While this may surprise some people, both ancient Indian and Greek Philosophy & Metaphysics realised that matter interacts with ALL other matter in the Universe, thus there is clearly a connection between the Structure of Matter and the Structure of the Universe. The roman stoic philosopher king, Marcus Aurelius explains this beautifully, though many philosophers and mystics have realised this interconnection of matter within the One Universe (which is the founding principle of ancient Greek & Indian Philosophy).
Frequently consider the connection of all things in the Universe. ... Reflect upon the multitude of bodily and mental events taking place in the same brief time, simultaneously in every one of us and so you will not be surprised that many more events, or rather all things that come to pass, exist simultaneously in the one and entire unity, which we call the Universe. ... We should not say ‘I am an Athenian’ or ‘I am a Roman’ but ‘I am a Citizen of the Universe'. (Marcus Aurelius, 170AD)
All things come out of the one, and the one out of all things. (Heraclitus, 500BC)
All phenomena, link together in a mutually conditioning network. (Buddha, 500BC)
Though One, Brahman is the cause of the many. (Rig Veda, 1200BC)
When the Ten Thousand things are viewed in their Oneness, we return to the Origin and remain where we have always been. (Sen T'sen)
Likewise, Western Philosophy and Physics has come to the same conclusion, as Leibniz, Bradley and Smolin write;
(Leibniz, Monadology, 1670) Reality cannot be found except in One single source, because of the interconnection of all things with one another. ... I maintain also that substances, whether material or immaterial, cannot be conceived in their bare essence without any activity, activity being of the essence of substance in general. (Leibniz, )
(Bradley, 1846-1924) We may agree, perhaps, to understand by Metaphysics an attempt to know reality as against mere appearance, or the study of first principles or ultimate truths, or again the effort to comprehend the universe, not simply piecemeal or by fragments, but somehow as a whole.
(Lee Smolin, 1997) It can no longer be maintained that the properties of any one thing in the universe are independent of the existence or non-existence of everything else. It is, at last, no longer sensible to speak of a universe with only one thing in it.
This is of course fundamentally important to our understanding of what Matter is, what the Universe is, and what Space is. It is the purpose of this article to explain the solution to the problem of understanding this interconnection between our Matter (the Many Finite Things), our Universe (the One Finite Thing), and Space (the One Infinite Thing).
Currently, Cosmology is obscured by an incorrect belief in the ‘Big Bang’ - that the universe is expanding, and thus had a beginning at some time in the past. As we shall explain, this is not correct, for the simple reason that the observed ‘Hubble’ redshift with distance is NOT caused by a Doppler shift due to receding Motion / expanding Universe, but rather, is caused by diminishing Wave Motion interactions with distance.
Again, both ancient Indian and Greek Philosophy correctly realised that something is never created from nothing ‘ex nihilo’, thus something has eternally existed;
Without beginning or end (through eternity) this world has continued to exist as such. There is nothing here to be questioned. In no place or time was this world ever observed otherwise by anybody in the past, nor will it be, in the future. (Madhva, 1250AD)
Alternatively, suppose we were to accept the mythical genesis of the world from night or the natural philosophers' claim that 'all things were originally together.' We are still left with the same impossible consequence. How is everything to be set in motion, unless there is actually to be some cause of movement? Matter is not going to set itself in motion - its movement depends on a motive cause. (Aristotle, 340BC)
Unfortunately, the 'Big Bang' theory for the creation of our Universe is now well established, and many careers are founded on this concept. Thus it is natural that the emerging school of ‘dissident’ scientists who disagree with this theory will cause conflicts within the academic world that, sadly, often have little to do with determining the truth. While I do not wish to become embroiled in this debate, nonetheless, as philosophers of science we are bound to follow the truth, as Tolstoy wrote;
Wrong does not cease to be wrong because the majority share in it. (Leo Tolstoy)
And from this most simple foundation of One thing, Space, existing as a Wave Medium it becomes obvious that the belief in a ‘Big Bang’ is founded upon a basic error, and that once the truth is realised then we find that all the problems and paradoxes of modern Cosmology are solved simply and sensibly. (See essays on the problems of the 'Big Bang' theory by 'dissident' scientists; Halton Arp, Bill Mitchell, and Eric Lerner.)
I recently received a letter about this page which made the following interesting point;
I am a bit reluctant to include any of the anti big bang stuff you include here. This is not only because I have not had time to ponder it in detail. The thing that worries me most is that I thought that Einstein once described his cosmological constant as his biggest blunder. Is this true? Was he fooled by the arguments of others?
Here I shall make a brief reply to these comments, founded on the Wave Structure of Matter. The article which then follows provides a very comprehensive summary of Cosmology and a solution to most of the fundamental problems. (So you can skip this if you want.)
Einstein's General Relativity requires a finite spherical universe (it cannot be infinite because of Mach's Principle, with which Einstein strongly agreed, that the mass of a body is finite, is determined by all other matter in the universe, thus all other matter in universe must be finite).
a) What surrounds this finite spherical universe? (Einstein used his spherical ellipsoidal geometry of General Relativity to propose curved space - if you travel in any one direction you will curve around and eventually return to your starting point - subtle, clever, weird, wrong).
b) What stops finite spherical universe gravitationally collapsing (thus Einstein's Cosmological / Antigravity Constant).
2. Two discoveries, one theoretical, one empirical sent Cosmology down the path of the Big Bang Theory for the creation of our universe.
a) Friedman used Einstein's equations to show that an expanding universe was possible by the equations, and solved the problem of the collapsing universe and thus removed the need for Einstein's Cosmological constant. Einstein was reluctant - believing in a static (non-expanding universe).
b) Then Hubble famously showed the relationship between distance and redshift. If Doppler shift caused this redshift then it meant stars / galaxies were moving apart.
Einstein, swayed by this argument, changed his mind - thus his comment 'My biggest blunder' referring to the Cosmological Constant.
As we shall explain though, this is not the correct solution, in fact Einstein's 'cosmological constant is largely correct, but it is not caused by anti-gravity within the universe, but by the gravitational forces of matter outside our finite spherical universe within an infinite space.
Further (and this will be explained in detail below, and thus will make more sense if you persevere!)
1. Redshift with distance is not Doppler effect, but caused by Huygens Principle (a wave can be treated as an infinite number of spherical wave sources). It is necessary that all other matter's out-waves must combine in a Huygens wave front, to form our spherical In-Waves. We absolutely are a part of the universe (not separate / discrete bodies) - our matter formed from all other matter in the universe. This explains Mach's Principle and redshift with distance (in the article, particularly equation of the cosmos, it shows the mathematical deductions from wave theory correctly deduce Mach's Principle (Milo Wolff) and Redshift with distance).
2. To understand Cosmology you must understand the relationship between the finite and the infinite. The big bang does not explain this, it was not until Milo Wolff applied knowledge of the Wave Structure of Matter to the study of the Cosmos that this problem could be solved.
a) Space is Infinite (one thing existing must be infinite) but our spherical universe is finite. Matter is finite. We unite these two finite things, matter and universe, by realising that matter, as a spherical standing wave formed by other matter's out waves, determines the size of our finite spherical universe. Matter and Universe are the same thing / are united.
b) Due to this sharing of waves, only a finite number (about 10^80) of other Spherical Standing Waves combine with our matter. The article shows two separate deductions for this, one by myself (simple) and one by Maths Physicist Milo Wolff (mathematical, logically equivalent).
Thus there are an infinite number of finite spherical universes within an infinite space.
I realise that some of this will not make much sense to you at first. I am sure though, that after reading on the Wave Structure of Matter, you will find it to be actually very simple and sensible in how it explains and solves many of the problems of Cosmology.
Current Big Bang Cosmology defines Universe as both;
i) All that exists (both Space and Matter)
ii) Finite and Spherical.
The Wave Structure of Matter Cosmology (being founded on One thing Space) requires that Space is Infinite, but that we only interact with a finite sphere of matter within that Infinite Space. Thus the current 'Big Bang' definition of Universe is wrong according to WSM.
So you can either re-define Universe by maintaining meaning one;
i) Universe is all that exists (both Space and Matter) which WSM says is Infinite - thus Universe is Infinite.
ii) Finite and Spherical Universe is wrong. The Universe is no longer finite and spherical, and effectively has the same meaning as Infinite Space / all that exists. And you then have no word for the finite spherical region of space that we interact with other matter (which causes our In-Waves). It also becomes very confusing when considering Mach's Principle and Einstein's General Relativity (see below).
Our other option is to re-define Universe as the Finite sphere of Space (and other matter) we see and interact with (and that contributes to our In-Waves, while Space itself is Infinite).
This provides a better definition as then the finite spherical universe still makes sense with respect to Mach's Principle and Einstein General Relativity.
Thus in this Wave Structure of Matter Cosmology the Universe is defined as follows;
Universe: The Finite Spherical region of Matter and Space that we can see and interact with (within an Infinite Space). Only this other matter's Out-Waves contribute to the formation of our Matter's in-Waves. i.e. Huygens' Principle - and this is the cause of Mach's Principle, that the mass of our matter is determined by all the other matter in our finite spherical universe (because it is created by it!).
The following short section is taken from a letter I wrote to a (very nice) woman who has been studying the WSM Cosmology. Hopefully it helps clarify the above comments about the meaning of our Finite Spherical Universe within an Infinite Space.
When people first consider the Wave Structure of Matter there seems to be this common mistake of thinking of one wave-center / spherical standing wave on its own in infinite space (which is clearly not how reality is, as there is obviously matter all around us). That thought leads to imagining the spherical standing wave structure as infinite.
However, the correct way of thinking (since it matches reality of what we experience), is that the space around us has lots (and lots!) of other matter. And calculations show that wherever you are in an infinite space (as a wave-center) YOU ONLY INTERACT WITH A FINITE SPHERE OF THAT INFINITE SPACE AND OTHER MATTER (which we call universe). It is only this finite amount of other matter that directly contributes to your in-waves. i.e. Applying Huygens' principle - their out-waves combine to form our spherical in-waves. This is calculated in two different ways in the section on the Equation of the Cosmos: Deducing Finite Size of Matter and Universe and correctly deduces the observed size of our Universe.
This Equation of the Cosmos is very important, because it is basically solving the fundamental problem of the relationship between the Finite and the Infinite. i.e. How we can exist as part of Infinite Space, and yet only have a Finite Mass (mass-energy density). This then explains Mach's Principle - how all matter in our Finite Spherical Universe determines the mass (mass-energy density of space) of matter / space - and most importantly why that is finite (within an infinite space).
So we see that each wave-center 'particle' is really the center of its own universe. (We are each the centers of our own universe - what a nice thought). And this applies to any matter, wherever you are in an infinite space. So effectively finite matter and universe are the same thing. Thus if you imagine infinite space, there is an infinite amount of matter in it, and thus an infinite number of finite spherical universes.
When matter is close to other matter, then its universes (in and out waves) overlap and you get matter interactions. For us, matter a 1,000 billion light years away is outside our Finite Spherical Universe and we can't interact with it / see it. It does not contribute its Out-Waves directly to our In-waves - it is hidden behind other matter.
So the Wave Structure of Matter Cosmology explains how we each exist as the center of our Finite Spherical Universe within an Infinite Space. I exist as the center of mine, you as the center of yours. But it just so happens that our centers are close together so we share 99.9999.........% of a common universe - which is why we can interact with one another, write to each other on the internet.
And if you think about it, you will realise that this must also cause a redshift with distance, because distant matter shares less of a common universe, thus less wave interactions, thus less energy exchange (which we see as a redshift with distance). Any smart mathematicians here can deduce this - just work out how the volume of two overlapping spheres changes as you move them apart - this should equate to redshift with distance (another meaningful deduction from the WSM - though i should add that there may be other factors affecting redshift, certainly the work of Halton Arp suggests there are).
This also explains another central and profound problem of Cosmology - why our Finite Spherical Universe does not gravitationally collapse. In an Infinite Space it is obvious that matter outside our Finite Spherical Universe, due to its gravitational forces, prevents our finite sphere of matter / universe from gravitationally collapsing. This then removes the need for both an expanding universe (which led to the idea of the Big Bang), or Einstein's antigravity / cosmological constant (which, is really just a gravity force from matter outside our Finite Spherical Universe within Infinite Space). So Einstein was close to the truth with his Cosmological Constant!
One Thing Space Exists with the Properties of a Wave-Medium
Matter Exists as Spherical Standing Waves in Space.
The ‘Particle’ Effect of Matter is Caused by the Wave-Center of the Spherical Standing Waves. (See Fig. 1)
Fig 1. This (very rough) diagram shows how the Spherical In and Out Waves form a Standing Wave around the Wave-Center 'particle'.
i) Space, as One things existing, is necessarily Infinite, Eternal and Continuous (there are no 'particles').
ii) The velocity of Waves in Space is the Velocity of Light c.
This Wave Velocity is not constant and is determined by both the Wave Amplitude and mass-energy density of Space. i. e.
High Wave Amplitude Waves Propagate with a Faster Wave Velocity. (e.g. waves on water). This is the cause of Charge.
High mass-energy density Space causes a Slower Wave Velocity. (e.g. curvature of light near Sun). This is the cause of Gravitational Mass.
i) Any Change in Velocity of the Spherical In-Waves from One Direction changes where these In-Waves meet at their respective Wave-Center which we see as a 'Force Accelerating a Particle'.
This is the Cause of Newton's Law of Inertia: Force = Mass * Acceleration. (See Fig. 2)
ii) The Spherical In-Waves are formed from the Huygens' Combination of Out-Waves from All other Matter in our Finite Spherical Universe. (See Fig. 3)
This is the Cause of Mach’s Principle: Matter's Mass (mass-energy density) is Determined by all other Matter in the Universe.
Fig. 2 Gravity is Caused by the Slowing of the In-Waves. In fact ALL forces are caused by a change in velocity of the In-Waves which changes the location of the Wave-Center, and which we observe as the accelerated motion of the 'particle'
Fig. 3 Huygens’ Principle explains how our In-Waves are created by other Matter’s Out-Waves
The remainder of this article is deduced from this One Principle (thus it is necessary and certain, not our opinion) and we are assuming that the reader understands these metaphysical principles and their importance to the Scientific Method (Physics, Philosophy, Metaphysics). We should also add that this central Principle of the Wave Structure of Matter not only explains and solves the problems of Cosmology, but also Einstein's Relativity and Quantum Theory, and thus unites these three famous subjects for the first time. (I know this is a big claim, but you can determine this for yourselves.)
The following two quotes describe an Infinite and Eternal Space very well. And to all scientists it must be both disturbing and sad to realise that it was only 400 years ago that Bruno was burnt to death for writing such things!
In his major work, paradoxically entitled On Learned Ignorance, Nicholas returned to the central idea of Anaxagoras - an infinite, unlimited universe. In contrast to Ptolemy's finite cosmos circumscribed by concentric spheres with earth at their center, Nicholas argued that the universe has no limits in space, no beginning or ending in time.
Nicholas's infinite universe is populated by an unlimited number of stars and planets, and, of course, has no center, no single immobile place of rest. The earth, he reasoned, must therefore move, like everything else in the universe. It appears at rest only because we're on it, moving with it. He cast aside the geocentric cosmos entirely. (Nicholas of Cusa, a German-born bishop, born 1401)
Giordano Bruno traveled to England and befriended its leading political and scientific figures; and when he returned, he popularised Copernican theory on the continent. Bruno took Digges's version of the infinite, Copernican universe and purged it of remaining Ptolemaic elements, such as the perfect spheres that carried the planets' orbits. He made this infinite universe, with its infinite inhabited worlds, the basis of his philosophy, integrating Nicholas of Cusa's thinking, even going beyond it. Bruno explicitly challenged the idea of creation ex nihilo, arguing that the universe must be unlimited in both space and time, without beginning or end. (Lerner, 1991)
As only One thing, Space, exists, there can be no boundary to Space (as a boundary is between two things) thus Space is unbounded and therefore Infinite. As Blake famously wrote;
If the doors of perception were cleansed, everything would be seen as it is, infinite. (William Blake, 1800)
Both Parmenides and Spinoza perfectly state the logic of One Infinite Substance;
No two or more substances can have the same attribute and it appertains to the nature of substance that it should exist. It must therefore exist finitely or infinitely. But not finitely. For it would then be limited by some other substance of the same nature which also of necessity must exist: and then two substances would be granted having the same attribute, which is absurd. It will exist, therefore, infinitely. (Spinoza, 1673)
'Existent’ is indivisible, for where is the second power, which should divide it? .. But there cannot exist several 'Existents,' for in order to separate them, something would have to exist which was not existing, an assumption which neutralizes itself. Thus there exists only the eternal Unity. (Parmenides, 450BC)
There can be no ‘Particles’ because ‘Particles’ require two things - the ‘Particle’ and the Space around the ‘Particle’, thus One Infinite Space must be a continuous medium. Or as Aristotle says;
This shows us two things: you cannot have parts of the infinite and the infinite is indivisible.
But indeed even if the One is more like a Principle, and the one is undivided, then the whole Universe will be undivided either in quantity or in form. (Aristotle, 340BC)
Lerner also importantly argues for the necessary existence of a continuous Space and Time (and continuous Time is simply caused by the continuous Wave-Motion in a continuous Space);
All of modern analysis, including most of the mathematics underlying modern technology, relies on the concept of continuity - that between any two points in space, there is an infinite number of other points. In the same way, between any two points in time there is an infinite number of other moments. Without these assumptions it's virtually impossible to use modern mathematics in a logically consistent way.
Indeed, the idea that space and time are infinitely divisible is vital to explaining the very existence of the irreversible time of the real world. Without such true infinities the world would be a vast digital computer, each instant predetermined by its initial state, without a past, present or future. So to argue that there is no true infinity, ... is tantamount to a rejection of modern mathematics, the technology based on the use of the mathematics, and the new discoveries in thermodynamics.
And once we accept the continuity of space and time it's hard to object on philosophical grounds to an infinite extent of space and time.
Thus while the idea of an infinite chain of cause and effect may appear mind-boggling, such an infinite chain exists even in the present, with each passing second- each an infinity of moments. To accept an infinite past is no more or less difficult philosophically than to accept the continuity of time - the infinity of moments in a single second.
While these conclusions are not commonsensical, they are logically consistent. … if an infinite universe is rejected philosophically, the infinity of space in a single inch or the infinity of instants in a single second must be rejected as well, along with all the science based on the hypothesis of continuity. (Lerner, 1991)
There are two separate arguments for an Eternal Space which support one another;
i) As only one thing, Space, exists, there can be no creation of Space as creation requires two things (Space, and that which is not Space but created Space) thus Space is Eternal. As Spinoza writes;
A substance cannot be produced from anything else: it will therefore be its own cause, that is, its essence necessarily involves existence, or existence appertains to the nature of it. (Spinoza, 1673)
ii) As we explained earlier, Time is a consequence of the Wave Motions of Space, and that it takes ‘Time’ for Wave Motions to flow from place to place in Space. Time does not exist as a thing in itself, it is, like the ‘Particle’, an effect of the Wave Motion of Space, not a cause! Thus Time only applies to Matter, as the Spherical Wave Motion of Space and not to Space itself. Therefore Space was not created for this requires the concept of time (that the Space that now exists was created at some time in the past) thus Space is Eternal. (Space simply exists.) As Aristotle correctly writes;
It need hardly be pointed out that with things that do not change there is no illusion with respect to time, given the assumption of their unchangeability. (Aristotle, 340BC)
Aristotle also realised that Motion cannot come from no Motion, thus Motion must always exist. He also realised the close connection between Time and Motion!
Motion must always have been in existence, and the same can be said for time itself, since it is not even possible for there to be an earlier and a later if time does not exist. Movement, then, is also continuous in the way in which time is - indeed time is either identical to movement or is some affection of it. (Aristotle, 340BC)
Can we visualize a three-dimensional universe which is finite yet unbounded? (Einstein, 1921)
In fact it is possible for a finite spherical Universe to form within an Infinite Space. Unfortunately for Einstein, he incorrectly imagined a 'curved space' such that if you traveled far enough you would return to your starting point (a very abstract and confusing concept). The solution is in fact far more simple, and is found instead from Huygens' Principle, and to realise that other Matter's Out Waves create our Matter's In-Waves (as we shall now explain in more detail).
Three hundred years ago Christiaan Huygens, a Dutch mathematician, found that if a surface containing many separate wave sources was examined at a distance, the combined separate waves of the sources appeared as a single wave front with the shape of the surface. This wave front is termed a 'Huygens Combination' of the separate waves.
As stated by the central Principle of the Wave Structure of Matter, this explains how the In-Waves are formed.
Begin with the Spherical Out-Wave which travels outward from an initial Wave-Center. When the Out-Wave encounters other Wave-Centers in the universe then its Out-Wave effectively becomes part of the In-Waves of these other Wave-Centers. Conversely, when the Out-Waves of these other Wave-Centers in Space flow into the initial Wave-Center they effectively become part of its In-Waves. Effectively the Out-Waves of other SSWs (spherically distributed in the Space around us) have combined to form a Huygens’ combination wave front which forms the Spherical In-Wave of our Wave-Centers. (See Fig: 3.2.1 below)
Although we can imagine each SSW separately as a pair of In-Waves and Out-Waves, that SSW cannot exist without the presence of other SSWs in the Space around it. It cannot exist alone because each SSW depends on other SSWs in the Space around it to create its In-Waves. Thus Smolin is correct;
It can no longer be maintained that the properties of any one thing in the universe are independent of the existence or non-existence of everything else. It is, at last, no longer sensible to speak of a universe with only one thing in it. (Smolin, 1997)
Fig. 4 Huygens Combination and the Formation of the In-Wave of a Spherical Standing Wave (SSW). This diagram was constructed by drawing twelve circles whose centers are themselves located on a circle, such that their circles have begun to form the circle you can see at the center. Likewise with Spherical Standing Waves, if many SSWs are spherically distributed in Space around us then their Out-Waves form the Spherical In-Waves of our Matter.
This Huygens' sharing of waves means that once you go out past a certain distance in Space (the size of our finite spherical universe) then you can no longer count the Out-Waves of this farther distant matter as direct contributors to our In-Waves, because these waves have already become part of closer Wave-Center's In and Out-Waves and thus have already been counted as contributing to our In-Waves. This sharing of waves is a profound discovery (Wolff, 1994) as it leads to the solution of the connection between the Infinite and the Finite, and correctly explains the cause of the redshift with distance. Briefly stated (as this is discussed a little later) this explains how we can have a finite Wave-Amplitude/Density (and thus a finite mass and energy for matter) within a finite spherical universe, and yet also be part of an infinite perpetual system of Waves in Space. As stated in the above Principle of the Wave Structure of Matter, this unites Huygens' Theory with Mach's Principle.
Fig: 1.2.2 A Finite Spherical Standing Wave within an Infinite Space. The Out-Waves of the Spherical Standing Wave on the right (in red) must travel through (and have become part of) a closer Wave-Center and thus their Out-Waves have already been counted once and cannot be counted again as directly contributing to the In-Waves of the central SSW.
We see that this Finite Spherical Universe agrees with Einstein's logic on the Structure of the Universe as deduced from General Relativity. The quote is broken up into three parts;
i) Suppose we draw lines or stretch strings in all directions from a point, and mark off each of these the distance r with a measuring rod. All the free end-points of these lengths lie on a spherical surface. With increasing values of r, (the spherical surface) increases from zero up to a maximum value which is determined by the 'radius of the universe'
ii) but for still further increasing values of r, the area gradually diminishes to zero.
iii) At first, the straight lines which radiate from the starting point diverge farther and farther from one another, but later they approach each other, and finally they run together again at a 'counter-point' to the starting point. Under such conditions they have traversed the whole spherical space (of our finite spherical universe). (Einstein, 1916)
It is important to realize that Einstein does not explain what happens at the 'radius of the universe' that causes an expanding spherical surface to begin to contract. (Because he did not know!) The solution is now solved using Huygens' Wave Combinations as we have previously described. Thus;
i) Describes the Out Waves from the Wave-Center, these carry on going Out and become the In-Waves of distant Matter.
ii) Describes the In-Waves - but rather than still going Out these Waves are coming back In and have been formed by the Out Waves of all the other matter in our finite spherical Universe.
iii) Thus the point and the counter-point are united as the Wave-Center of Spherical Standing Waves the size of the Universe.
The 'Radius of the Universe' is the Sphere where the In-Waves (from distant Matter's Out-Waves) first form into a coherent Spherical In Waves, and this determines both the size of our Spherical Standing Waves, and thus the size of our Finite Spherical Universe within an Infinite Space.
Thus we realise that the Metaphysics of Space and Motion and the Wave Structure of Matter describes a perpetual finite system within an Infinite Eternal Space. Space has always existed, as have the Wave-Motions which flow through this Space. ‘Creation’, like ‘Particles’, ‘Time’ and ‘Forces’, are human constructions, concepts that in Reality do not exist.
Now it is necessary to explain, with a little basic mathematics, how we can now deduce the redshift with distance without assuming a Doppler shift due to receding Motion / an expanding Universe.
'The Gift of Truth Excels all Other Gifts.' (Buddha)
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Truth & Reality
The Spherical Standing Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) in Space
Theory of Reality
Unity of Reality
Logic & Reality
Special & General
of Light & Matter
& Infinite Space
Truth & Reality
Truth & Reality