Physics: Hendrik Antoon Lorentz
Albert Einstein & Wave Structure of Matter explains the Lorentz Transformations

Physics constitutes a logical system of thought which is in a state of evolution, whose basis (principles) cannot be distilled from experience by an inductive method, but can only be arrived at by free invention. (Albert Einstein, 1936)
Metaphysics of Relativity
Principles in Physics
Physical events, in Isaac Newton's view, are to be regarded as the motions, governed by fixed laws, of material points in space. This theoretical scheme is in essence an atomistic and mechanistic one. (Albert Einstein, 1940)
Einstein on Sir Isaac
Newton's Mechanics
The greatest change in the axiomatic basis of physics since Newton, was brought about by Michael Faraday's and James Clerk Maxwell's work on electromagnetic field phenomena. (Albert Einstein, 1954)
Michael Faraday's EM
Field, Maxwell Equation
Special relativity is based on the fact that Maxwell's equations (& thus the law of propagation of light in empty space) are converted into equations of the same form, when they undergo a Lorentz transformation. (Einstein)
Albert Einstein on the
Lorentz Transformations
 If, relative to K, K' is a uniformly moving co-ordinate system devoid of rotation, then natural phenomena run their course with respect to K' according to exactly the same general laws as with respect to K. This statement is called the principle of relativity. (Albert Einstein, 1954)
Albert Einstein's Theory
of Special Relativity
When forced to summarize the general theory of relativity in one sentence: Time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter. (Albert Einstein)
Albert Einstein's Theory
of General Relativity
But the idea that there exist two structures of space independent of each other, the metric-gravitational and the electromagnetic, was intolerable to the theoretical spirit. We are prompted to the belief that both sorts of field must correspond to a unified structure of space. (Einstein, 1954)
Solution to Problems
Relativity Theory
Can we visualize a universe which is finite yet unbounded? ... The supreme task of the physicist is to arrive at those universal laws from which the cosmos can be built up by pure deduction. (Albert Einstein, 1954)
Einstein Cosmology
Finite Universe
All these fifty years of conscious brooding have brought me no nearer to the answer to the question, 'What are light quanta?' Nowadays every Tom, Dick and Harry thinks he knows it, but he is mistaken. (Albert Einstein, 1954)
Quantum Theory
'Photon' Light Quanta
I do not believe in a personal God and I have never denied this but have expressed it clearly. If something is in me which can be called religious then it is the unbounded admiration for the structure of the world so far as our science can reveal it. (Albert Einstein, 1954)
Einstein on Theology
God, Religion, Morality
The true value of a human being is determined by the measure and sense in which they have obtained liberation from the self. We shall require a substantially new manner of thinking if humanity is to survive. (Einstein, 1954)
Albert Einstein Quotes
Religion Science Peace
The ideals which have lighted my way, and time after time have given me new courage to face life cheerfully, have been Kindness, Beauty and Truth. (Albert Einstein, 1954)
Albert Einstein Biography
Picture Photo Gallery

Hendrik Lorentz - I cannot but regard the ether, which can be the seat of an electromagnetic field with its energy and its vibrations, as endowed with a certain degree of substantiality, however different it may be from all ordinary matter. I cannot but regard the ether, which can be the seat of an electromagnetic field with its energy and its vibrations, as endowed with a certain degree of substantiality, however different it may be from all ordinary matter. (Lorentz, 1906)
Indeed one of the most important of our fundamental assumptions must be that the ether not only occupies all space between molecules, atoms, or electrons, but that it pervades all these particles. We shall add the hypothesis that, though the particles may move, the ether always remains at rest. (Lorentz, 1906)

Everybody felt his superiority, but nobody felt oppressed by it. Though he had no illusions about people and human affairs, he was full of kindness toward everybody and everything. (Albert Einstein on Hendrik Lorentz, 1954) (Albert Einstein on Hendrik Lorentz, 1954) Everybody felt his superiority, but nobody felt oppressed by it. Though he had no illusions about people and human affairs, he was full of kindness toward everybody and everything. Never did he give the impression of domineering, always of serving and helping. He was extremely conscientious, without allowing anything to assume undue importance; a subtle humor guarded him, which was reflected in his eyes and in his smile.


A Short Introduction to Hendrik Lorentz

Hello and thanks for visiting our website and this page on Hendrik Lorentz (a lovely logical moral scientist). You will find our pages a little different than most, because we are describing reality (and thus explaining Lorentz's ideas / Lorentz Transformations) from a slightly different foundation than the current paradigm of 'particles' and 'fields' in 'Space-Time', to a more simple foundation of Spherical Standing Waves in Space.

For a more detailed summary of the evolution of the particle / field theory of matter (which includes this short section on Hendrik Lorentz below, plus sections on most of the central names in physics) please see the page on the history and evolution of Albert Einstein's Theory of Relativity.
The evolution of knowledge in physics is fascinating, as are the mistakes that we made along the way that now cause us so many problems. Certainly, by understanding the foundation of knowledge in physics at the time Einstein developed his theory of relativity, we can easily understand why he chose the path of representing matter as Continuous Spherical 'Fields' in Space-Time.
We can now also understand how there is a more simple solution, by describing matter in terms of Spherical Waves in Continuous Space, that clearly explains and solves the problems caused by Einstein's failure to find a pure 'field theory of matter'.
Hope this helps on your journey of discovery in the Sciences. A wonderful pursuit I think, where you will meet many fascinating minds.

Sincerely,
Geoff Haselhurst


Lorentz's Theory of the Electron (1900 - 1906)

Hendrik Lorentz assumed the electron was a charged particle which 'generated' a spherical spatially extended electromagnetic field in the ether. Thus inadvertently he continued this error of assuming both the 'particle' and the 'field' to be real (rather than simply being mathematical constructions.) As Einstein explains;

This field is generated by atomistic electric charges upon which the field in turn exerts ponderomotive forces. (Albert Einstein, 1954)

Lorentz imagined that the ether exists throughout Space and that fields existed as a 'state' of this ether.

Indeed one of the most important of our fundamental assumptions must be that the ether not only occupies all space between molecules, atoms, or electrons, but that it pervades all these particles. We shall add the hypothesis that, though the particles may move, the ether always remains at rest. (Lorentz, 1906)

As Max Born writes;

Lorentz proclaimed the ether at rest in absolute space. In principle this identifies the ether with absolute space. Absolute space is no vacuum, but something with definite properties whose state is described with the help of two directed quantities, the electrical field E and the magnetic field H. (Born, 1924)

Lorentz is correct that Space pervades the particles, and that space is at rest, (i.e. rigid, does not 'flow'), the error is to assume separate particles generating a field in this Space, which as Einstein explains, causes several problems;

The introduction of the field as an elementary concept gave rise to an inconsistency of the theory as a whole. Maxwell's theory, although adequately describing the behavior of electrically charged particles in their interaction with one another, does not explain the behavior of electrical densities, i.e., it does not provide a theory of the particles themselves. They must therefore be treated as mass points on the basis of the old Newtonian theory. The combination of the idea of a continuous field with that of material points discontinuous in space appears inconsistent. Hence the material particle has no place as a fundamental concept in a field theory. Thus even apart from the fact that gravitation is not included, Maxwell's electrodynamics cannot be considered a complete theory. (Einstein, 1954)

History shows that this problem is insurmountable as 'forces' must have 'particles' to act upon, thus the particle was a necessary part of the evolution of the field theory.

The Lorentz Transformation
The Electron Changes Ellipsoidal Shape With Motion

The Spherical Wave Structure of Matter tells us that there is no discrete particle and instead we are considering the behavior of the wave-center. Thus we realize that the motion of the particle through Space is actually the apparent motion of successive wave-centers which are determined by where each successive spherical (in reality ellipsoidal) In-wave meets at its respective wave-center. As the spherical In and Out waves combine and then cancel one another, the particle effect of the wave-center appears in a discrete point in Space, then disappears, then re-appears again as the next In-waves meets at its wave-center (roughly 1020 times per second).

As Wertheim explains;

In the quantum world, subatomic particles lurch about, suddenly disappearing from their starting points and reappearing as if by magic somewhere else. (Wertheim, 1997)

Further, this apparent motion of the wave-center (particle) is caused by a difference in velocity of the In-waves from one direction, and this also necessarily changes the spherical shape of the In-waves (they become squashed or stretched spheres / ellipsoids)


Moving Waves
Fig:1.1 The Ellipsoidal Shape of a Moving wave-center: If the In-waves on the right are slowed down as they travel in through Space then they change ellipsoidal shape (rather than being exactly spherical) and have a shorter wavelength. It is this change in velocity, ellipsoidal shape and wavelength of the In-wave which causes the apparent motion of the wave-center and the Lorentz Transformations.

The Lorentz Transformations provide formulas for the change of ellipsoidal shape of matter (SSWs) with the apparent 'motion' of the 'particle' (wave-center) and how this affects Mass, Time and Length/Dimension. This explains the null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment as Lorentz explains;

In order to explain this absence of any effect of the Earth's translation (in the Michelson/Morley experiment), I have ventured the hypothesis, that the dimensions of a solid body undergo slight change, of the order of v2/c2, when it moves through the ether. From this point of view it is natural to suppose that, just like the electromagnetic forces, the molecular attractions and repulsions are somewhat modified by a translation imparted to the body, and this may very well result in a change of dimensions. The electrons themselves become flattened ellipsoids. .. This would enable us to predict that no experiment made with a terrestrial source of light will ever show us an influence of the Earth's motion. (Lorentz,1906)

Michelson Morley
Fig: 1.2 The Michelson-Morley experiment. Due to our dimension being determined by wavelength, we shall always measure arm 1 of an interferometer, to be the same length as that of arm 2, irrespective of which direction we rotate the interferometer. The arms are both 7 wavelengths long. Thus it takes the same time for the ellipsoidal In-waves to propagate in to the center along arm 1 as it does along arm 2. This must be true as this is where the ellipsoidal wave meets at the wave-center to determine the apparent 'motion' of the 'particle'. As there is no time difference for the two paths, no interference is observed. This explains the Null result of the Michelson/Morley experiment.

The Michelson Morley experiment confirms that light takes the same time to travel each path irrespective of the motion of the observer. This is a general principle, and is the foundation of Einstein's principle of special relativity and thus his postulate that the velocity of light is always measured to be the same.

The so called special or restricted relativity theory is based on the fact that Maxwell's equations (and thus the law of propagation of light in empty space) are converted into equations of the same form, when they undergo a Lorentz transformation. (Einstein, 1954)

Now it is this relationship of the change in wavelength (and thus ellipsoidal dimension) with Motion that is at the heart of Relativity. As Lorentz importantly says;

It is clear that, since the observer is unconscious of these changes, (the contraction of a measuring rod in the direction of motion), relying on his rod, he will not find the true shape of bodies. He will take for a sphere what really is an ellipsoid. Attention must now be drawn to a remarkable reciprocity that has been pointed out by Einstein.
... Let us now imagine that each observer (one is moving with constant velocity relative to the other) is able to see the system to which the other belongs,
... It will be clear by what has been said that the impressions received by the two observers would be alike in all respects. It would be impossible to tell which of them moves or stands still with respect to the ether. His results concerning electromagnetic and optical phenomena agree in the main with those which we have obtained in the preceding pages, the chief difference being that Einstein simply postulates what we have deduced from the fundamental equations of the electromagnetic field. By doing so, he may certainly take credit for making us see in the negative result of experiments like those of Michelson, Rayleigh and Brace, not a fortuitous compensation of opposing effects, but the manifestation of a general and fundamental principle. Yet, I think, something may also be claimed in the favor of the form in which I have presented the theory. I cannot but regard the ether, which can be the seat of an electromagnetic field with its energy and its vibrations, as endowed with a certain degree of substantiality, however different it may be from all ordinary matter. (Lorentz, 1906)

Most profoundly, Lorentz first deduced the foundations of Einstein's Relativity from the assumption of a rigid Space (ether) that had the properties of a wave-medium (i.e. vibrations). Though Einstein related relative motions of matter only to other matter and not back to an Absolute Space like Lorentz did, (which is mathematically simpler I suppose) the important point is that the logic of Relativity is founded on, and completely consistent with, an Absolute Space. By only considering relative motion Einstein effectively renounced the concept of Absolute Space and Motion and instead tried to represented matter as a spherical (spatially extended) field;

Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended. In this way the concept 'empty space' loses its meaning. (Albert Einstein, 1961)

Since the field exists even in a vacuum, should one conceive of the field as state of a 'carrier', or should it rather be endowed with an independent existence not reducible to anything else? In other words, is there an 'aether' which carries the field; the aether being considered in the undulatory state, for example, when it carries light waves? The question has a natural answer: Because one cannot dispense with the field concept, it is preferable not to introduce in addition a carrier with hypothetical properties. & The field thus becomes an irreducible element of physical description, irreducible in the same sense as the concept of matter (particles) in the theory of Newton. (Albert Einstein, 1954)

These quote are worth close attention, for they highlight Einstein's error. We now realize that the continuous force field is an approximation of many discrete standing wave interactions (see Quantum Theory), and further, the field is an empirically founded (a posteriori) concept and thus cannot be fundamental. Hence we must reject the field, thus it is not only preferable, but necessary, to consider the 'carrier with hypothetical properties', i.e. Space existing with the properties of a wave-medium.

It is now possible to show that Einstein's ideas need only a slight modification, from his foundation that matter is a spherical spatially extended 'field', to a foundation based upon Space rather than matter, and that matter is caused by Spherical Standing Wave Motions of Space. (From particles and spherical fields in space-time to spherical waves in space!)

Born, Max 'Einstein's Theory of Relativity' Methuen Company 1924
Einstein, Albert 'Ideas and Opinions' (1919-1954) Crown Trade Paperbacks 1954
Einstein, Albert 'Relativity' (1916-1952) Crown Trade Paperbacks 15th Ed.1961
Lorentz, Hendrik 'The Theory of the Electron' 1906
Wertheim, Margaret 'Pythagoras' Trousers' Fourth Estate Limited 1997


Physics: Hendrik Antoon Lorentz
Albert Einstein & Wave Structure of Matter explains the Lorentz Transformations

Physics constitutes a logical system of thought which is in a state of evolution, whose basis (principles) cannot be distilled from experience by an inductive method, but can only be arrived at by free invention. (Albert Einstein, 1936)
Metaphysics of Relativity
Principles in Physics
Physical events, in Isaac Newton's view, are to be regarded as the motions, governed by fixed laws, of material points in space. This theoretical scheme is in essence an atomistic and mechanistic one. (Albert Einstein, 1940)
Einstein on Sir Isaac
Newton's Mechanics
The greatest change in the axiomatic basis of physics since Newton, was brought about by Michael Faraday's and James Clerk Maxwell's work on electromagnetic field phenomena. (Albert Einstein, 1954)
Michael Faraday's EM
Field, Maxwell Equation
Special relativity is based on the fact that Maxwell's equations (& thus the law of propagation of light in empty space) are converted into equations of the same form, when they undergo a Lorentz transformation. (Einstein)
Albert Einstein on the
Lorentz Transformations
 If, relative to K, K' is a uniformly moving co-ordinate system devoid of rotation, then natural phenomena run their course with respect to K' according to exactly the same general laws as with respect to K. This statement is called the principle of relativity. (Albert Einstein, 1954)
Albert Einstein's Theory
of Special Relativity
When forced to summarize the general theory of relativity in one sentence: Time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter. (Albert Einstein)
Albert Einstein's Theory
of General Relativity
But the idea that there exist two structures of space independent of each other, the metric-gravitational and the electromagnetic, was intolerable to the theoretical spirit. We are prompted to the belief that both sorts of field must correspond to a unified structure of space. (Einstein, 1954)
Solution to Problems
Relativity Theory
Can we visualize a universe which is finite yet unbounded? ... The supreme task of the physicist is to arrive at those universal laws from which the cosmos can be built up by pure deduction. (Albert Einstein, 1954)
Einstein Cosmology
Finite Universe
All these fifty years of conscious brooding have brought me no nearer to the answer to the question, 'What are light quanta?' Nowadays every Tom, Dick and Harry thinks he knows it, but he is mistaken. (Albert Einstein, 1954)
Quantum Theory
'Photon' Light Quanta
I do not believe in a personal God and I have never denied this but have expressed it clearly. If something is in me which can be called religious then it is the unbounded admiration for the structure of the world so far as our science can reveal it. (Albert Einstein, 1954)
Einstein on Theology
God, Religion, Morality
The true value of a human being is determined by the measure and sense in which they have obtained liberation from the self. We shall require a substantially new manner of thinking if humanity is to survive. (Einstein, 1954)
Albert Einstein Quotes
Religion Science Peace
The ideals which have lighted my way, and time after time have given me new courage to face life cheerfully, have been Kindness, Beauty and Truth. (Albert Einstein, 1954)
Albert Einstein Biography
Picture Photo Gallery



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Biography: Geoffrey Haselhurst, Philosopher of Science, Theoretical Physics, Metaphysics, Evolution. Our world is in great trouble due to human behaviour founded on myths and customs that are causing the destruction of Nature and climate change. We can now deduce the most simple science theory of reality - the wave structure of matter in space. By understanding how we and everything around us are interconnected in Space we can then deduce solutions to the fundamental problems of human knowledge in physics, philosophy, metaphysics, theology, education, health, evolution and ecology, politics and society.

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