Absolute Space in its own nature, without relation to anything external remains always similar and immovable. (Isaac Newton, 1687)
I cannot but regard the ether, which can be the seat of an electromagnetic field with its energy and its vibrations, as endowed with a certain degree of substantiality, however different it may be from all ordinary matter. (Hendrik Lorentz, 1906)
According to the general theory of relativity
space without ether is unthinkable; for in such space there
not only would be no propagation of light, but also no possibility of existence
for standards of space and time. But this ether may not be thought of as
endowed with the quality characteristic of matter, as consisting of parts
('particles') which may be tracked through time.
(Albert Einstein, 1928, Leiden Lecture)
The inseparability of time and space emerged in connection with electrodynamics, or the law of propagation of light. With the discovery of the relativity of simultaneity, space and time were merged in a single continuum in a way similar to that in which the three dimensions of space had previously merged into a single continuum. Physical space was thus extended to a four dimensional space which also included the dimension of time. The four dimensional space of the special theory of relativity is just as rigid and absolute as Newton's space. (Albert Einstein, 1954)
Having recognised that the individual points in Newton's absolute space have no physical reality, we must now inquire what remains of this concept at all. (Max Born)
Contrary to current views, the greatest scientists (physicists, philosophers) of history believed that Space must exist to necessarily connect matter and its interconnected motions. Below are a few of many famous quotes from famous scientists on the existence of Space (as required by the Metaphysics of Space and the Wave Structure of Matter).
1687) Absolute Space in its own nature, without relation to anything external
remains always similar and immovable.
(Kant, 1781) Natural science (physics) contains in itself synthetical judgments a priori, as principles. … Space then is a necessary representation a priori, which serves for the foundation of all external intuitions.
(Faraday, 1830) I cannot conceive curved lines of force without the conditions of a physical existence in that intermediate space.
(James Clerk Maxwell, 1876)
In speaking of the Energy of the field, however, I wish to be understood literally. All energy is the same as mechanical energy, whether it exists in the form of motion or in that of elasticity, or in any other form. The energy in electromagnetic phenomena is mechanical energy.
(Lorentz, 1906) I cannot but regard the ether, which can be the seat of an electromagnetic field with its energy and its vibrations, as endowed with a certain degree of substantiality, however different it may be from all ordinary matter.
A three-dimensional (spatial) world is infinitely more likely than any of its alternatives.
(Albert Einstein, 1928, Leiden)
According to the general theory of relativity space without ether is unthinkable; for in such space there not only would be no propagation of light, but also no possibility of existence for standards of space and time. But this ether may not be thought of as endowed with the quality characteristic of matter, as consisting of parts (‘particles’) which may be tracked through time. The idea of motion may not be applied to it.
(Lama Govinda, 1969)
According to ancient Indian tradition the Universe reveals itself in two fundamental properties: as Motion and as that in which motion takes place, namely Space. This Space is called akasa and is that through which things step into visible appearance, i.e., through which they possess extension or corporeality. Akasa is derived from the root kas, ‘to radiate, to shine’, and has therefore the meaning of ‘ether’ which is conceived as the medium of movement.
The principle of movement, however, is Prana the breath of life, the all-powerful, all-pervading rhythm of the universe. The fundamental element of the cosmos is Space. Space is the all-embracing principle of higher unity. Nothing can exist without Space.
(Sudhakar S.D 1988) The Universe is Brahman, the One that
underlies and make possible all the multiplicity. It is the source of the
entire cosmos and all cosmic activities relating to the emergence, existence
and dissolution of the terrestrial phenomena that form the cosmic rhythm.
‘The One manifests as the many, the formless putting on forms.’
The Maitri Upanishad mentions two aspects of Brahman, the higher and the lower. The higher Brahman being the unmanifest Supreme Reality which is soundless and totally quiescent and restful, the lower being the Shabda-Brahman which manifests itself into the ever changing restless cosmos through the medium of sound vibrations.
The Upanishad says that, 'Two Brahmans there are to be known: One as sound and the other as Brahman Supreme.'
The process of manifestation is from soundless to sound, from noumenality to phenomenality, from perfect quiescence of being to the restlessness of becoming'. Manifestation of the ultimate reality takes place through the vibrations of Shabda-Brahman, for vibration is the expression of energy and the action and interaction of vibrations produce all the phenomena on many different planes.
The Metaphysics of Space and Motion and the Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) is Simple (founded on ONE thing Space) and Necessarily Connected, this being the necessary foundation for all reason and certainty in the Sciences (i.e. not my opinion). The Wave Motion of Space (and thus the motion of matter) are logical because the Properties of Space as a Wave Medium are logical / necessary - this is why logic exists in the universe, and why Mathematics exists within Physics.
A good question. We do not directly experience it, as wave
structures of space we only experience wave interactions in space, not space
itself. i.e. We experience the spatial dimension of space (that we are immersed
in space) and interacting with other matter waves in space, but we do not
experience its properties as a nearly rigid continuously connected wave
medium (we must use reason to work this out, as the WSM does - this relates
So space may have more properties to explain our human emotions / complexities of the mind (taste, color, love, pain, moral senses).
To those of you who are spiritual
/ religious. Well space is just another word for what we experience
existing in, you can call space what you want - God, Brahman, Tao, Aether,
Zero Point Energy, Vaccuum flucuation, ...
As to the complete properties of space / god - I don't know. But it is definately a wave medium, matter is formed from waves in space. The mind and our emotions - that is very complex - and no one can yet explain this. This is the future of physics / the sciences.
However, it is now clear that the wave structure of matter explains matter perfectly if we assume Space is a wave medium, that matter is made of waves in space (trying to describe an interconnected reality with discrete and separate particles was the central error of science).
Below are some quotes and a brief summary of the properties of Space - an Infinite, Eternal, Continuous Wave Medium.
On the left side of this page you will find links to the main articles which explain and solve many of the problems of postmodern Metaphysics, Physics and Philosophy from the new foundation of the Metaphysics of Space and the Wave Structure of Matter (WSM).
The following two quotes describe an Infinite and Eternal Space very well. And to all scientists it must be both disturbing and sad to realise that it was only 400 years ago that Bruno was burnt to death for writing such things!
'In his major work, paradoxically entitled On Learned Ignorance,
Nicholas returned to the central idea of Anaxagoras - an infinite, unlimited
universe. In contrast to Ptolemy's finite cosmos circumscribed by concentric
spheres with earth at their center, Nicholas argued that the universe has
no limits in space, no beginning or ending in time.
Nicholas's infinite universe is populated by an unlimited number of stars and planets, and, of course, has no center, no single immobile place of rest. The earth, he reasoned, must therefore move, like everything else in the universe. It appears at rest only because we're on it, moving with it. He cast aside the geocentric cosmos entirely.' (Nicholas of Cusa, a German-born bishop, born 1401)
'Bruno traveled to England and befriended its leading political and scientific figures; and when he returned, he popularised Copernican theory on the continent. Bruno took Digges's version of the infinite, Copernican universe and purged it of remaining Ptolemaic elements, such as the perfect spheres that carried the planets' orbits. He made this infinite universe, with its infinite inhabited worlds, the basis of his philosophy, integrating Nicholas of Cusa's thinking, even going beyond it. Bruno explicitly challenged the idea of creation ex nihilo, arguing that the universe must be unlimited in both space and time, without beginning or end.' (Lerner, 1991)
As only One thing, Space, exists, there can be no boundary to Space (as
a boundary is between two things) thus Space is unbounded and therefore
As Blake famously wrote;
'If the doors of perception were cleansed, everything would be seen as it is, infinite.' (1800)
Both Parmenides and Spinoza perfectly state the logic of One Infinite Substance;
'No two or more substances can have the same attribute and it appertains to the nature of substance that it should exist. It must therefore exist finitely or infinitely. But not finitely. For it would then be limited by some other substance of the same nature which also of necessity must exist: and then two substances would be granted having the same attribute, which is absurd. It will exist, therefore, infinitely.' (Spinoza, 1673)
'Existent’ is indivisible, for where is the second
power, which should divide it?
But there cannot exist several 'Existents,' for in order to separate them, something would have to exist which was not existing, an assumption which neutralizes itself. Thus there exists only the eternal Unity.' (Parmenides, 450BC)
There can be no ‘Particles’ because ‘Particles’
require two things - the ‘Particle’ and the Space around the
‘Particle’, thus One Infinite Space must be a continuous medium.
Or as Aristotle says;
'This shows us two things: you cannot have parts of the
infinite and the infinite is indivisible.'
'But indeed even if the One is more like a Principle, and the one is undivided, then the whole Universe will be undivided either in quantity or in form.' (Aristotle, 340BC)
Lerner also importantly argues for the necessary existence of a continuous Space and Time (and continuous Time is simply caused by the continuous Wave-Motion in a continuous Space);
'All of modern analysis, including most of the mathematics
underlying modern technology, relies on the concept of continuity - that
between any two points in space, there is an infinite number of other points.
In the same way, between any two points in time there is an infinite number
of other moments. Without these assumptions it's virtually impossible to
use modern mathematics in a logically consistent way.
Indeed, the idea that space and time are infinitely divisible is vital to explaining the very existence of the irreversible time of the real world. Without such true infinities the world would be a vast digital computer, each instant predetermined by its initial state, without a past, present or future. So to argue that there is no true infinity, ... is tantamount to a rejection of modern mathematics, the technology based on the use of the mathematics, and the new discoveries in thermodynamics.
And once we accept the continuity of space and time it's hard to object on philosophical grounds to an infinite extent of space and time.
Thus while the idea of an infinite chain of cause and effect may appear mind-boggling, such an infinite chain exists even in the present, with each passing second- each an infinity of moments. To accept an infinite past is no more or less difficult philosophically than to accept the continuity of time - the infinity of moments in a single second.
While these conclusions are not commonsensical, they are logically consistent. … if an infinite universe is rejected philosophically, the infinity of space in a single inch or the infinity of instants in a single second must be rejected as well, along with all the science based on the hypothesis of continuity.' (Lerner, 1991)
There are two separate arguments for an Eternal Space which support one
i) As only one thing, Space, exists, there can be no creation of Space as creation requires two things (Space, and that which is not Space but created Space) thus Space is Eternal. As Spinoza writes;
'A substance cannot be produced from anything else: it will therefore be its own cause, that is, its essence necessarily involves existence, or existence appertains to the nature of it.' (Spinoza, 1673)
ii) As we explained earlier, Time is a consequence of the Wave Motions
of Space, and that it takes ‘Time’ for Wave Motions to flow
from place to place in Space. Time does not exist as a thing in itself,
it is, like the ‘Particle’, an effect of the Wave Motion of
Space, not a cause! Thus Time only applies to Matter, as the Spherical Wave
Motion of Space and not to Space itself. Therefore Space was not created
for this requires the concept of time (that the Space that now exists was
created at some time in the past) thus Space is Eternal. (Space simply exists.)
As Aristotle correctly writes;
It need hardly be pointed out that with things that do not change there is no illusion with respect to time, given the assumption of their unchangeability. (Aristotle, 340BC)
Aristotle also realised that Motion cannot come from no Motion, thus Motion must always exist. He also realised the close connection between Time and Motion!
'Motion must always have been in existence, and the same can be said for time itself, since it is not even possible for there to be an earlier and a later if time does not exist. Movement, then, is also continuous in the way in which time is - indeed time is either identical to movement or is some affection of it.' (Aristotle, 340BC)
See Cosmology for complete Article.
'The Gift of Truth Excels all Other Gifts.' (Buddha)
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