It is an unfortunate fact of human evolution and the resultant nature of our minds that most people live their entire life surrounded by a world that they do not understand. They do not understand how they exist as matter in Space, how they can see other matter in the Space around them (Light), or how matter attracts matter (Gravity). Most remarkably, they do not even realise that they do not understand, for they rarely, if ever, think about it, and instead live in the Naive Real world of illusion/Maya.
There are two main reasons for this.
Firstly, evolution was more concerned with survival, avoiding predators and finding food, rather than understanding the true Cause of these things. Thus we evolved a mind which represents and constructs our senses of the world, and does not see things as they truly are. We did not evolve to be Metaphysicists, Philosophers, and Physicists, this was simply an inadvertent consequence of evolving a large memory, and the survival benefits of connecting certain memories in logical ways.
Secondly, our language tends to deceive us - most people simply use the terms matter, light and gravity to describe the world without realising that these are merely metaphors, words to describe events, but which say nothing about the Cause of these natural phenomena.This is unfortunate because upon closer reflection we realise that without this certainty of knowledge we are apt to be deceived, to believe in things that are not true, and this deception eventually causes Humanity great harm. This is why Plato wrote;
The society we have described can never grow into a reality or see the light of day, and there will be no end to the troubles of states, or indeed, my dear Glaucon, of humanity itself, till philosophers are kings in this world, or till those we now call kings and rulers really and truly become philosophers, and political power and philosophy thus come into the same hands,...
What is at issue is the conversion of the mind from the twilight of error to the truth, that climb up into the real world which we shall call true philosophy. (Plato, 380BC, Republic)
We now live in a time where the consequences of our ignorance are seriously damaging our world, and the future for our children. The evolution of Humanity is now being threatened due to human overpopulation and the destruction of Nature on Earth. Only when we understand our true connection to the world around us (i.e. What matter is and how it is necessarily connected by the forces of Light and Gravity) will we understand the truth about how we should live in harmony with life on earth.
Fortunately for Humanity this knowledge has finally been discovered. But even this is not without its cruel and tragic ironies! Our post-modern world has become skeptical (and indeed hostile) to Absolute Truths. All to often in the past scientists deceived themselves, and others, into believing that they knew the Truth, only to find later that they had been deceived yet again.
So how can we be certain this time that we do finally know the Truth.
For now we shall content ourselves with a brief summary of these two forces of Light and Gravity. The important thing to realise is that if we are to correctly describe these forces then we must know what Reality is, because ultimately all Truth comes from Reality. Plato understood this, thus he wrote;
And those whose hearts are fixed on Reality itself deserve the title of Philosophers. (Plato, 380BC, Republic)
And Philosophers should realise that knowledge of Reality requires Two things – we must know both ‘What Exists’ AND its ‘Necessary Connection’. (Physicists would say we must know ‘Matter’ and its ‘Forces). This Necessary Connection requires the existence of One Thing/Substance which is common to and connects the Many Things. In fact all of Philosophy is founded on the realisation that there must be One Thing which connects the Many Things (and there can be nothing more simple than One, thus there can be no more fundamental solution to Reality once we know what this One Substance is).
Further, as Aristotle explains, this One Substance (essence) must have ‘Properties’
And here we will have the science (Metaphysics) to study that which is just as that which is, both in its essence and in the properties which, just as a thing that is, it has. (Aristotle, 350BC Metaphysics)
In fact Aristotle (the most brilliant of all Philosophers) was very close to discovering Reality, for he also realised the importance of Motion, and that Motion was the likely Cause of both Time and Matter (which it is, as the Two Principles below explain). He writes;
..about Matter's coming into being and all its alterations we think that we have knowledge when we know the source of its movement.
... there is some other cause of the change. And to seek for this is to seek for the second kind of principle, as we would say, that from which comes the beginning of the change.
Unless the further factor is active, there will still be no movement.
There must then be a principle of such a kind that its substance is activity
Motion must always have been in existence, and the same can be said for Time itself, since it is not even possible for there to be an earlier and a later if time does not exist. Movement, then, is also continuous in the way in which time is - indeed time is either identical to movement or is some affection of it. ... there being two causes of which we have defined in the Physics, they seem to have a glimpse of them, that of matter and that from which the motion comes, indistinctly though, and in no way clearly. (Aristotle, 350BC Metaphysics)
This can now be explained with the following Two Principles which describe Reality and thus found the Metaphysics of Space and Motion and the Wave Structure of Matter;
i) One Thing, Space (Infinite and Eternal) Exists as a Wave-Medium and contains Wave-Motions which Propagate at the Velocity of Light c.
ii) Matter Exists as the Spherical Wave Motion of Space (which determines) the Size of our Finite Spherical Universe within an Infinite Space. (See Fig:1.2 below)
+ = This (very rough!) diagram shows how the Spherical In and Out Waves form a Standing Wave around the Wave-Center 'particle'.
i) Any Change in Velocity of the Spherical In-Waves from One Direction Changes where these In-Waves meet at their respective Wave-Center which we see as the Accelerated Motion of the ‘Particle’. (This is the Cause of Gravity – see Fig:2.1 below)
ii) The Spherical In-Waves are formed from the Huygens' Combination of Out-Waves from All other Matter in our Finite Spherical Universe. (This is the Cause of Mach’s Principle – the Mass (mass-energy density of space) of an object is determined by all the other matter in the Universe. See Fig:2.2 below)
Fig: 2.1a Gravity - Flash Movie-------------------- Fig: 2.1b Gravity - JPEG
Fig: 2.1 Huygens In-Wave, Flash Movie ---------- Fig: 2.2 Huygens
We shall return to these diagrams shortly when we discuss Light and Gravity in more detail, but first it is necessary to make a few comments about the use of Principles in Physics. All scientists should realise the importance of Principles, simply because logic deduced from Principles is necessary and certain. Anyone else will deduce exactly the same consequences, and thus also come to the same conclusions as we have. The problem has been to discover the correct Principles such that this necessary and certain logic exactly corresponds to what we observe of the real world from observation and experiment. And this is exactly what these Two Principles do, they deduce, with mathematical precision (Wolff, 1986-2003) the laws of Nature, which have been rigorously determined by experiment over the past 400 years. This gives Science its unique and very important role in determining the Truth, as opposed to mere opinion.
Not only are these solutions necessary and certain, they are also simple and obvious once known. We do however emphasise ‘once known’, for all humans are slow to learn and understand, it is simply the nature of our mind and evolution. To properly understand some of the arguments will require further effort on your part to read the complete Metaphysics of Space and Motion and the Wave Structure of Matter (and spend another five years reading the great philosophers of human history we suspect!) - but most of the solutions are really quite simple. And this is why Philosophy is sometimes called the ‘discovery of the obvious’, because Reality (and thus Truth) are ultimately simple. Einstein knew all this, thus he wrote;
Physics constitutes a logical system of thought which is in a state of evolution, whose basis cannot be distilled, as it were, from experience by an inductive method, but can only be arrived at by free invention. … We must always be ready to change these notions - that is to say, the axiomatic basis of physics (Principles) - in order to do justice to perceived facts in the most perfect way logically. … It is the grand object of all theory to make these irreducible elements (Principles) as simple and as few in number as possible, without having to renounce the adequate representation of any empirical content whatever. … If, then, it is true that the axiomatic basis of theoretical physics cannot be extracted from experience but must be freely invented, can we ever hope to find the right way? I answer without hesitation that there is, in my opinion, a right way, and that we are capable of finding it. I hold it true that pure thought can grasp reality, as the ancients dreamed. (Albert Einstein, Ideas and Opinions)
So let us now explain these two Principles in more detail, as this shall then lead to the correct explanation of the forces of Light and Gravity.
Firstly, the ‘Particle’ Effect of Matter is caused by the Wave-Center of the Spherical Wave Motions of Space thus obviously explaining the ‘Particle-Wave Duality’ of Matter. This has been one of the major errors and stumbling blocks to knowing Reality, to imagine Matter as small ‘Particles’ when in fact Matter is a Spherical Wave Structure the size of the Universe (though it is true that we only observe the ‘particle’ effect at the tiny Wave-Centers, and this has greatly deceived us!). For example, the physicist Paul Davies makes quite clear the difficulty which modern mathematical physics faces when describing reality (which is founded on incorrect assumptions).
The idea that something can be both a wave and a particle defies imagination, but the existence of this wave-particle 'duality' is not in doubt. … It is impossible to visualise a wave-particle, so don't try. … The notion of a particle being 'everywhere at once' is impossible to imagine. (Davies, Relativity and Quanta)
(And one day in the near future I suspect they will look back on these incorrect ideas of modern physics and wonder how they could have been so blind to such an obvious solution! Unfortunately this is simply human nature, that we are all blind to the obvious until it is discovered…)
Secondly, as stated in Principle Two, the Wave Velocity c is not constant, and is determined by both the Wave-Amplitude and the mass-energy density of space of matter’s Waves in Space. These changing Wave-Velocities are simply the Properties of Space as a Wave-Medium, they are stated rather than deduced. As Kant explains, Principles are synthetic a priori rather than analytic (logical deductions) or a posteriori (empirical observations). Importantly though, these Wave-Properties of Space then necessarily cause further consequences (logical deductions from the Two Principles) which correctly correspond with our observations of the real world. (Using Kant’s formalisation, Synthetic a priori Principles found Physics, and cause Analytic a priori deductions which must correspond to Synthetic a posteriori /empirical observations.)
Unfortunately, due to Einstein’s Special Relativity (where the velocity of light c is assumed to be constant) most scientists incorrectly assume c is always constant. In fact Einstein confirms that the constant velocity of Light is only true in non-accelerating systems (i.e. Special Relativity) - General Relativity (the real world of accelerating systems and thus Gravity) is founded on a changing velocity of Light in a Gravitational Field, which is in turn created by Matter. e.g. The curvature of the Light past the Sun. Thus he writes;
Special relativity is founded on the basis of the law of the constancy of the velocity of light. But the general theory of relativity cannot retain this law. On the contrary, we arrived at the result that according to this latter theory the velocity of light must always depend on the coordinates when a gravitational field is present. (Albert Einstein, 1954)
In fact the change in Velocity of the In-Waves is the Foundation for all Forces as we shall now explain.
The meaning of force is the change of energy E with respect to distance x moved or, F = dE/dx. Thus force has no meaning unless motion exists and energy is exchanged. To understand forces, it is necessary to understand how the motion takes place. Further, Motion cannot exist unless there is Space for things to move through. Thus we see that Space and Motion are more fundamental than Forces. If we consider the motion of a single particle - an electron – then the wave center of the spherical in/out waves of the electron is what we observe as the location of the electron. The electron will be stationary if the inward waves are perfectly spherical, because the in-waves always come to the same location. It is only when the velocity of the In-Waves changes that we get a change in location of the Wave-Center, which we see as the accelerated motion of the particle. Thus we realise that ALL Forces are ultimately caused by a change in Velocity of the In-Wave.
Gravity is caused by the mass-energy density of space. This mass-energy density of space is determined by the square of the Wave-Amplitude and is always positive (squares are always positive). The Wave-Velocity is inversely proportional to the mass-energy density of space, the higher the mass-energy density of space, the slower the Wave-Velocity. As Matter and its resultant mass-energy density of space are always positive, this causes a slowing of In-Waves as they travel through other matter/wave-motions, and it is this property of Space that causes the natural ‘Gravitational’ attraction of all bodies, and explains why Gravity is always attractive.
Thus we realise that the presence of another ‘particle’ (as the Wave-Center of a Spherical Standing Wave/electron) will add to the density of space and slow down and thus distort the in-waves. Part of the in-wave near the other particle will travel slower. Thus the slower part will cause the center of the in-wave to continually move. We will observe this as motion of the ‘particle’ though it is actually caused by a succession of wave-centers forming in different locations in Space. Slowing occurs because the presence of the waves of the other particle increases the mass-energy density of space. This increase is very slight compared the whole density of Space which is determined by the sum of the waves of all the matter in our Hubble Universe This Mass-energy density of space rule is Principle Two, an extended version of Mach's Principle. The small effect of one particle is the reason why gravity is such a small force - that is, about 10^-40 times smaller than the electric force.
Now You Understand the Origin of Gravity. That is it! Gravity is a result of the slowing of the In-Waves causing the wave center to move towards other Wave-Centers. Gravity has been touted as the most puzzling of the forces. Indeed, before the Wave Structure of Matter was discovered there were no explanations of gravity, only speculations. Millions of research dollars have been, and still are being spent trying to find 'gravitons', a mythical particle similar to the 'photon' which supposedly carried energy like a pack horse between two particles. In fact we now realise that this fundamental concept of motion is the cause of all the forces in nature. This is logical thinking because the motion concept contains the meaning of force.
Let us now check that our logic is correct with a mathematical analysis
of the mass-energy density of space of one Wave-Center due the Huygens’
contributions from the Out-Waves of all the other matter in the Universe.
Our aim is to demonstrate that the force of Gravity Fg is 10-40
smaller than the Electric Force Fe, as consistent with observation. Let
us find Fg/Fe the ratio of the gravity force to the electric force on a
proton with mass m and charge e due to another mass M.
First, any small increase of the mass-energy density of space must be proportional to the mass M which causes it. Also, the increase must be inversely proportional to the mass of the Hubble universe Mu which determines the whole Mass-energy density of space according to Principle Two (Mach's extended Principle).
Thus Fg/Fe is proportional to M/Mu.
Second, The distance D of the test proton m to the mass M will have an inverse squared effect on the gravity force caused by the mass M. However, the distance D must be compared to the distance R (Radius of Universe).
Thus Fg/Fe is proportional to R/D
Since we are comparing gravity and electric forces, the force on the electron is the standard force. The magnitude of the electron's own mass-energy density of space at the classical electron radius is known to be equal to the Mass-energy density of space produced by the whole Hubble Universe (since its In-Waves are created by all the other matter’s Out-Waves in our universe. This was shown in the derivation of the Equation of the Cosmos obtained from Principle II as explained in Wolff (1990). The Equation of the Cosmos is: re2 = R2/3N
Or, the ratio of the radius R of the Hubble Universe to the classical
radius re of the electron (a proton radius measure) equals
the square root of 3N, where N = the number of particles (protons) in
our Hubble universe.
Evaluate the ratio M/Mu: We have chosen M as one proton. Then, use Mu as approximated by astronomers (see Cosmology by Berry) as N = 1080 protons = Mu. Thus
M/Mu = 10-80
What is the electric force due to? It is caused by interacting Wave-Amplitudes (See below) of the In-Out waves between two charges, say two protons, separated by a distance D. Thus Fe can be written as,
Fe = D
Where MILO TO COMPLETE!
What is the gravity force due to? It is best envisioned when there is no electric force involved such as between two H atoms where the In-Out waves of the proton are exactly neutralized by the opposite In-Out waves of the electron (i.e. The Wave-Amplitudes exactly cancel out, and we are only left with the resultant mass-energy density of space effects - which are always positive and thus never cancel out!) Thus Fg can be written as,
Fg = D
Where MILO TO COMPLETE – errors in my formulae's that he emailed me !
Putting all these factors together we obtain
Fg/Fe x M/Mu x Š. = 3 x 1040 x 10-80 x Š..= 3 x 10-40
This is what we sought to prove, that Fg/Fe ~ 10-40. The numbers that went into this calculation are the best available approximations from astronomy but not as accurate as lab measurements. However in view of the large numbers involved, the result cannot be a coincidence. Thus we have confirmed that the forces of nature are found to depend on the mass of the universe. (i.e. All the other Matter in the Universe, whose Out-Wave’s form our Matter’s In-Waves). This is a general conclusion from Mach’s extended Principle and agrees with the findings elsewhere that all of the natural laws and constants depend on all the matter in the universe (See references) or equivalently, on the mass-energy density of space which is Caused by the sum total of the In and Out-Waves as per Principle II. It is a further awesome conclusion that our environment, our bodies, the Earth, the Sun - all matter - are mutually inter-dependent and together dependent on the whole Universe. Thus, if the stars in the heavens did not exist - unthinkable - we could not exist.
Charge, Electromagnetic Fields & Light are caused by the Wave-Amplitude of Space which is both positive and negative (unlike the mass-energy density of space which is always positive). The Wave Properties of Space are such that the greater the Wave-Amplitude the greater the Wave-Velocity, and the smaller the Wave-Amplitude the slower the Wave-Velocity.
Because the Wave-Amplitude is both positive and negative, Wave-Amplitude interactions can either increase or decrease, causing either an increase or decrease in the velocity of the In-Waves, and a consequent attraction or repulsion of the Wave-Centers (particles).
Thus when we place two electrons near one another in Space, then the Wave-Amplitude of Space between them increases, thus the Wave-Velocity increases (opposite to gravity’s slowing of In-Waves) and this causes the Wave-Centers to move apart. This is the cause of the electrical repulsion of like charges.
Conversely, if we place an electron and a positron (a positron is simply the opposite phase to an electron) then the Wave-Amplitude between the two Wave-Centers tends to cancel out and become smaller, thus the Wave-Velocity between the two Wave-Centers decreases (like gravity) and thus causes the Wave-Centers to move together. In fact this also explains the electron / positron (matter / antimatter) annihilation, as the Wave-Centers will eventually overlap one-another and the Wave-Amplitudes will completely cancel out and disappear.
This then explains Charge, but does not explain Light, which is slightly more complex, though it is still caused by the same fundamental properties of Space.
Imagine two clocks or watches which are in perfect agreement. Now this agreement may come about in three ways. The first consists of a natural influence. This is what M. Huygens tried with a result that suprised him. He suspended two pendulums from the same piece of wood; the continual strokes of the pendulums communicated similar vibrations to the particles of the wood; but since these different vibrations could not well persist independently and without interfering with one another, unless the pendulums were in agreement, it happened by some sort of miracle that even when their strokes had been purposely disturbed, they soon went back to swinging together, rather like two strings* which are in unison. * ie. strings of a musical instrument (Gottfried Leibniz, 1670)
What we must further realise is that Light is only emitted and absorbed by electrons bound in atoms or molecules, and these electrons have some complex repeating Wave-Motion about the nucleus. Thus the electrons behave as ‘Resonators’ and it is common knowledge to electrical engineers and physicists that resonators can undergo resonant coupling, where one resonator decreases in frequency and the other one increases a corresponding amount.
Thus two bound resonating electrons or oscillators exchange energy much like classical coupled oscillators, such as electric circuits or joined pendulums. The coupling provided by the non-linear centers of the resonances (high Wave-Amplitude Wave-Centers) allows them to shift frequency patterned by the modulation of each other's waves. Since significant coupling can only occur between two oscillators which possess the same resonant elements, the frequency (energy) changes are equal and opposite. This we observe as the law of conservation of energy.
When opposite changes of frequency (energy ) takes place between two resonances, energy seems to be transported from the center of one resonance to another. We observe a loss of energy where frequency decreases and added energy where it increases. The exchange appears to travel with the speed of the IN waves of the receiving resonance which is c, the velocity of light. When large numbers of changes occur together, so we can sample part of it, we see a beam of light. When single exchanges occur we see "photons". The transitory modulated waves travelling between two resonances create the illusion of the "photon". An exchange may require 10^8 to 10^15 cycles to complete, depending on the degree of coupling and species of resonance.
For example, if one oscillator were an electron, its frequency mc2/h is about 1023 hertz, and if the transition time were 10^-8 seconds, the frequency change requires about 10^15 cycles to complete. Such a large number of cycles implies, in engineering slang, a large Q value, which indicates great precision of the equal and opposite changes in oscillator frequency, and the conservation of energy. (See Fig: 3 below)
Fig: 3 Light
Thus we now realise that Light is Caused by Resonant Coupling and mixing of Wave-Amplitudes of Two Spherical Standing Waves whose Wave-Centers have similar frequency 'orbits' about a nucleus (some oscillating 'orbital' frequency - not an orbit like planets but more like a complex wave function or repeating pattern). These 'orbits' of the Wave-Center cause a cyclical oscillation in the Shape of the In and Out-Waves which describes a wave function that is ultimately the cause of the 'electromagnetic' wavelength and frequency of light. As only certain discrete 'orbits' (wave functions) exist for the Wave-Center of the Spherical Standing Wave, then it can only exchange orbit frequencies in discrete levels which correspond to discrete energy exchanges.
Two obvious examples of resonant coupling will aid understanding;
If we have two tuning forks, and we hit one and set it vibrating with a high Wave Amplitude, then it will resonantly couple with the second tuning fork and transfer energy to it such that it also vibrates. (It is connected to the other tuning fork by sound waves in the air.)
Two pendulums of the same weight and length, connected by a spring or by being attached to a wall next to each other, but one with a large swinging/repeating motion, and one with a small swinging/repeating motion, (i.e. with different Amplitudes of repetitive motion) then over time the two pendulums will begin to swing together with the same Amplitude. Effectively resonant coupling is like giving a child on a swing lots of little pushes, all at the right time in the repeating cycle, such that the many small changes build up into one big discrete change.
Electrons/ Spherical Standing Waves (Resonances) likewise trapped in repeating cycles ('orbits' in atoms/molecules) are connected to one another by Space and the oscillation in the Shape of their In and Out Waves. If the frequencies/Shapes correctly match, then these two resonators can 'resonantly couple' like two tuning forks and exchange vibrational energy. This is always in discrete amounts as is consistent with resonant coupling (and standing wave interactions in general) and thus explains the quantum energy transfers of light (photons). i.e. E=hf where only discrete frequencies (f) area resonantly stable and thus 'allowed'. There are no separate light ‘Particles’ (photons) or collapsing wave functions, both being mathematical existents only!
In ending, let us say that it is frustrating to try to explain so much in such a short space, that brief explanations often trivialise work that is ultimately very important to humanity. We hope at least that this brief summary will cause the reader to make the effort to read our respective work, and to confirm for themselves its truth and thus its importance. Certainly the world is in great need of wisdom and action, both of which must ultimately be founded on the Truth.
Geoff Haselhurst, Milo Wolff. January 2003
1. Aristotle "The Metaphysics" (340BC) Penguin 1998
2. Plato "The Republic" (429-347BC) Penguin 1955
3. Einstein, Albert "Ideas and Opinions" Crown Trade Paperbacks 1954
4. Davies, Paul "Superforce" London, Unwin Paperbacks, 1985
4. Wolff, Milo "Fundamental Laws, Microphysics and Cosmology," Physics Essays, 6, 1993 www.QuantumMatter.com
5. Wolff, Milo "Exploring the Physics of the Unknown Universe, ISBN 0-9627787-0-2, Technotran Press, CA. (1990)
6. Haselhurst, Geoff "The Metaphysics of Space and Motion and the Wave Structure of Matter" 2000 http://www.spaceandmotion.com
Apart from forces, what has the WSM theory to say about the speed of light? I read that it is decaying? Can it be according to this theory? It's quite an obsession for me. Ian
Hi Ian, Interesting questions, my reasoning in reply. (Milo Wolff shares some of these ideas, we differ on a few things)
From the Principles of the Wave Structure of Matter we deduce;
1. The Speed (velocity) of light is the velocity of the spherical waves which make up matter, and is thus determined by the wave medium, i.e. by the Wave Amplitude and mass-energy density of Space. The Wave Amplitudes of many billions of waves tend to cancel (see Milo's Minimum Amplitude Principle MAP) leaving Space with an average mass-energy density (square of the wave amplitude, thus always positive). This property of space, the greater the mass-energy density, the slower the wave velocity, causes 'force' of gravity, thus as mass-energy density is always positive, gravity is always positive.
2. The Cosmology of the Wave Structure of Matter describes a finite spherical universe (matter as spherical standing wave) within an infinite perpetual system (Space). Other matter's out-waves in our finite spherical universe create our matter's in-waves (deducing Mach's Principle and redshift with distance from Huygens' principle - not Doppler shift / expanding universe / big bang which is wrong).
3. In an infinite perpetual system the basic constants must also be eternally existing (they cannot be decreasing as over an infinite time they would tend to zero / disappear)
4. As the Earth moves through space then the mass-energy density may vary (if we are nearer other stars / galaxies it increases) and the wave velocity of matter / light would be slower. This would not be observable as the wavelength would be shorter, and this corresponding change in dimension of matter causes the velocity to always be measured the same.
This explains foundations of Einstein' Relativity, see http://www.spaceandmotion.com/Physics-Albert-Einstein-Theory-Relativity.htm
5. The speed (velocity) of light and gravity is thus the same, the speed of the spherical waves in space which form matter. It is not constant, but is always measured to be the same.
What about charge found on/in/by the electron? Where does it come from? Is it some particular profile of space just around the electron 'boundary' or just at it's effective radius? And could it be that all particles are of the same 'size' deducing from this theory? Ian
1. Charge (and gravity) exist throughout the universe. As above they are caused by changes in the velocity of the In-Waves changing the location of the Wave center which we see as the 'acceleration of the particle'. Wave Amplitude interactions cause charge, as these can be both constructive and destructive, the velocity can increase or decrease, thus the re-location of the wave centers can be together (opposite charges / phase of waves) or apart (like charges, in phase).
Gravity, as explained above, is always attractive as the waves slow down in space of higher mass-energy density of space / more matter.
Yes, all particles are pretty much the same size, the size of their spherical
standing waves which is the size of the universe. It is important to realise
that matter and universe are one (exact opposite of particle conception
of matter where matter is small). As matter becomes separated in space it
shares less of its finite spherical universe with the more distant matter,
this deduces the cause of the redshift with distance, less wave interactions
means less energy exchange, i.e. redshift with distance.
Hope this helps,
Geoff Haselhurst, January, 2005
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