Metaphysics: Philosophy of Science
The Study of Reality & First Principles. Overcoming the Limitations of Empirically Founded Science with the Metaphysics of Space and Motion (WSM)

Four Fundamental Problems of Science

The following short essay on metaphysics explains the limitations of science and how these can be overcome with a correct understanding of metaphysics / physical reality (it is recommended that you read the metaphysics page first!).
Please also realise that we are considering classical metaphysics as it was conceived by Aristotle, Hume, Einstein (and other great philosophers) as the study of the hidden cause of our limited senses. As David Hume writes;

When we look about us towards external objects, and consider the operation of causes, we are never able, in a single instance, to discover any power or necessary connexion; any quality, which binds the effect to the cause, and renders the one an infallible consequence of the other. (David Hume, 1737)

Science is important because of its empirical foundations, but it is limited because we do not see the necessary / causal connection between things, only the effects.

Science Foundations

It is common knowledge that the sciences (including physics) are founded on two sources of truth;

i) Logic from principles. i.e. Theories. (a priori knowledge)

ii) Empirical knowledge from our senses. i.e. observation and experiment. (a posteriori knowledge)

Leibniz writes this rather elegantly!

Reality cannot be found except in One single source, because of the interconnection of all things with one another. (Leibniz) It is a good thing to proceed in order and to establish propositions (principles). This is the way to gain ground and to progress with certainty. ... I hold that the mark of a genuine idea is that its possibility can be proved, either a priori by conceiving its cause or reason, or a posteriori when experience teaches us that it is a fact in nature.
(Gottfried Leibniz, 1670)

The aim is to unite these two sources of truth with the most simple principles.

However, there are four central problems that we must first understand if we are to correctly understand metaphysics and its relation to science. This is important as it does lead to a simple solution for describing physical reality.

1. Logical Truths Vs Truths of Physical Reality

Although logic from principles is necessary and certain, it does not mean that the things we assume to exist (as stated by our principles) actually exist in reality. An example of this is the assumption that light is a 'particle' (photon). While it is true that light energy is emitted and absorbed in discrete amounts, it is a further theoretical assumption that light is a 'particle'. (As the Wave Structure of Matter explains, light is actually caused by standing wave interactions, which cause the discrete standing wave states and thus discrete energy states of matter found in quantum theory.)
As Einstein writes;

The skeptic will say: "It may well be true that this system of equations is reasonable from a logical standpoint. But this does not prove that it corresponds to nature." You are right, dear skeptic. Experience alone can decide on truth. ... Pure logical thinking cannot yield us any knowledge of the empirical world: all knowledge of reality starts from experience and ends in it. (Albert Einstein, 1954)

2. Our Senses are Incomplete and Deceptive Representations of the Mind

Further difficulties arise because our senses also deceive us. Philosophers have known for thousands of years that our mind represents our senses, thus the world we see and taste and touch is different (naive real) to the real world which causes our senses.
Basically, we never see the hidden connection between things, only the effects of that connection. e.g. When we drop a rock, we see it fall to the earth, but we do not see the connection between the rock and the earth (we give it a name, gravity, but this does not explain the causal connection).
Likewise, our sense of color is an obvious example of how our mind represents a certain frequency of light.
If we are to describe Reality then it must be founded on real things which exist and cause our senses, not on the naive real representation of our senses. Thus Science, by being empirically founded, is not well suited to describing Reality itself. As Aristotle and Hume wrote;

Rather, they start this, displaying it to the senses, .... and go on to offer more or less rigorous demonstrations of the per se attributes of their proprietary genera. This sort of procedure is inductive (empirical) and it is as plain as a pikestaff that it does not amount to a demonstration of essence or of what it is to be a thing. ... But also philosophy is not about perceptible substances (they, you see, are prone to destruction) (Aristotle, Metaphysics)

When we look about us towards external objects, and consider the operation of causes, we are never able, in a single instance, to discover any power or necessary connexion; any quality, which binds the effect to the cause, and renders the one an infallible consequence of the other. ... experience only teaches us, how one event constantly follows another; without instructing us in the secret connexion, which binds them together, and renders them inseparable. (David Hume, 1737)

3. We Only See the Discrete and Separate Aspect of Reality

When we see things, we are actually seeing a discrete energy exchange (light quanta) so we do not directly observe what matter is, we only see it when it changes its energy state (wave function). See Quantum Physics

4. Science is Empirically Founded on our Sense of Many Things (Matter)

Finally, science is founded on the observation of matter and its interconnected motions (many things). Since the time of Newton's Mechanics, Space and Time have been a 'background stage' in which matter 'particles' move about. So science is founded on observations of many material things we experience, and space has been largely ignored. However, as explained below, this then means that we must add 'forces / fields' to connect the matter 'particles' in space and time. The problem is that by working from the many things we experience, we have ignored the one thing (space) that these many things (matter) exist in.

Thus Science / Physics is inclined to be misled because both of its truths (logic & senses) are deceptive. Metaphysics aims to overcome this problem by using reason to try and understand what the real world is, which causes both our logic and our senses (and ourselves!).

The Solution to the Problems of Science

Given the above, we can now show in a very simple way how to resolve these problems. The solution is to realise the error of founding science on the many observable things (matter) rather than the one thing that they all exist in (Space) which causes and connects matter. i.e. For many thousands of years the great philosophers / metaphysicists have known that for matter to be interconnected throughout the universe, then there must be one thing that connects the many things (matter) together. That a complete description of reality must be founded on one thing / substance. As Gottfried Leibniz and Friedrich Nietzsche write;

Reality cannot be found except in One single source, because of the interconnection of all things with one another. (Leibniz, 1670)

Greek philosophy seems to begin with a preposterous fancy, with the proposition that water is the origin and mother-womb of all things. Is it really necessary to stop there and become serious? Yes, and for three reasons: firstly, because the preposition does enunciate something about the origin of things; secondly, because it does so without figure and fable; thirdly and lastly, because it contained, although only in the chrysalis state, the idea :everything is one. ... That which drove him (Thales) to this generalization was a metaphysical dogma, which had its origin in a mystic intuition and which together with the ever renewed endeavors to express it better, we find in all philosophies- the proposition: everything is one! (Friedrich Nietzsche, The Greeks)

Thus metaphysics is 'beyond our senses' because it realises that though we don't see an obvious causal connection between matter, reason tells us there is (e.g. drop a rock and it falls, the earth orbiting sun, we can see stars across the universe).

This is one thing that Immanuel Kant is famous for arguing - that Space and Time cannot both exist, thus they must be mere imaginations of the mind.
Likewise particles and their connecting forces / fields in a 4 dimensional space-time continuum cannot really exist (the current paradigm / problem of physics!). This explains why we now live in a postmodern relative culture of no absolute truths, because our theories are founded on many things, thus at the end of the day these are merely human constructions, ideas approximating reality, but not absolutely true.

So how do we overcome this? By rejecting particles, forces, fields and time, and explaining / connecting these many things from One thing Space.
As Aristotle wrote in his Metaphysics;

The first philosophy (Metaphysics) is universal and is exclusively concerned with primary substance. ... And here we will have the science to study that which is just as that which is, both in its essence and in the properties which, just as a thing that is, it has. ....That among entities there must be some cause which moves and combines things. ... There must then be a principle of such a kind that its substance is activity. (Aristotle, Metaphysics 340BC)

The Wave Structure of Matter deduces that one thing Space exists as a substance with the Properties of a wave medium. Matter is formed from spherical standing waves in this space (it is this wave motion of space that causes matter's activity and the phenomena of Time). This then solves the fundamental problem of metaphysics and philosophy, the problem of the one and the many, by connecting matter, time and forces back to the spherical wave motions of space.

The Wave Structure of Matter in SpaceFig.1 - The correct foundation is to describe matter in terms of one thing, Space and its wave motions. Thus motion applies to space, not matter, i.e. the spherical standing (wave) motion of Space causes matter, time and forces / fields (interconnection).

Note: We have a page of wave diagrams that will help you visualise the spherical standing wave structure of matter (WSM) in space. Basically, we only see the high wave amplitude wave-center and have been deluded into thinking matter was made of tiny little 'particles'. A very naive conception in hindsight - and quantum physics was telling us all along that waves were central to light and matter interactions!


Matter is large not small, but we only 'see' the Wave-Center of the spherical waves and have been deluded into the belief of 'particles'. Thus we can now understand how Matter interacts with other matter in the Space around it due to interactions of the spherical in-waves which ultimately determine the future location of the wave-center (what we now call forces and action-at-a-distance).

Uniting the Two Truths of Science

In ending it is useful to return to these two fundamental truths of science as we can now not only explain how they can exist, but also how to unite them.

i) Logic from principles. i.e. Theoretical physics. The reason why logic can exist in the universe is because waves behave logically, as determined by the properties of the Space wave medium. Simple!

ii) Empirical knowledge from our senses. i.e. observation and experiment. Again the solution is simple and obvious once known. You just have to get rid of the discrete particle conception of matter and replace it with the wave-center of the spherical in-waves. These spherical in-waves flow in from across the observable universe, and thus interact with all the other matter waves in the space around you. This is why you can see the moon and sun and stars, as your in-waves flow in through this other matter (wave structures) and due to wave interactions contain information about everything in the space around you.

If you read the mathematical physics pages on this site you will see that the wave structure of matter works perfectly - it correctly deduces the fundamentals of Quantum Physics, Albert Einstein's Theory of Relativity and Cosmology.
i.e. Logic from principles = Empirical knowledge from our senses.

There are three other pages that are important - together they will give you a very good understanding of this new (most simple) language for describing physical reality (and thus understanding your own existence in the universe - which is pretty amazing when you think about it).

Deducing the Most Simple Science Theory of Reality

Philosophy: On Wisdom from Truth and Reality

Metaphysics: On Causation and Necessary Connection

I hope that you will think about this - look at the world around you and think about how you exist in space and can move about and interact with everything in the space around you. The wave structure of matter is very simple and obvious once known - it is just a limitation of our human minds that it seems a bit strange when you first become aware of it.

Geoff Haselhurst, Email


Metaphysics: Philosophy of Science
The Study of Reality & First Principles. Overcoming the Limitations of Empirically Founded Science with the Metaphysics of Space (WSM)

Metaphysics is the attempt to know reality as against mere appearance, or the study of first principles or ultimate truths, or again the effort to comprehend the universe, not simply by fragments, but somehow as a whole. (F.H. Bradley, 1846-1924)
Metaphysics Solves
Problems of Science
All things come out of the one and the one out of all things. ... I see nothing but Becoming. Be not deceived! The very river in which you bathe a second time is no longer the same one you entered before. (Heraclitus, 500BC)
One and the Many
Dynamic Unity of Reality
Metaphysics is universal and is exclusively concerned with primary substance. ... Here we have the science to study that which is just as that which is, both in its essence and in the properties which, just as a thing that is, it has. (Aristotle, 340BC)
Aristotle Metaphysics
Substance & Properties
No one doubts but that we imagine TIME from the very fact that we imagine other bodies to be moved slower or faster or equally fast. We are accustomed to determine duration by the aid of some measure of MOTION. (Spinoza, 1673)
Benedictus de Spinoza
Metaphysics of Motion
Absolute Space, in its own nature, without regard to any thing external, remains always similar and immovable. ... It seems probable to me that God formed matter in solid, hard, impenetrable, movable particles. (Sir Isaac Newton)
Sir Isaac Newton
Absolute Space / Particles
Reality cannot be found except in One single source, because of the interconnection of all things with one another. ... Substance cannot be conceived without activity, activity being the essence of substance in general. (Gottfried Leibniz, 1670)
Gottfried Leibniz
Metaphysics / Monadology
When we look towards external objects, and consider the operation of causes, we can never discover any power or necessary connexion which binds the effect to the cause, and renders the one a consequence of the other. (David Hume, 1737)
David Hume Metaphysics
Necessary Connection
Natural science contains in itself synthetical judgments a priori, as principles. ... Space then is a necessary representation a priori, which serves for the foundation of all external intuitions. (Immanuel Kant, 1781)
Immanuel Kant Metaphysics
Synthetic a priori Knowledge
Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended (as fields). Thus the concept 'empty space' loses its meaning. ... The field becomes an irreducible element of physical description, irreducible in the same sense as matter (particles) in Newton's theory. (Albert Einstein, 1950)
Albert Einstein
Field Theory of Matter
Do not allow yourselves to be deceived: Great Minds are Skeptical. ... There is nothing more necessary than truth, and in comparison with it everything else has only secondary value. (Friedrich Nietzsche, 1890)
Metaphysics of Skepticism
Skeptical / Skeptics Quotes


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Biography: Geoffrey Haselhurst, Philosopher of Science, Theoretical Physics, Metaphysics, Evolution. Our world is in great trouble due to human behaviour founded on myths and customs that are causing the destruction of Nature and climate change. We can now deduce the most simple science theory of reality - the wave structure of matter in space. By understanding how we and everything around us are interconnected in Space we can then deduce solutions to the fundamental problems of human knowledge in physics, philosophy, metaphysics, theology, education, health, evolution and ecology, politics and society.

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