(**James Clerk Maxwell**, 1876) In speaking of the Energy of the field, however, I wish to be understood literally. All energy is the same as mechanical energy, whether it exists in the form of **motion** or in that of **elasticity**, or in any other form. The energy in electromagnetic phenomena (light) is mechanical energy.

(**Albert Einstein**, 1954) The greatest change in the axiomatic basis of physics - in other words, of our conception of the structure of reality - since Newton laid the foundation of theoretical physics was brought about by **Faraday's** and **Maxwell's **work on** electromagnetic field phenomena.
**The precise formulation of the time space laws of those fields was the work of Maxwell (1870s). Imagine his feelings when the differential equations he had formulated proved to him that the electromagnetic fields spread in the form of polarized waves and with the speed of light! To few men in the world has such an experience been vouchsafed.

Only after Hertz (1888) had demonstrated experimentally the existence of Maxwell's electromagnetic waves did resistance to the new theory break down. And what was true for electrical action could not be denied for gravitation. Everywhere Newton's (instant) actions-at-a-distance gave way to fields (light and gravity) spreading with finite velocity.

At that thrilling moment he surely never guessed

Introduction to Speed Light Gravity - Wolff on Waves - Maxwell's Equations - Light Quanta - Speed of Gravity - Speed of Light - Answering Questions on Light and Gravity - Top of Page

It has been a contentious question as to what light and gravity actually are, and whether they have the same speed. To answer this question with any certainty requires knowing what Reality actually is, and thus knowing what matter, light and gravity are. The solution is simple once known (as truth always is). We must simply understand that matter does not exist as discrete particles, but rather as Spherical Standing Waves in Space.

In answer to the question of the speed of Light and Gravity - yes, they are the same, as they are simply the velocity of the Spherical In-Waves flowing through Space.

Below you will find a short article on the Speed of Light and Gravity, along with some nice flash diagrams that will make things much easier to understand.

Introduction to Speed Light Gravity - Wolff on Waves - Maxwell's Equations - Light Quanta - Speed of Gravity - Speed of Light - Answering Questions on Light and Gravity - Top of Page

Standing Wave Interactions (Resonant Coupling) can only occur at Discrete Frequencies and explain the Discrete Energy Exchanges of Light Quanta (Photons)

** **(Wolff, 1990)

The Wave Structure of fundamental 'Particles' evolved over five years. It began with a simple speculation that waves in Space could explain the de Broglie wavelength. It continued to agree with more laws and observations than I first expected and I was amazed. The 'Particle' is two identical spherical waves traveling radially in opposite directions so that together they form a spherical standing wave. The wave which travels inward towards the center is called an In-Wave, and the wave traveling outward is an Out-Wave. The nominal location of the ‘Particle’ is the Wave-Center, but as must be true for any charged Particle, it has presence everywhere in Space because the charge forces extend throughout the Universe.

How do Solid Bodies form from Waves?

The solid crystal array is a matrix of atoms held rigidly in space. How are the atoms suspended in space? We must conclude that the crystal’s rigidity derives from fixed standing waves propagating in a rigid wave medium. Calculations for diamonds and nuclear structure yields an enormous rigidity. This is really a separate argument about the rigidity of space, which is one of its properties.

What is a Light 'Photon'?

Two Spherical Standing Waves (SSW) oscillators exchange energy much like classical coupled oscillators, such as electric circuits or joined pendulums. The coupling provided by the non-linear centers of the resonances (high mass-energy density of space Wave-Centers) allows them to shift frequency patterned by the modulation of each other's In and Out-Waves. Since significant coupling can only occur between two oscillators which possess the same resonant elements, the frequency (energy) changes are equal and opposite. This we observe as the law of conservation of energy. When opposite changes of frequency (energy ) take place between two resonances, energy seems to be transported from the center of one resonance to another. We observe a loss of energy where frequency decreases and added energy where it increases. The exchange appears to travel with the speed of the In-Waves of the receiving resonance which is c, the velocity of light. When large numbers of changes occur together, we can sample part of it and see a beam of light (which causes the continuous electromagnetic waves of Modern Physics). When single exchanges occur we see 'photons' as discrete Standing Wave interactions. Thus the transitory modulated waves traveling between two resonances create the illusion of the 'photon particle'.

Introduction to Speed Light Gravity - Wolff on Waves - Maxwell's Equations - Light Quanta - Speed of Gravity - Speed of Light - Answering Questions on Light and Gravity - Top of Page

When Maxwell (1876) used this field theory to assume that light was an Electromagnetic Wave, and then correctly deduced the finite velocity of light, it was a powerful logical argument for the existence of the electromagnetic force field, and that light was a wave like change in the field (electromagnetic radiation) that propagated with the velocity of light c through the ether.

In fact Maxwell was simply confirming that all Wave-Center to Wave-Center (particle) interactions are not instantaneous as Newton assumed, but are limited by the velocity of the In-Waves which is the Velocity of Light c.

So while Maxwell misunderstood the true nature of the waves (which are physical waves in Space rather than mathematical vector e-m waves), he is largely correct. This new knowledge was significant as it established the importance of the finite velocity of light c and further enhanced the field theory, thus rejecting Newton's theory of particles and instant action-at-a-distance.

The precise formulation of the time space laws of those fields was the work of Maxwell (1870s). Imagine his feelings when the differential equations he had formulated proved to him that the electromagnetic fields spread in the form of polarized waves and with the speed of light! To few men in the world has such an experience been vouchsafed.

Only after Hertz (1888) had demonstrated experimentally the existence of Maxwell's electromagnetic waves did resistance to the new theory break down. And what was true for electrical action could not be denied for gravitation. Everywhere Newton's (instant) actions-at-a-distance gave way to fields spreading with finite velocity.

At that thrilling moment he surely never guessed **that the riddling nature of light**, apparently so completely solved, would continue to baffle succeeding generations. (**Albert Einstein**, 1954)

And this is true. Because they were using a mathematical construction of a continuous e-m wave, rather than the true Spherical Standing Wave, they were in for a rather disturbing discovery not long thereafter. For standing wave interactions only occur at discrete frequencies, like notes on the string of a guitar, thus while the true Spherical Standing Wave Structure of Matter predicts that wave interactions will be discrete, the continuous e-m wave does not anticipate this.

Thus when Max Planck (1900) discovered that there are only certain allowed discrete energy states for electrons in molecules and atoms, and that light is only ever emitted and absorbed by electrons in discrete amounts or 'quanta', contrary to Maxwell's formulation that light is a continuous electromagnetic wave, then this caused a fundamental problem for the field theory that was never resolved. It is only now, with knowledge of the true foundations of physics and reality, that we can understand, and thus anticipate and correct the errors of contemporary modern physics.

In 1900 Max Planck made a profound discovery. He showed (from purely formal / mathematical foundations) that light must be emitted and absorbed in discrete amounts if it was to correctly describe observed phenomena (i.e. Blackbody radiation).

Prior to then light had been considered as a continuous electromagnetic wave, thus the discrete nature of light was completely unexpected, as Albert Einstein explains;

About fifteen years ago [1899] nobody had yet doubted that a correct account of the electrical, optical, and thermal properties of matter was possible on the basis of Galileo-Newtonian mechanics applied to molecular motion and of Maxwell's theory of the electromagnetic field. (**Albert Einstein**, 1915)

Then Planck showed that in order to establish a law of heat radiation (Infra red light waves) consonant with experience, it was necessary to employ a method of calculation whose incompatibility with the principles of classical physics became clearer and clearer. For with this method of calculation, Planck introduced into physics the quantum hypothesis, which has since received brilliant confirmation. (**Albert Einstein**, 1914)

In the year nineteen hundred, in the course of purely theoretical (mathematical) investigation, Max Planck made a very remarkable discovery: the law of radiation of bodies as a function of temperature could not be derived solely from the Laws of Maxwellian electrodynamics. To arrive at results consistent with the relevant experiments, radiation of a given frequency f had to be treated as though it consisted of energy atoms (photons) of the individual energy hf, where h is Planck's universal constant. During the years following, it was shown that light was everywhere produced and absorbed in such energy quanta. In particular, Niels Bohr was able to largely understand the structure of the atom, on the assumption that the atoms can only have discrete energy values, and that the discontinuous transitions between them are connected with the emission or absorption of energy quantum. This threw some light on the fact that in their gaseous state elements and their compounds radiate and absorb only light of certain sharply defined frequencies. (**Albert Einstein**, 1940)

Even the Greeks had already conceived the atomistic nature of matter and the concept was raised to a high degree of probability by the scientists of the nineteenth century. But it was Planck's law of radiation that yielded the first exact determination - independent of other assumptions - of the absolute magnitudes of atoms. More than that, he showed convincingly that in addition to the atomistic structure of matter there is a kind of atomistic structure to energy, governed by the universal constant h, which was introduced by Planck. This discovery became the basis of all twentieth-century research in physics and has almost entirely conditioned its development ever since. Without this discovery it would not have been possible to establish a workable theory of molecules and atoms and the energy processes that govern their transformations. Moreover, it has shattered the whole framework of classical mechanics and electrodynamics and **set science a fresh task: that of finding a new conceptual basis for all physics**. Despite remarkable partial gains, the problem is still far from a satisfactory solution. (**Albert Einstein**, 1950)

Albert Einstein (1905) used Planck's relationship to explain the results of the photoelectric effect which showed that the energy E of ejected electrons was wholly dependent upon the frequency f of incident light as described in the equation E=hf. It is ironic that in 1921 Albert Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize for this discovery, though he never believed in particles and acknowledged that he did not know the cause of the discrete energy transfers (photons) which were contradictory to his continuous field theory of matter!

In 1954 Albert Einstein wrote to his friend Michael Besso expressing his frustration;

All these fifty years of conscious brooding have brought me no nearer to the answer to the question, 'What are light quanta?' Nowadays every Tom, Dick and Harry thinks he knows it, but he is mistaken. (**Albert Einstein**, 1954)

Most importantly, Albert Einstein also suspected that Matter could not be described by a continuous spherical force field;

I consider it quite possible that physics cannot be based on the field concept, i.e., on continuous structures. In that case, nothing remains of my entire castle in the air, gravitation theory included, [and of] the rest of modern physics. (**Albert Einstein**, 1954)

Albert Einstein's suspicions were well justified, for he had spent a lifetime trying (and failing) to create a unified field theory of matter that explained both Quantum Theory / Light and Relativity / Gravity.

In fact Matter, as a Spherical Standing Wave which causes the 'Field' effect, interacts with other matter in discrete standing wave patterns, not with continuous force fields as he had imagined, thus his task was ultimately impossible, as he sadly came to realise towards the end of his life.

However, his work on the photoelectric effect confirmed that light energy was only emitted and absorbed by electrons in discrete amounts or quanta. This quanta of light energy soon became known as the 'photon' (i.e. discrete like a particle) and led to the paradox that light behaved both as a continuous e-m wave (Maxwell, Albert Einstein) as well as a discrete particle/photon (Planck, Albert Einstein). So we see that Albert Einstein was partly responsible for the discovery of the particle/photon concept of light, though he completely rejected the notion of discrete particles. He writes;

Since the theory of general relativity implies the **representation of physical reality by a continuous field, the concept of particles or material points cannot play a fundamental part**, nor can the concept of motion. (**Albert Einstein**)

Albert Einstein is correct that there are no discrete particles, and that The particle can only appear as a limited region in space in which the field strength or the energy density are particularly high. But it is the high Wave-Amplitude of the Wave-Center of a Spherical Standing Wave in Space (not of a continuous spherical force field) that causes the particle effect. Thus of three concepts, **particles**, **force fields**, and **motion**, it finally turns out that Motion, as the spherical wave motion of space, is the correct concept, as it then explains both particles and fields. (For further explanation see Article on Relativity)

It is most important to realise though that Albert Einstein was correct in imagining matter as being spatially extended, as he explains;

I wished to show that space time is not necessarily something to which one can ascribe to a separate existence, independently of the actual objects of physical reality. **Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended**. In this way the concept empty space loses its meaning. (**Albert Einstein**)

It is certainly true that the particle and its forces are very useful mathematical concepts, unfortunately, they also cause many problems and paradoxes because they are approximations to reality and do not physically exist. We can now finally solve these problems by understanding the reason for these discrete energy states, which are due to the fact that standing waves only exist at discrete frequencies.

Thus while the Spherical Standing Wave Structure of Matter predicts that energy exchanges will be discrete (as observed) the continuous e-m wave does not anticipate this. Thus the Spherical Standing Wave Structure of Matter explains Max Planck's (1900) discovery that there are only certain allowed discrete energy states for electrons in molecules and atoms, and further, that light is only ever emitted and absorbed by electrons in discrete or 'quantum' amounts ('photons'), as the electrons move from one stable standing wave pattern to another.

On the Necessity of Space and Motion for the Existence of Forces

The meaning of force is the change of energy E with respect to distance x moved or, F = dE/dx. Thus force has no meaning unless motion exists and energy is exchanged. To understand forces, it is necessary to understand how the motion takes place. Further, Motion cannot exist unless there is Space for things to move through. Thus we see that Space and Motion are more fundamental than Forces.

If we consider the motion of a single particle - an electron – then the *wave center* of the spherical in/out waves of the electron is what we observe as the *location* of the electron. The electron will be stationary if the inward waves are perfectly spherical, because the in-waves always come to the same location. It is only when the velocity of the In-Waves changes that we get a change in location of the Wave-Center, which we see as the accelerated motion of the particle. Thus we realise that ALL Forces are ultimately caused by a change in Velocity of the In-Wave.

Gravity is caused by the mass-energy density of space. This mass-energy
density of space is determined by the square of the Wave-Amplitude and is
always positive (squares are always positive). The **Wave-Velocity**
is inversely proportional to the square root of the **mass-energy
density of space**, the higher the mass-energy density of space,
the slower the Wave-Velocity. As Matter and its resultant mass-energy density
of space are always positive, this causes a slowing of In-Waves as they
travel through other matter/wave-motions, and it is this property of Space
that causes the natural ‘Gravitational’ attraction of all bodies,
and explains why Gravity is always attractive.

Thus we realise that the presence of another ‘particle’ (as the Wave-Center of a Spherical Standing Wave/electron) will add to the density of space and slow down and thus *distort the in-waves*. Part of the in-wave near the other particle will travel slower. Thus the slower part will cause the center of the in-wave to continually move. We will observe this as motion of the ‘particle’ though it is actually caused by a succession of wave-centers forming in different locations in Space. Slowing occurs because the presence of the waves of the other particle increases the mass-energy density of space. This increase is very slight compared the whole density of Space which is determined by the *sum* of the waves of *all* the matter in our Hubble Universe This Mass-energy density of space rule is *Principle Two*, an extended version of Mach's Principle. The small effect of one particle is the reason why gravity is such a small force - that is, about 10^-40 times smaller than the electric force.

**Now You Understand the Origin of Gravity**. That is it! Gravity is a result of the slowing of the In-Waves causing the wave center to move towards other Wave-Centers. Gravity has been touted as the most puzzling of the forces. Indeed, before the Wave Structure of Matter was discovered there were no explanations of gravity, only speculations. Millions of research dollars have been, and still are being spent trying to find 'gravitons', a mythical particle similar to the 'photon' which supposedly carried energy like a pack horse between two particles. In fact we now realise that this fundamental concept of motion is the cause of all the forces in nature. This is logical thinking because the motion concept contains the meaning of *force*.

On the Forces of Charge and Light

Charge, Electromagnetic Fields & Light are caused by the Wave-Amplitude of Space which is both positive and negative (unlike the mass-energy density of space which is always positive). The Wave Properties of Space are such that the **greater the Wave-Amplitude the greater the Wave-Velocity**, and the **smaller the Wave-Amplitude the slower the Wave-Velocity**.

Because the Wave-Amplitude is both positive and negative, Wave-Amplitude interactions can either increase or decrease, causing either an **increase or decrease in the velocity of the In-Waves**, and a consequent **attraction or repulsion of the Wave-Centers** (particles).

Thus when we place two electrons near one another in Space, then the Wave-Amplitude of Space between them increases, thus the Wave-Velocity increases (opposite to gravity’s slowing of In-Waves) and this causes the Wave-Centers to move apart. This is the cause of the electrical repulsion of like charges.

Conversely, if we place an electron and a positron (a positron is simply the opposite phase to an electron) then the Wave-Amplitude between the two Wave-Centers tends to cancel out and become smaller, thus the Wave-Velocity between the two Wave-Centers decreases (like gravity) and thus causes the Wave-Centers to move together. In fact this also explains the electron / positron (matter / antimatter) annihilation, as the Wave-Centers will eventually overlap one-another and the Wave-Amplitudes will completely cancel out and disappear.

This then explains Charge, but does not explain Light, which is slightly more complex, though it is still caused by the same fundamental properties of Space.

Imagine two clocks or watches which are in perfect agreement. Now this agreement may come about in three ways. The first consists of a natural influence. This is what M. Huygens tried with a result that surprised him. He suspended two pendulums from the same piece of wood; the continual strokes of the pendulums communicated similar vibrations to the particles of the wood; but since these different vibrations could not well persist independently and without interfering with one another, unless the pendulums were in agreement, it happened by some sort of miracle that even when their strokes had been purposely disturbed, they soon went back to swinging together, rather like two strings* which are in unison. * i.e.. strings of a musical instrument (Gottfried Leibniz, 1670)

What we must further realise is that Light is only emitted and absorbed by electrons bound in atoms or molecules, and these electrons have some complex repeating Wave-Motion about the nucleus. Thus the electrons behave as ‘Resonators’ and it is common knowledge to electrical engineers and physicists that resonators can undergo resonant coupling, where one resonator decreases in frequency and the other one increases a corresponding amount.

Thus two bound resonating electrons or oscillators exchange energy much like classical coupled oscillators, such as electric circuits or joined pendulums. The coupling provided by the non-linear centers of the resonances (high Wave-Amplitude Wave-Centers) allows them to shift frequency patterned by the modulation of each other's waves. Since significant coupling can only occur between two oscillators which possess the same resonant elements, the frequency (energy) changes are equal and opposite. This we observe as the law of conservation of energy.

When opposite changes of frequency (energy ) takes place between two resonances, energy seems to be transported from the center of one resonance to another. We observe a loss of energy where frequency decreases and added energy where it increases. The exchange appears to travel with the speed of the IN waves of the receiving resonance which is c, the velocity of light. When large numbers of changes occur together, so we can sample part of it, we see a beam of light. When single exchanges occur we see "photons". The transitory modulated waves traveling between two resonances create the illusion of the "photon". An exchange may require 10^8 to 10^15 cycles to complete, depending on the degree of coupling and species of resonance.

For example, if one oscillator were an electron, its frequency mc^{2}/h is about 10^{2}3 hertz, and if the transition time were 10^-8 seconds, the frequency change requires about 10^15 cycles to complete. Such a large number of cycles implies, in engineering slang, a large Q value, which indicates great precision of the equal and opposite changes in oscillator frequency, and the conservation of energy. (See Fig: 3 below)

**Fig: 3 Light**

Thus we now realise that Light is Caused by Resonant Coupling and mixing of Wave-Amplitudes of Two Spherical Standing Waves whose Wave-Centers have similar frequency 'orbits' about a nucleus (some oscillating 'orbital' frequency - not an orbit like planets but more like a complex wave function or repeating pattern). These 'orbits' of the Wave-Center cause a cyclical oscillation in the Shape of the In and Out-Waves which describes a wave function that is ultimately the cause of the 'electromagnetic' wavelength and frequency of light. As only certain discrete 'orbits' (wave functions) exist for the Wave-Center of the Spherical Standing Wave, then it can only exchange orbit frequencies in discrete levels which correspond to discrete energy exchanges.

Two obvious examples of resonant coupling will aid understanding;

If we have two tuning forks, and we hit one and set it vibrating with a high Wave Amplitude, then it will resonantly couple with the second tuning fork and transfer energy to it such that it also vibrates. (It is connected to the other tuning fork by sound waves in the air.)

Two pendulums of the same weight and length, connected by a spring or by being attached to a wall next to each other, but one with a large swinging/repeating motion, and one with a small swinging/repeating motion, (i.e. with different Amplitudes of repetitive motion) then over time the two pendulums will begin to swing together with the same Amplitude. Effectively resonant coupling is like giving a child on a swing lots of little pushes, all at the right time in the repeating cycle, such that the many small changes build up into one big discrete change.

Electrons/ Spherical Standing Waves (Resonances) likewise trapped in repeating cycles ('orbits' in atoms/molecules) are connected to one another by Space and the oscillation in the Shape of their In and Out Waves. If the frequencies/Shapes correctly match, then these two resonators can 'resonantly couple' like two tuning forks and exchange vibrational energy. This is always in discrete amounts as is consistent with resonant coupling (and standing wave interactions in general) and thus explains the quantum energy transfers of light (photons). i.e. E=hf where only discrete frequencies (f) area resonantly stable and thus 'allowed'. There are no separate light ‘Particles’ (photons) or collapsing wave functions, both being mathematical existents only!

1. Aristotle "The Metaphysics" (340BC) Penguin 1998

2. Plato "The Republic" (429-347BC) Penguin 1955

3. Einstein, Albert "Ideas and Opinions" Crown Trade Paperbacks 1954

4. Davies, Paul "Superforce" London, Unwin Paperbacks, 1985

4. Wolff, Milo "Fundamental Laws, Microphysics and Cosmology," Physics Essays, 6, 1993 www.QuantumMatter.com

5. Wolff, Milo "Exploring the Physics of the Unknown Universe, ISBN 0-9627787-0-2, Technotran Press, CA. (1990)

6. Haselhurst, Geoff "The Metaphysics of Space and Motion and the Wave Structure of Matter" 2000 http://www.spaceandmotion.com

Apart from forces, what has the Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) theory to say about the speed of light? I read that it is decaying? Can it be according to this theory? It's quite an obsession for me. Ian

Hi Ian, Interesting questions, my reasoning in reply. (Milo Wolff shares some of these ideas, we differ on a few things)

From the Principles of the Wave Structure of Matter we deduce;

1. The Speed (velocity) of light is the velocity of the spherical waves which make up matter, and is thus determined by the wave medium, i.e. by the Wave Amplitude and mass-energy density of Space. The Wave Amplitudes of many billions of waves tend to cancel (see Milo's Minimum Amplitude Principle MAP) leaving Space with an average mass-energy density (square of the wave amplitude, thus always positive). This property of space, the greater the mass-energy density, the slower the wave velocity, causes 'force' of gravity, thus as mass-energy density is always positive, gravity is always positive.

2. The Cosmology of the Wave Structure of Matter describes a finite spherical universe (matter as spherical standing wave) within an infinite perpetual system (Space). Other matter's out-waves in our finite spherical universe create our matter's in-waves (deducing Mach's Principle and redshift with distance from Huygens' principle - not Doppler shift / expanding universe / big bang which is wrong).

3. In an infinite perpetual system the basic constants must also be eternally existing (they cannot be decreasing as over an infinite time they would tend to zero / disappear)

4. As the Earth moves through space then the mass-energy density may vary (if we are nearer other stars / galaxies it increases) and the wave velocity of matter / light would be slower. This would not be observable as the wavelength would be shorter, and this corresponding change in dimension of matter causes the velocity to always be measured the same.

This explains foundations of Einstein' Relativity

5. The speed (velocity) of light and gravity is thus the same, the speed of the spherical waves in space which form matter. It is not constant, but is always measured to be the same.

What about charge found on/in/by the electron? Where does it come from? Is it some particular profile of space just around the electron 'boundary' or just at it's effective radius? And could it be that all particles are of the same 'size' deducing from this theory? Ian

1. Charge (and gravity) exist throughout the universe. As above they are caused by changes in the velocity of the In-Waves changing the location of the Wave center which we see as the 'acceleration of the particle'. Wave Amplitude interactions cause charge, as these can be both constructive and destructive, the velocity can increase or decrease, thus the re-location of the wave centers can be together (opposite charges / phase of waves) or apart (like charges, in phase).

Gravity, as explained above, is always attractive as the waves slow down in space of higher mass-energy density of space / more matter.

Yes, all particles are pretty much the same size, the size of their spherical standing waves which is the size of the universe. It is important to realise that matter and universe are one (exact opposite of particle conception of matter where matter is small). As matter becomes separated in space it shares less of its finite spherical universe with the more distant matter, this deduces the cause of the redshift with distance, less wave interactions means less energy exchange, i.e. redshift.with distance.

Hope this helps,

Geoff Haselhurst

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