Explaining the Ultimate Quantum Paradox
Bell's Theorem / EPR

The Wave Structure of Matter and Wolff's Explanation of the Famous Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen (EPR) Experiment. Further Predictions that can be Confirmed by Modifying the EPR Experiment

by Milo Wolff (Exploring the Physics of the Unknown Universe, 1994)

In l935, Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) put forward a gedanken (thought) experiment whose outcome they thought was certain to show that there existed natural phenomena that quantum theory could not account for. The experiment was based on the concept that two events cannot influence each other if the distance between them is greater than the distance light could travel in the time available. In other words, only local events inside the light sphere can influence one another.
Their experimental concept was later used by John Bell (1964) to frame a theorem which showed that either the statistical predictions of quantum theory or the Principle of Local Events is incorrect. It did not say which one was false but only that both cannot be true, although it was clear that Einstein expected The Principle to be affirmed.

When later experiments (Clauser & Freedman 1972; Aspect, Dalibard, and Roger, 1982; and others) confirmed that quantum theory was correct, the conclusion was startling. The Principle of Local Events failed, forcing us to recognize that the world is not the way it appears. What then is the real nature of our world?
The important impact of Bell's Theorem and the experiments is that they clearly thrust a formerly only philosophical dilemma of quantum theory into the real world. They show that post-modern physics’ ideas about the world are somehow profoundly deficient. No one understood these results and only scant scientific attention has been paid to them. With the recent discoveries on the Wave Structure of Matter we can now understand the cause of these apparently 'spooky' actions at a distance.

Einstein Podolsky Rosen EPR Experiment to test Bell's Theorem
Figure 1. Experiment to test Bell’s theorem. Polarized photons are emitted at the center, pass through the adjustable polarization filters on the left and right, and enter detectors on each side. Coincidences (simultaneous detection) are recorded and plotted as a function of the angular difference between the two settings of the polarization filters.


The Essence of Bell's Theorem

His theorem relates to the results of an experiment like the one shown in Figure 1.7.1 (see above): A source of two paired photons, obtained from the simultaneous decay of two excited atomic states, is at the center. At opposite sides, are located two detectors of polarized photons. The polarization filters of each detector can be set parallel to each other, or at some other angle, freely chosen. It is known that polarizations of paired photons are always parallel to each other, but random with respect to their surroundings. So, if the detector filters are set parallel, both photons will be detected simultaneously. If the filters are at right angles, the two photons will never be detected together. The detection pattern for settings at intermediate angles is the subject of the theorem.

Bell (and Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen) assumed that the photons arriving at each detector could have no knowledge of the setting of the other detector. This is because they assumed that such information would have to travel faster than the speed of light - prohibited by Einstein's Special Relativity. Their assumption reflects the Principle of Local Causes, that is, only events local to each detector can affect its behaviour.

Based on this assumption, Bell deduced that the relationship between the angular difference between detector settings and the detected coincidences of photon pairs was linear, like line L in Figure 1.7.2. His deduction comes from the symmetry and independence of the two detectors, as follows: A setting difference of X, at one detector has the same effect as a difference X, at the other detector. Hence if both are moved X, the total angular difference is 2X and the total effect is twice as much, which is a linear relationship.

Einstein Podolsky Rosen EPR Results
Figure 2. The result of an experiment to test Bell’s theorem. Data points R of the experiments are shown with black dots. They agree with the line QM, predicted by the quantum mechanics, and do not agree with the line L, predicted by Einstein’s concept of causality. This was a big surprise, because the failure of causality suggests that the communication is taking place at speeds greater than the velocity of light.
The curved line is the calculation obtained from standard quantum theory. Bell, Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen, or anyone who does not believe in superluminal speeds, would expect to find line L. In fact, the experiments yielded points R, which agreed with line QM. The predictions of quantum theory had destroyed the assumptions of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen!

The results of these experiments were so disbelieved that they were repeated by other persons, using different photon sources, as well as particles with paired spins. The most recent experiment by Aspect, Dalibard, and Roger, used acousto-optical switches at a frequency of 50MHz which shifted the settings of the polarizers during the flight of the photons, to completely eliminate any possibility of local effects of one detector on the other. Nevertheless, they reported that the EPR assumption was violated by five standard deviations, whereas quantum theory was verified within experimental error (about 2%).


Do Non-local Influences Exist?

Bell's Theorem and the experimental results imply that parts of the universe are connected in an intimate way (i.e. not obvious to us) and these connections are fundamental (quantum theory is fundamental). How can we understand them? The problem has been analysed in depth (Wheeler & Zurek 1983, d'Espagnat 1983, Herbert 1985, Stapp 1982, Bohm & Hiley 1984, Pagels 1982, and others) without resolution. Those authors tend to agree on the following description of the non-local connections:
1. They link events at separate locations without known fields or matter.
2. They do not diminish with distance; a million miles is the same as an inch.
3. They appear to act with speed greater than light.
Clearly, within the framework of science, this is a perplexing phenomenon. In some mysterious quantum way, communication does appear to take place faster than light between the two detectors of the apparatus. These results showed that our understanding of the physical world is profoundly deficient.

Explaining the EPR-Bell 'Instant' Communication

The Spherical Wave Structure of Matter, particularly the behaviour of the In and Out Waves, is able to resolve this puzzle so that the appearance of instant communication is understood and yet neither Einstein nor QM need be wrong. In order to show this, it is necessary to carefully look at the detailed process of exchanging energy between two atoms, by the action of the IN/OUT waves of both atoms. Remember that for resonant coupling it is necessary for the In and Out Waves of both electrons to interact with one another.

The passage of both In-Waves through both Wave-Centers precedes the actual frequency shifts of the source and detector. A means to detect this first passage event is not a capability of the usual photo-detector apparatus and remains totally unnoticed. But the In-Waves are symmetrical counterparts of the Out-Waves and carry the information of their polarization state between parts of the experimental apparatus before the Out-Waves cause a "departing photon" event. The IN-waves travel with the speed of light so there is no violation of relativity.

Thus effectively the electrons in the experiment are already interconnected with one another, and hence are already 'aware' of one another’s resonant state and polarization, before the paired photons are emitted. It is this subtle interconnection of Matter that explains the apparent conflict of the EPR experiment.

Experimental Proof of the Spherical Standing Wave Structure of Matter

For someone to really believe a new theory, an experiment to show the existence of new phenomena not previously known is most persuasive. To prove the existence of the In and Out-Waves (and thus the pre-existing interconnection of the electrons with the rest of the apparatus) would be just such a critical experiment. This can likely be accomplished with an apparatus of the type used by Aspect, Dalibard, and Rogers (1982) except that instead of making a random filter setting during a “photon's” passage time, the filter setting should occur during the time period preceding photon departure. The purpose is to frustrate communication by the In-Waves. As the In-Waves are necessary to the energy exchange process, then the result of the experiment would be a linear relation between the angular difference of the two filters. This would be the result originally expected by Einstein for the EPR experiment.
(End of Section from Milo Wolff.)

The Wave Structure of Matter is a profound new way of looking at how Matter exists and interacts with other matter in Space. Wolff has explained a very simple change to a very famous experiment that currently causes Quantum Theory, and Human intellectual knowledge in general, profound problems and paradoxes. Thus it seems to us absolutely essential that this experiment be re-done as suggested above. We sincerely hope that this work on the Metaphysics of Space and Motion and the Spherical Wave Structure of Matter will ultimately lead to this new 'Paradigm' being taken seriously, and that this experiment will be performed sooner rather than later!

Represents Spherical In-Wave (our future) flowing In to form the Wave-Center (our present) + Represents Spherical Out-Wave (our past) flowing Out of the Wave-Center (our present) = Combined In-Waves and Out-Waves form a Spherical Standing Wave about the Wave Center (our present). This explains the particle / wave duality of Matter. Matter is a Spherical Standing Wave - the Wave-Center causes the 'particle' effect of matter. The Spherical In and Out Waves form a Standing Wave around the Wave-Center 'particle'.


Concluding Remarks

Quantum Theory (1900-1930) discovered four main things;

a) Both matter and light sometimes behave as particles and sometimes behave as waves. (Planck, de Broglie)

b) Schrodinger's Standing Wave equations can be used to describe the allowed discrete energy states for electrons (Wave-Centers) in atoms or molecules.

c) It is impossible to know both the location and momentum of a particle and this inherent uncertainty can be calculated using the square of the Wave equation to determine the probability of where the particle will be found. (Heisenberg, Born)

d) Matter seems to be subtly interconnected with other matter in the Universe. (EPR Experiment)

With the Wave Structure of Matter we can now sensibly explain these phenomena;

a) The solution of the particle/wave duality of matter is obvious - Matter is a Spherical Standing Wave which creates a 'particle effect' at the Wave-Center'. The solution to the particle/wave duality of light is more complex (though it is still obvious once known) and is a consequence of the standing wave structure of matter and that only discrete standing wave interactions can occur during 'Resonant Coupling' of two bound electrons.

b) Schrodinger's Wave equations confirm this discrete standing wave interaction, that only certain discrete standing wave frequencies between matter are resonantly stable which causes frequency (and thus energy) exchanges to be in discrete 'quanta' which can be mathematically explained as 'particle/photon' interactions.

c) Because Spherical Standing Waves are the size of the Universe, their In-Waves are interacting with all the other matter in the Universe. As we exist as complex arrangements of Wave-Centers here on earth, we do not have immediate knowledge of how these In-Waves are interacting with this other matter in the universe, and must simply wait until the In-Waves arrive at the Wave-Center where we observe these changes in motion and position of the Wave-Center. This lack of knowledge causes the uncertainty as to how a Wave-Center will move about over time and thus qualitatively explains why probability based upon wave equations can describe this uncertainty.

d) The Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen (EPR) experiment performed by Aspect in 1972 famously and controversially confirmed the apparent instant interconnection of particles and contradicted Einstein's Relativity which requires that all matter to matter interactions be limited by the velocity of light. Einstein is in fact correct, the error of the experiment was to assume matter was a particle rather than the Wave-Center of a Spherical Standing Wave. Once this is understood then it explains how matter is subtly interconnected with other matter in the Space around it (by the In and Out-Waves) and leads to a minor change in the experiment which will confirm the Metaphysics of Space and Motion and the Spherical Wave Structure of Matter as a sensible and obvious solution to the problems and paradoxes of not only Quantum Theory, but also of Einstein's Relativity and Cosmology.

Please feel free to write to us if you wish to discuss any of this article, or if you are able to help in getting the EPR experiment performed.
Geoff Haselhurst, Milo Wolff


Buy Milo Wolff's Physics Books on the Wave Structure of Matter

Milo Wolff: Schrodinger's Universe and the Origin of the Natural Laws
(Just published, April 2008)

Milo Wolff: Exploring the Physics of the Unknown Universe


Related Pages: Dr Milo Wolff on the Wave Structure of Matter

For more information on Dr Milo Wolff and his contributions to the Wave Structure of Matter please see the following articles and Digital Video Interviews.

Milo Wolff on the Wave Structure of Matter.http://www.spaceandmotion.com/Wolff-Wave-Structure-Matter.htm - Abstract: The structure of the electron is investigated and found closely entwined with the origin of the natural laws. The natural laws had been measured for hundreds of years but no one knew how Nature creates them. Richard Feynman wrote, speaking of the Conservation of Energy, Nature has a hidden accountant who keeps honest books of energy input and output but we don't know how she does it. The origins had been proposed earlier by Clifford and Schrodinger, who pointed out that only a Wave Structure of Matter (WSM), can explain natural laws (i.e. Wave Mechanics). Further, Einstein realised that matter was spherical and spatially extended and thus the Electron was not a point particle, but rather, a structure of space. He writes;

Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended. In this way the concept empty space loses its meaning. ... Since the theory of general relativity implies the representation of physical reality by a continuous field, the concept of particles or material points cannot play a fundamental part, nor can the concept of motion. The particle can only appear as a limited region in space in which the field strength or the energy density are particularly high. (Albert Einstein)

Einstein's error was to represent matter as a continuous spherical field in space-time rather than as a Spherical Wave in continuous Space which causes the spherical force field effects (as we shall shortly explain).
Using the WSM a quantitative origin has been found based on the wave structure of the electron. It is shown that Space (the quantum wave medium) is a single entity underlying electron structure and the laws. Three Principles are found describing the wave medium, enabling calculation of particles and the laws. The predictive power of the WSM is shown by deriving the previously unknown physical origin of electron spin and making experimental predictions which solve the paradoxes of the famous EPR experiment. The WSM has important implications for research, industry, and our human role in the universe.

Milo Wolff explaining the Einstein Podolsky Rosen (EPR) experiment with the Wave Structure of Matter.http://www.spaceandmotion.com/Wolff-Einstein-EPR-Experiment.htm - Abstract: In l935, Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) put forward a gedanken (thought) experiment whose outcome they thought was certain to show that there existed natural phenomena that quantum theory could not account for. The experiment was based on the concept that two events cannot influence each other if the distance between them is greater than the distance light could travel in the time available. In other words, only local events inside the light sphere can influence one another.

Their experimental concept was later used by John Bell (1964) to frame a theorem which showed that either the statistical predictions of quantum theory or the Principle of Local Events is incorrect. It did not say which one was false but only that both cannot be true, although it was clear that Einstein expected The Principle to be affirmed.

When later experiments (Clauser & Freedman 1972; Aspect, Dalibard, and Roger, 1982; and others) confirmed that quantum theory was correct, the conclusion was startling. The Principle of Local Events failed, forcing us to recognize that the world is not the way it appears. What then is the real nature of our world?
The important impact of Bell's Theorem and the experiments is that they clearly thrust a formerly only philosophical dilemma of quantum theory into the real world. They show that post-modern physics’ ideas about the world are somehow profoundly deficient. No one understood these results and only scant scientific attention has been paid to them. With the recent discoveries on the Wave Structure of Matter we can now understand the cause of these apparently 'spooky' actions at a distance.

Milo Wolff explaining Richard Feynman's Quantum Electrodynamics.http://www.spaceandmotion.com/Wolff-Feynman-QED.htm - Abstract: Lack of knowledge of energy transfer between particles is a major obstacle in understanding physics, matter, and the Universe. In 1945 Wheeler and Feynman sought the mechanism of energy transfer by calculating e-m radiation from an accelerated electron. The electron generated outward and inward waves and evoked a response of the universe from absorber charges. This paper compares Wheeler and Feynman’s work with a rigorous solution using the scalar wave equation that finds a quantum-wave electron structure based upon two fundamental principles of Nature. This is equivalent to replacing the material point electron with a spherical quantum-wave electron, a new structure in main-stream thinking but fulfilling a proposal by Schrodinger (Quantum Wave Mechanics). Surprisingly, all the natural laws are found embedded in the wave structure of the electron – as envisioned by Schrodinger.

Milo Wolff - On the Discovery of the Wave Structure of Matter - Deducing the de Broglie Wavelength of Quantum Theory and the Relativistic Mass increas of Einstein's Special Relativity.1. Milo Wolff Digital Video Interview (Windows Media, 1,100K). 'I was curious! ... ' - On his lifelong (slightly obsessive!) motivation to find the cause of the de Broglie wavelength of Quantum Theory / Wave Mechanics. His discovery (in 1986) that a Spherical Wave Structure of Matter deduced Doppler shifts (due to relative motion of the Spherical In and Out-Waves and the Wave-Center) that correctly corresponded to the de Broglie Wavelength of matter. Of even more significance is the fact that within these same simple wave equations were the correct terms for the Frequency-Mass-Energy increases with Motion as deduced by Einstein' Special Relativity. Thus for the first time finding a fundamental theoretical and mathematical unification of these two famous theories. (REAL).
More video interviews of Dr Milo Wolff on Physics and the Wave Structure of Matter.

Milo Wolff: Thinking Mind - Mathematical Physicist Dr Milo Wolff on how his mind thinks in terms of models rather than mathematics. Interesting and important to maths physics!

Discoveries of Milo Wolff & Geoff Haselhurst - A list of the independent discoveries of Mathematical Physicist Dr Milo Wolff and Natural Philosopher Geoff Haselhurst on the Wave Structure of Matter.

http://www.QuantumMatter.com (Milo Wolff's Website on the Wave Structure of Matter)





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Biography: Geoffrey Haselhurst, Philosopher of Science, Theoretical Physics, Metaphysics, Evolution. Our world is in great trouble due to human behaviour founded on myths and customs that are causing the destruction of Nature and climate change. We can now deduce the most simple science theory of reality - the wave structure of matter in space. By understanding how we and everything around us are interconnected in Space we can then deduce solutions to the fundamental problems of human knowledge in physics, philosophy, metaphysics, theology, education, health, evolution and ecology, politics and society.

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