reasoning in philosophy. ... The simplest and most obvious cause which can there be assigned for any phenomena, is probably the true one.(David Hume, 1737)


Introduction - Hume's Problem of Causation & Necessary Connection - WSM explains Causation / Necessary Connection - Solution to Hume's Problem of Induction - Hume Solidity Extension Motion Force - David Hume Quotes - Links David Hume - Top of Page

David Hume - Related Links

Uniting Metaphysics and Philosophy - Solving Hume's Problem of Causation, Kant's Critical Idealism, Popper's Problem of Induction, Kuhn's Paradigm.

Metaphysics: Skepticism - On Truth and Certainty - Scientific Minds are Skeptical and Open. On how we can be certain we know the Truth about Reality. Quotations David Hume, A.J. Ayer, Immanuel Kant, Albert Einstein, George Berkeley.

Philosophy - Free Will Determinism - Wave Structure of Matter explains Limited Free Will in a Necessarily Connected (Logical) Universe. Quotations David Hume.

Philosophy Morality Ethics - The Fundamental Morality of World Religions 'Do Unto Others ...' is Logically True as the Other is a Part of the Self. Quotations Albert Einstein, Buddha, Confucius, David Hume, Leo Tolstoy.

Atheist Atheism Agnostic Agnosticism - Religion is our Connection to What exists and causes all Things (Universe, Physical Reality, God) thus we are all Religious. Religion should Unite us to One Thing and thus bring Harmony to Humanity. Quotations David Hume, Sigmund Freud, Buddha, Leo Tolstoy.

Evolution: Culture - Importance of True Knowledge of Reality (Wave Structure of Matter) for Human Cultural Evolution (Utopia). Quotations David Hume on Custom, Habit, Society and Law.


Philosophy
On Love of Wisdom from Truth & Reality

In Eastern philosophy, the main terms used in Hinduism and Buddhism have dynamic connotations. The word Brahman is derived from the Sanskrit root 'brih' (to grow) and thus suggests a reality which is dynamic and alive. (Capra, 1972)
Eastern Philosophy: Buddhism Hinduism Taoism Confucianism
Greek philosophy begins with the preposterous fancy, that water is the origin of all things. Is it necessary to stop there & become serious? Yes ... because it contains the idea we find in all philosophy: everything is one! (Nietzsche, 1890)
Ancient Greek Philosophy: Stoicism, Quotes, Pictures
All things come out of the one and the one out of all things. ... I see nothing but Becoming. Be not deceived! The very river in which you bathe a second time is no longer the same one you entered before. (Heraclitus, 500 B.C.)
Heraclitus: Biography, Pictures, Philosophy Quotes
Are you not ashamed that you give your attention to acquiring as much money as possible, and care so little about wisdom and truth, which you never regard or heed at all? (Socrates, The Apology, 469 - 399 B.C.)
Socrates: Life & Death, Biography, Pictures, Quotes
The philosopher is in love with truth, that is, not with the changing world of sensation, which is the object of opinion, but with the unchanging reality which is the object of knowledge. (Plato, 429-347 B.C.)
Plato: Greek Philosopher. Republic Quotes, Biography
The life of theoretical philosophy is the best & happiest one can lead. Few are capable of it (and only then intermittently). For the rest, the second-best way of life, is moral virtue & practical wisdom. (Aristotle, 384-322 B.C.)
Aristotle: Politics & Philosophy Quotes, Biography, Pictures
Frequently consider the connection of all things in the universe. ... We should not say 'I am an Athenian' or 'I am a Roman' but 'I am a citizen of the Universe. (Marcus Aurelius, Meditations, 121-180 A.D.)
Marcus Aurelius: 'Meditations' Quotes, Biography, Pictures
We are a part of nature as a whole, whose order we follow. ... He who lives under the guidance of reason endeavours to repay his fellows hatred, rage & contempt with love and nobleness. (Benedict de Spinoza, Ethics, 1632-1677)
Benedict de Spinoza: 'Ethics' Philosophy Quotes
Reality cannot be found except in One single source, because of the interconnection of all things with one another. I do not conceive of any reality at all as without genuine unity. (Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, 1646 - 1716)
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz: Monad Philosophy Quotes
My purpose therefore is, to try if I can discover what those principles are, which have introduced all that doubtfulness and uncertainty, those absurdities and contradictions into the several sects of philosophy. (George Berkeley, 1710)
George Berkeley: Philosophy Quotes, Biography, Pictures
And though the philosopher may live remote from business, the genius of philosophy, if carefully cultivated by several, must gradually diffuse itself throughout the whole society, and bestow a similar correctness on every art and calling. (David Hume, 1737)
David Hume: Biography, Pictures, Philosophy Quotes
It is the duty of philosophy to destroy the illusions which had their origin in misconceptions, whatever darling hopes and valued expectations may be ruined by its explanations. ... Pure reason is a perfect unity. (Immanuel Kant, 1781)
Immanuel Kant: Critique of Pure Reason Quotes
There is nothing more necessary than truth, everything else has only secondary value. One does not want to be deceived, under the supposition that it is injurious, dangerous, or fatal to be deceived. (Nietzsche, 1890)
Friedrich Nietzsche: Biography, Pictures, Philosophy Quotes
.. by nature man is a political animal. Men have a desire for life together, even when they have no need to seek each other's help. Common interest too is a factor in bringing them together, contributing to the good life of each. (Aristotle, Politics)
Politics: Political Science Globalisation Democracy, Utopia
Since philosophy is the art which teaches us how to live, and since children need to learn it as much as we do at other ages, why do we not instruct them in it? (Michel de Montaigne, Essays, 1592)
Philosophy of Education: Teaching Philosophy
Art is a selective re-creation of reality according to an artist's metaphysical value-judgments. An artist recreates those aspects of reality which represent his fundamental view of man's nature. (Ayn Rand, On Philosophy of Art)
Philosophy of Art: Renaissance Impressionist
Modern Art Gallery
If we take away the subject (Humans), or our senses in general, then not only the nature and relations of objects in space and time, but even space and time themselves disappear ... they cannot exist in themselves, but only in us. (Immanuel Kant, 1781)
Philosophy of Mind: Idealism to Realism
Uniting Matter & Mind
.. the puzzles that constitute normal science exist only because no paradigm that provides a basis for scientific research ever completely resolves all its problems. (Thomas Kuhn, 1962)
Postmodern Philosophy Postmodernism Vs. Realism



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Biography: Geoffrey Haselhurst, Philosopher of Science, Theoretical Physics, Metaphysics, Evolution. Our world is in great trouble due to human behaviour founded on myths and customs that are causing the destruction of Nature and climate change. We can now deduce the most simple science theory of reality - the wave structure of matter in space. By understanding how we and everything around us are interconnected in Space we can then deduce solutions to the fundamental problems of human knowledge in physics, philosophy, metaphysics, theology, education, health, evolution and ecology, politics and society.

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