# Wave Diagrams

The Wave Structure of Matter

The following diagrams are useful aids to understanding the wave structure of matter. But they are only approximate, you need to use your imagination too! (It is very hard to draw spherical waves on a flat computer screen!).

The comments and diagrams below relate to the most simple form of matter, the electron or positron (antimatter is just the opposite phase standing wave to matter).

The proton and neutron are more complex wave structures that need further study (I think they are formed from a collection of positrons and electrons which can form either a neutral positronium or the charm quark - but a proton has one more positron than electron obviously to explain positive charge).

Please
also realise that we are representing **spherical waves** in
Space (imagine a soap bubble). These diagrams are 2 dimensional circular
cross sections of the spherical wave (a limitation of working on a computer
screen obviously).

I hope this page helps you better visualise the wave structure of matter. It takes time for our minds to adjust to new knowledge, so you need to think about it for a while! But it is simple and obvious once known.

Finally, I have just finished writing the following three pages - they are very useful for understanding the wave structure of matter, why I am convinced it is correct.

Truth Statements on Physical Reality - We can understand physical reality - matter is made of waves in space. These truth statements show people how to deduce physical reality for themselves and confirm it is true. It also provides a very concise summary of the central things the WSM explains. See if you can show any statement is not true.

Wave
Equation in an Elastic Wave Medium - Deducing the famous energy equations,
Einstein's E=mc^{2}, Planck's E=hf and Newton's F=ma from simple
wave equations in an elastic medium (space). This confirms that the equivalence
of matter and energy is because matter is made of waves, and waves propagate
energy. All forces are due to changes in wave velocity.

The Laws of Nature - The Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) deduces the laws of Nature that have been empirically observed and quantified over the past several centuries. This changes the foundations of science / physics from inductive (uncertain) to deductive (certain).

Any thoughts, comments, help with wave diagrams appreciated.

Geoff
Haselhurst - Email

### Spherical Standing Wave (Two Dimensional Cross Section)

The wavelength of an electron is about 10^{-12}
meters, i.e. there are about a thousand billion waves per meter, about a
million million (trillion) wave center 'particles' in a pin head.

The frequency is about 10^{20} Hz (cycles
/ second) so they are vibrating very very quickly!! Given film shown in
a movie theater is around 24 frames / second and appear as continuous motion,
you then realise why we see matter as a continuous motion as well.

The wave velocity is the velocity of light c (300 million meters / sec) which equates to 1 second for your spherical in-waves to come in from the distance of the moon, about 8 minutes from the sun, 4 years from the nearest star, 100,000 years from across our milky Way galaxy, and about 15 billion years from across the observable universe.

Though we always measure this velocity to be the same (Einstein's
special relativity) it does actually change - but so does the wavelength
and thus the dimension which causes it to be measured the same (Nature is
deceptive!)!

The wave velocity depends on wave amplitude (higher = faster) - this explains
charge.

The wave velocity also slows slightly with higher mass density (more matter
waves in space, calculated by squaring the wave amplitude). This is the
cause of gravity and why light curves past the sun. (See light, charge and
gravity diagrams below.)

### The Intersection of Plane Waves in 3 Dimensional Space

Each wave center 'particle' is at the center of its observable universe within infinite space.

So matter (including all of us humans!) is really very large - spatially extended structures of the observable universe within infinite space. But we only 'see' the high wave amplitude wave center 'particles' and have been deluded into thinking matter was very small (the whole problem of modern physics - as they could not explain how matter was connected to other matter across the observable universe).

Albert Einstein realised there were no particles, that matter space and time are a unity. He just made the mistake of working with continuous fields in space-time, rather than real waves in Space.

We can represent how space vibrates by using plane waves flowing through space in all directions, resulting in the formation of spherical standing waves around the wave center 'particle', as the following diagrams show.

These diagrams show waves from 8 different directions. When you combine
them you get the image below. You can clearly see the spherical effects
starting to form (circles in 2D, you must imagine it in 3D), and interestingly you also see opposite phases (positrons
and electrons) being formed.

Each wave center is at the center of its finite spherical observable universe within infinite space. See the Equation
of the Cosmos which unites the finite observable universe with infinite
space - which then solves all the main problems of cosmology.)

Below are some stationary images of the electron wave center 'particle'.

### Cosmology: Cause of the Redshift with Distance

In WSM Cosmology, the observable universe is just a finite spherical region
of infinite eternal space. Thus there is no need for an expanding universe,
as other matter around our observable universe prevents it from collapsing.
This is the equivalent of Einstein's
Cosmological / Antigravity constant, but it is just normal gravity of
matter outside our finite spherical observable universe within infinite
space.

So why the redshift with distance?

Because as we look at matter further away from us, we find that we share
less overlap of a common finite spherical observable universe. And this
means that there is less energy exchange, which equates to a redshift with
distance.

The Cosmological Redshift Explained by the Intersection of Hubble Spheres

This article shows that each wave center 'particle' is
the center of its finite spherical observable universe (Hubble Sphere).
As two wave center 'particles' move apart there is less overlap of common
Hubble spheres / observable universes, thus less wave interactions with
increasing distance, thus less energy exchange which then explains the redshift
with distance.

### Non Linear Wave Interactions, Formation of Coherent In-Waves

The above diagram represents a wave in a linear wave medium - thus the waves maintain their original velocity even as they flow through one another.

However, Space must be a non-linear Wave Medium to explain wave interactions. I think this means that when the above two waves flow through one another, they get stuck together as one wave with a combined wave amplitude and a higher velocity (i.e. Property of Space that waves with higher wave amplitude have higher velocity.) This is very important, as it is the source of all wave interactions, the cause of all forces, and explains how our In-Waves can form in a coherent way from other matter's out waves in the universe around us.

### The Motion of the Wave-Center 'Particle'

For a moving wave center 'particle' the spherical
in-wave forms in one position in space (as waves combine), then disappears
(as waves cancel) then the next spherical in-wave forms in a slightly different
position, and so on ....

So matter really moves in discrete little steps (like frames of a film)
but it appears continuous due to the high 'frame rate' / frequency. This
is what quantum
theory discovered - but never understood! The gravity image below shows
this effect.

### Gravity

Another very approximate wave diagram which only shows the In-Waves (does
not show Out-Waves) and the ellipsoidal shape is not accurate. But the basic
idea of gravity being caused by slower wave velocity in higher energy /
mass-energy density space is important.

This explains why Albert
Einstein's general relativity is founded on maths describing the curvature
of a sphere (Riemann, Gauss).

### Gravity: Curvature of Light past the Sun

To be completed

### Charge

To be completed

### Light

Light is not a discrete 'particle' - which is a theoretical interpretation
of the empirical fact that light energy is discrete.

Light is really caused by the resonant coupling of two bound wave-centers
of Spherical Standing Waves (Electrons) with oscillating wave functions.
Because standing wave patterns only form at discrete frequencies the energy
states of electron in atoms are discrete, and can only change by discrete
amounts. This is why wave equations were first introduced into quantum theory
(de
Broglie, Schrodinger)
as these were the only natural phenomena that behaved discretely.

This diagram is an approximation (only shows the out-waves). It gives you
some idea of the 'secondary' wavelength (the 'electromagnetic' wavelength
of light) caused by the interactions of the spherical In and Out-Waves of
the two electrons (wave-centers) when they are bound in atoms / molecules
and thus have some repeating wave pattern that sets up the resonant coupling.

The diagram should actually show the wave patterns changing - one electron
would move to a lower energy wave pattern (emit a 'photon') the other electron
would move to a higher energy wave pattern (absorb a 'photon'). This process
is limited by the velocity of light which is simply the velocity of the
spherical in and out waves flowing through space.

### The de Broglie Wave is a High Velocity Phase Wave

The de Broglie wavelength is important as it is one of the fundamentals of Quantum theory that the WSM deduces due to Doppler shifts of two wave centers in relative motion. Interestingly the spherical wave interactions actually create a planar de Broglie wave (you can almost see this effect in above rough diagram).

Very importantly for EPR
/ non-locality, these beat waves travel at very high velocity for low
relative motion v. i.e. phase wave velocity = c^{2} / v.

This is even more important when you realise that in these same wave equations for relative motion you also get the relativistic mass increase of Einstein's special relativity. This is remarkable - to unite central elements of the two main theories of modern physics from one set of wave equations (see work of Milo Wolff).

### Formation of Solid Bodies from Waves in Nearly Rigid Space

This is a flash movie i made a couple of years ago. It is pretty amateur but helps explain how waves can form solid bodies.

Space itself is very very rigid (to explain such high velocity waves). It does not 'flow' like water - it is a continuously connected wave medium (there are no parts / particles in its structure). Matter is really just spherically vibrating Space. This is why all matter vibrates and has a resonant frequency.

### Some Ideas for Better Wave Diagrams!

It would be nice if a few people with talent for creating wave diagrams could share their ideas and skills to create a variety of wave diagrams.

1. The electron - spherical and cross section, showing in and out waves forming a spherical standing wave.

2. Charge - Waves are non-linear and travel faster with higher wave amplitude. Thus you can show that for two electrons that are in phase, then their in and out waves between them have a higher wave amplitude, travel faster, and thus cause wave centers to reposition further apart over time (like charges repel). For an electron and a positron the opposite is true, the positron (antimatter) is just an opposite phase standing wave to the electron, so the waves between them cancel, have lower wave amplitude, and travel more slowly causing wave centers to form closer together.

3. Light - need to take into account high velocity de Broglie phase wave that determines allowed wave function / pattern of electron in atom / molecule - while also showing how two electrons in different atoms / molecules can resonantly couple and change their respective wave patterns (emit and absorb discrete amount of energy / photon of light).

4. Gravity - slowing of in-waves causing them to change ellipsoidal shape
(Einstein's curvature of 4D space-time) and which also changes location
of wave center over time (with each successive in-wave the wave center repositions
itself in the direction of slowest incoming spherical waves - and waves
travel slower where there is more matter / higher wave energy density of
space).

We are currently working on this at the moment (will add stuff here once
complete) - looking at how light curves as it passes the sun to calculate
how the mass of the sun compared to the average mass of the universe slows
the wave velocity.

5. EPR / Non Locality - de Broglie phase wave where velocity is c^2 / relative velocity, so very fast at low relative velocities, to explain faster than light (non local) interactions.

6. Cosmology - Huygens' principle and the formation of in-waves from the out waves of all other matter in a finite spherical region of space (our observable universe) within infinite space.

Anything else that you think would be useful??!!

Cheers,

Geoff Haselhurst

Email

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