Cosmology: The Big Bang Theory
Simple Solutions to the Problems of the 'Big Bang' Theory of Cosmology

In one of its several variations the big bang cosmological theory is almost universally accepted as the most reasonable theory for the origin and evolution of the universe. In fact, it is so well accepted that virtually every media article, story or program that touches on the subjects of astronomy or cosmology presents the big bang as a virtual proven fact. As a result, the great majority of the literate populace of the world, including most of the scientists of the world, accepts big bang theory as scientific fact. (William C. Mitchell)

Introduction

Hi Everyone,
Like most people I grew up with science founded on 'particles', and cosmology founded on the 'big bang' theory. At the time I just accepted it as true with little thought. Now, at the age of 50 and having spent the last 20 years reading on physics, philosophy and metaphysics I am completely convinced that both the 'particle' and the 'big bang' are incorrect. (In fact I would now say that they are extremely naive conceptions and I find it hard to believe that I used to accept them as true!)

Below you will find a list of some of the central problems of the Big Bang Theory of Cosmology. Most importantly, it is easy to show how these problems can be simply solved with the most simple explanation of physical reality - the Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) in Space.

This then deduces the most simple Cosmology: How our Finite Spherical Observable Universe exists within Infinite Eternal Space.

Geoff Haselhurst
(February, 2010)


Problems of the Big Bang Theory

1. Redshift with Distance due to Doppler Effects of Receding Motion

In the Big Bang theory it is not the receding motion of matter, but expanding space that is used to explain the redshift with distance. Thus they argue that the wavelength of light is longer due to 'stretching' space. The problems;

1.1 This is not a Doppler effect. A Doppler effect is for motion of matter in space, not for the expansion of space itself. Thus the Big Bang theory is not founded on the Doppler effect but a theoretical concept of expanding space.

1.2 This then assumes that space exists (to be able to expand), yet in other areas of physics they claim there is no absolute space. e.g. The electromagnetic wave is claimed to not require a physical medium. This was necessary to accommodate Einstein's special relativity where there was no absolute reference frame for motion (space), instead all motion is relative to other matter.

1.3 This also assumes that light is a wave, yet in other areas of physics light is claimed to be a 'photon particle' which then contradicts the idea of light waves being stretched (longer wavelength) due to expanding space.

The central point - the big bang theory is based on purely theoretical foundations, and they use different concepts to explain different things, when the concepts they use are contradictory of one another.

In WSM cosmology the redshift with distance is deduced due to decreasing wave interactions with distance. Thus there is no need to use the 'pseudo Doppler effect' as they currently do.

2. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR)

The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) is sensibly explained due to radiation from cold matter in interstellar space. Since we only measure one source of CMBR this means that there cannot have been a 'Big Bang' otherwise we would observe two sources of cosmic background radiation.

The expression "the temperature of space" is the title of chapter 13 of Sir Arthur Eddington’s famous 1926 work, Eddington calculated the minimum temperature any body in space would cool to, given that it is immersed in the radiation of distant starlight. With no adjustable parameters, he obtained 3°K (later refined to 2.8°K ), essentially the same as the observed, so-called 'background' temperature. A similar calculation, although with less certain accuracy, applies to the limiting temperature of intergalactic space because of the radiation of galaxy light. So the intergalactic matter is like a 'fog' and would therefore provide a simpler explanation for the microwave radiation, including its blackbody-shaped spectrum. (Van Flandern)

3. The Big Bang and the Formation of Elements

... in 1957, after years of steady work - aided by advances in nuclear physics and stellar observations - Margaret and Gregory Burbridge, William Fowler and Hoyle published a comprehensive and detailed theory showing how stellar systems could produce all the known elements in proportions very close to those observed to exist. In addition, the theory accounted for the growing evidence that the elementary composition varies from star to star, something that would not be possible if the elements were produced by the Big Bang. The new theory was rapidly accepted as substantially correct.
... just as Lemaitre's Big Bang failed when cosmic rays were shown to be produced in the present-day universe rather than the distant past, so Gamow's failed when the chemical elements were shown to be produced by present-day stars. (Eric Lerner)

4. Superclusters and Voids are Older than the Big Bang Universe

Tully has shown that Superclusters are a few hundred million light-years across. Given galaxies generally move at less than a thousand kilometers per second, thus the universe cannot have begun twenty billion years ago.
Likewise, recently discovered large-scale voids would require around 70 billion years to form, five times as long as the age of the universe in the Big Bang theory.

5. The Universe is Ordered thus Infinite

In a finite universe created by the Big Bang the second law of thermodynamics would cause the universe to tend towards entropy and disorder. The fact is that this is not observed, the universe is highly ordered.

As Paul Davies, another religious cosmologist, writes: No natural agency, intelligent or otherwise, can delay forever the end of the universe. Only a supernatural God could try to wind it up again.

The WSM cosmology solves this problem by showing how our observable universe is just a finite spherical region of infinite eternal space. And the second law of thermodynamics does not apply to infinite space.

6. Singularities / Infinite Energy Densities are Mathematical Concepts Only

The oldest and perhaps best known problem of Big Bang Theory is that of the singularity. At the first instant of the Big Bang universe, in which its density and temperature were infinitely high, is what is known to mathematicians as a singularity. That situation is considered to be a breakdown of theory. That is, it cannot be assumed that the laws of physics as we know them can apply to that event, thus presenting serious questions about it.
In addition, the postulated creation of the entire mass and energy of the universe out of nothing in the first instant of time, seems to represent an extreme violation of the law of conservation of mass/energy.
According to prevailing theory, before that instant, space and time did not exist. Although to some, who confuse their religious ideas with science, this is seen as a reasonable interpretation of their religious beliefs, to others the beginning of space and time might represent a significant problem. (Bill Mitchell)

7. Inflation is an Ad Hoc Solution to a Theory that Contradicts Observation

Inflation theory, that was invented for the purpose, is said to provide simple solutions to some of the problems of pre-inflation Big Bang Theory. Inflation theorists have alleged that the inflationary expansion of the early Big Bang universe, involving speeds orders of magnitude greater than that of light, did not involve the travel of mass or energy, and thus did not violate the theory of relativity in solving the singularity problem. But how inflation, as opposed to ordinary expansion, can in some manner displace all the mass or energy of the universe without physically moving it, defies common understanding. A violation of Einstein's prohibition of speeds in excess of that of light seems to be inherent in that process. (Bill Mitchell)

8. What is Decelerating?

If the universe is expanding and, if that expansion is decelerating due to gravitational attraction of the mass of the universe, as Big Bang theorists believe, they have not made it clear whether the expansion of space is decelerating, or whether the expansion of the matter in space is decelerating. A lack of clarity regarding this matter would seem to add to the difficulties of Big Bang Theory. (Bill Mitchell)

9. Distant Galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field are not 'Primitive' and Move as if Surrounded by Matter.

Since heavy metals are formed by Supernovas, thus early stars (first generation in the Big Bang) should not show metal content - yet they do.
Further, recent evidence shows that the motion of distant galaxies (as determined by the matter around them) contradicts Big Bang theory. (The wave structure of matter predicted this - see the Cosmology Predictions.

10. The Big Bang Satisfies the Religious Creation Myth

Though we like to think of science as the objective study of truth, history shows that this is far from the truth. Most scientists are religious - this necessarily influences their thinking. As Nietzsche writes of philosophers and scientists, they;

"... pose as having discovered and attained their real opinions through the self-evolution of a cold, pure, divinely unperturbed dialectic: while what happens at bottom is that a prejudice, a notion, an 'inspiration,' generally a desire of the heart sifted and made abstract, is defended by them with reasons sought after the event" (Nietzsche, Beyond Good and Evil)

Thus we can understand why the Big Bang theory is so popular, it satisfies this religious need for a god / creator. As Pope Pius XII wrote;

In fact, it seems that present-day science, with one sweeping step back across millions of centuries, has succeeded in bearing witness to that primordial 'Fiat lux' (Let there be light) uttered at the moment when, along with matter, there burst forth from nothing a sea of light and radiation, while the particles of the chemical elements split and formed into millions of galaxies ... Hence, creation took place in time, therefore, there is a Creator, God exists! (Pope Pius XII, 1951)

We have a page on religion and theology which defines god as the one infinite and eternal thing that exists - Space and its wave motions that form matter.

~~~~

In ending. The biggest argument against the big bang theory is that we now know reality. Matter is formed from waves in space. This then deduces the fundamentals of Cosmology based upon space being infinite and eternal, without the need for an expanding universe.

Geoff Haselhurst


Related Big Bang Articles

For the enthusiasts we have four very good essays on various problems of the Big Bang Theory which provide compelling evidence that the Big Bang theory is wrong.

'Seeing Red' by Halton Arp

'The Big Bang Never Happened' by Eric J. Lerner

'The Big Bang Theory Under Fire' by William C. Mitchell

The Top 30 Problems of the Big Bang Theory by Tom Van Flandern

And some good websites on the problems of the big bang theory of cosmology.

http://www.newtonphysics.on.ca/ - In the web pages below, we present explanations which are compatible with Newtonian and semi-classical physics. We apply the principle of causality and avoid models requiring a probabilistic existence of matter and non-locality. This differs from the current approach of modern physics. (Paul Marmet)

http://cosmologystatement.org/ - An Open Letter to the Scientific Community. The big bang today relies on a growing number of hypothetical entities, things that we have never observed - inflation, dark matter and dark energy are the most prominent examples. Without them, there would be a fatal contradiction between the observations made by astronomers and the predictions of the big bang theory. In no other field of physics would this continual recourse to new hypothetical objects be accepted as a way of bridging the gap between theory and observation. It would, at the least, raise serious questions about the validity of the underlying theory. (Published in New Scientist, May 22, 2004)


Cosmology: The Big Bang Theory
Simple Solutions to the Problems of the 'Big Bang' Theory of Cosmology

Giordano Bruno's universe was infinite ... he integrated Nicholas of Cusa's thinking, but purged it of remaining Ptolemaic elements, such as the perfect spheres that carried the planets' orbits. (Lerner)
Can we visualize a universe which is finite yet unbounded? ... The supreme task of the physicist is to arrive at those universal laws from which the cosmos can be built up by pure deduction. (Albert Einstein)
The Big Bang is a wonderful myth that deserves a place of honor in the columbarium which already contains the Biblical myth of creation, the Ptolemaic cosmological myth, and many others. (Hans Alfven)
Time is either identical to Motion or is some affection of it. ... about Matter's coming into being and its alterations, we think we have knowledge when we know the source of its Motion. (Aristotle, 340BC)
Wolff Haselhurst Cosmology: The Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) solves many problems of Cosmology by explaining how a Finite Spherical Universe exists within an Infinite Eternal Space.
The Equation of the Cosmos is a relation between the 'size' r of the electron and the size R of the Hubble Universe. It describes how all the N wave centers 'particles' of the Hubble Universe determine the wave density of Space. (Milo Wolff, 2005)
It should be pointed out that Edwin Hubble was not convinced that red shift was exclusively due to Doppler effect. Up to the time of his death he maintained that velocities inferred from red shift measurements should be referred to as apparent velocities. (Mitchell, 1997)
The only thing which is 'certain' of CMBR, is that we detect 'some radiation' at 3K in the night Sky. ... I conclude that since hydrogen is well known in space, the Planck spectrum observed (erroneously attributed to the Big Bang) is due to Hydrogen at 3K in the universe. (Paul Marmet)
The universe we observe is simply not decaying; the generalization of 'the law of increasing disorder' to the entire cosmos is unsupported by observation. (Lerner)
What we need for understanding rational human behaviour - and indeed, animal behaviour - is something intermediate in character between perfect chance and perfect determinism - something intermediate between perfect clouds and perfects clocks. (Karl Popper, 1975)
Our Solar System consists of the nine planets and all other celestial bodies that orbit the Sun. The sun is by far the most massive part of the solar system, containing almost 99.9% of the system's total mass. (answers.com)
The Milky Way is the galaxy of which the sun and our solar system are a part, seen as a broad band of light arching across the night sky from horizon to horizon ... comprising of an estimated 200 billion stars. (answers.com)
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope orbiting the Earth 370 miles above the atmosphere. It is a space observatory ... named after Edwin Hubble, it was launched into orbit in 1990 as a project of NASA. (Wikipedia)
A human being is part of the whole called by us universe ... the true value of a human being is determined by the measure in which they have obtained liberation from the self. ... We shall require a substantially new manner of thinking if humanity is to survive. (Albert Einstein, 1954)

 




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Biography: Geoffrey Haselhurst, Philosopher of Science, Theoretical Physics, Metaphysics, Evolution. Our world is in great trouble due to human behaviour founded on myths and customs that are causing the destruction of Nature and climate change. We can now deduce the most simple science theory of reality - the wave structure of matter in space. By understanding how we and everything around us are interconnected in Space we can then deduce solutions to the fundamental problems of human knowledge in physics, philosophy, metaphysics, theology, education, health, evolution and ecology, politics and society.

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