Physics - Time - Motion

Physics: Time - Motion: Aristotle - Motion Causes TimePhysics: Time - Motion: Spinoza - Motion Causes TimePhysics: Time - Motion: A clock is formed from any repeating Motion. John Fowles - Time in itself, absolutely, does not exist.. Time is a function of matter; and matter therefore is the clock that makes infinity real.Physics: Time - Motion: Gottfried Leibniz - I maintain also that substances, whether material or immaterial, cannot be conceived in their bare essence without any activity, activity being of the essence of substance in general.Physics: Time - Motion:  Immanuel Kant - We can have no knowledge of an object, as a thing in itself, but only as an object of sensible intuition, that is, as appearance

From Metaphysics of 'Space and Time' to Metaphysics of 'Space and Motion'
The Spherical Wave Motion of Space unites Time, Matter, Motion & Forces

It is utterly beyond our power to measure the changes of things by time. Quite the contrary, time is an abstraction at which we arrive by means of the changes (motion) of things. (Ernst Mach)

Time in itself, absolutely, does not exist; it is always relative to some observer or some object. Without a clock I say 'I do not know the time' . Without matter time itself is unknowable. Time is a function of matter; and matter therefore is the clock that makes infinity real. (Fowles, The Aristos)


Introduction & Summary of Time and the Metaphysics of Space and Motion

The purpose of this page is to show you that Time is really caused by Motion, as the wave Motion of Space. The argument is simple.
Since the time of Aristotle, philosophers have known of the connection between Time and Motion. As Aristotle and Spinoza wrote;

Motion must always have been in existence, and the same can be said for time itself, since it is not even possible for there to be an earlier and a later if time does not exist. Movement, then, is also continuous in the way in which time is - indeed time is either identical to movement or is some affection of it. ... The entire preoccupation of the physicist is with things that contain within themselves a principle of movement and rest. ... there being two causes of which we have defined in the Physics, that of matter and that from which the motion comes. ... It need hardly be pointed out that with things that do not change there is no illusion with respect to time, given the assumption of their unchangeability. (Aristotle, Metaphysics)

No one doubts but that we imagine time from the very fact that we imagine other bodies to be moved slower or faster or equally fast. We are accustomed to determine duration by the aid of some measure of motion. (Spinoza, Ethics)

You can confirm this connection between time and motion yourselves by thinking about any clock. All clocks function on the repeating motion of matter, e.g. pendulum clocks, early watches which used rotating cog wheels, to modern clocks which use repeating vibrations of crystals. Likewise we use the repeating motion of the orbit of the earth about the sun for longer time durations which we call years.
And the official measure of time is an atomic clock which uses the natural resonance frequency of the cesium atom (9,192,631,770 Hz) to measure time.

So we immediately see this connection between not just time and motion, but time and wave motion (resonance is due to wave motions).

However, and most importantly, modern physics shows that there is also a connection between time and motion and matter and space.

Very briefly, Physics evolved from Newton's Mechanics which is founded on a Metaphysics of Space and Time, which require the further concepts of the Motion of Matter 'particles' and thus also gravity 'forces' to connect these discrete matter 'particles'. The problem for physics was how are all these things connected.

Albert Einstein tried to solve this with his continuous field theory of matter, where he rejects the discrete particle and represents matter as continuous fields in space-time. Einstein writes;

The inseparability of time and space emerged in connection with electrodynamics, or the law of propagation of light. ... With the discovery of the relativity of simultaneity, space and time were merged in a single continuum in a way similar to that in which the three dimensions of space had previously merged into a single continuum. Physical space was thus extended to a four dimensional space which also included the dimension of time. The four dimensional space of the special theory of relativity is just as rigid and absolute as Newton's space. (Albert Einstein, 1954)

When forced to summarize the general theory of relativity in one sentence:
Time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter. (Albert Einstein)

Thus physics is actually telling us that time is connected not just with motion, but also matter and space. From this we can conclude that time does not exist as a thing in itself (see Kant), but rather is somehow related to space, matter and motion.

The Solution

To unite these four apparently separate things is easy. Einstein was correct, there are no separate and discrete matter 'particles' - that space, time, matter and motion are one interconnected thing. His error was to work from continuous fields in space-time, rather than wave motions of a continuous space (see articles on left of page on the wave structure of matter).

So Time is really caused by Motion, as the wave Motion of Space. Matter is the same, caused by the wave motion of space. This is why Space, Time, Matter and Motion are all interconnected - they are all due to the wave motion of space. Simple!

Basically we have moved from a metaphysics of Space and Time (which also has to add matter 'particles' and their connecting 'forces / fields') - to a Metaphysics of Space and Motion where the spherical standing wave motion of Space causes matter and its forces / fields.

This unification is unique, there is only one way to do this. This is consistent with the fact that there is only one reality, thus only one language for correctly describing reality.

We can further verify that it is Space and Motion which must exist and not Space and Time.

Let us assume that Space and Time exist, but there is no Motion.
Matter could not move, light could not travel through Space. Thus without Motion there is no measure of Time, thus no reason for introducing the concept of Time. As Aristotle says;

It need hardly be pointed out that with things that do not change there is no illusion with respect to time, given the assumption of their unchangeability. (Aristotle)

Let us now assume that Space and Motion exist and there is no Time.
Thus Matter can still exist as the spherical wave Motion of Space. Our atomic clocks would still be resonating. Our world would still move as we observe it, there would simply be no idea of time, only the the idea of wave motions of space that form matter. This does not cause us any problems, in fact the opposite is true, as modern physics prefers to use the velocity of light and the vibration of crystals (i.e. wave Motion) as its foundation for Time.

Thus the wave Motion of Space explains Time (and Matter / Forces) - but Space and Time do not explain Motion (and instead further require the concepts of Motion / Matter / Forces / Fields).


On the Past, Present and Future and the One Way Direction of Time

Once we realize that it is not Space and Time which are fundamental, but the (wave) Motion of Space, then it becomes obvious why Time is directional. If we apply this understanding of Time to Matter as Spherical Standing Waves in Space, this then leads to the following explanation of Past, Present, and Future.

It takes Time for the spherical In-Wave to flow into their Wave-Center, thus the In-Waves are the future, and in time will meet at their Wave-Center (the present) and after flowing through the Wave-Center become Out-Waves (the past). This is important for it explains why Time is directional because the wave Motion of Space is directional, i.e. In and Out Waves travel in opposite directions relative to the Wave-Center (present). Basically there is just vibrating space and the eternal present. But if you want to talk about the future and the past, well this can be easily understood with the spherical In and Out waves.

Represents Spherical In-Wave (our future) flowing In to form the Wave-Center (our present) + Represents Spherical Out-Wave (our past) flowing Out of the Wave-Center (our present) = Combined In-Waves and Out-Waves form a Spherical Standing Wave about the Wave Center (our present). This explains the particle / wave duality of Matter. Matter is a Spherical Standing Wave - the Wave-Center causes the 'particle' effect of matter.
This rough diagram shows how the spherical In-Waves and Out-Waves form a Standing Wave around the Wave-Center 'particle'. See the Wave Diagrams page for more images that help visualise the Wave Structure of Matter.

Eric Lerner provides a very nice explanation of why Time must be directional and how this relates to the continuous nature of Space (as the wave structure of matter explains, and which is contrary to the laws of modern particle physics);

This is one of the deepest paradoxes of conventional physics today. According to all the laws of physics there should be no distinction between past and future, no direction to time. Since the second law says that entropy necessarily increases with time, and thus the past and future differ, the second law, too, is contradicted.
In relativity theory, for example, time is simply the fourth dimension - there is no more difference between past and future than between left and right. There is no flow of time: all the equations would look the same if time were reversed. Nor is this true of relativity alone. Newton's laws and the laws of quantum mechanics also are what physicists call 'time reversible'; they define no unique direction for time. If one were to make a movie of two billiard balls colliding, for example, it would look just as credible if it were run in reverse.

But in the real world, there is a difference. If it is two raw eggs that collide and break in the movie, it would look absurd in reverse. The two eggs would assemble themselves out of a puddle and roll off. In the real world babies are born, never unborn, they grow up, never down, and eggs are scrambled, never unscrambled. These processes are all irreversible: time moves forward, toward growth or decay.
Hence the fundamental question: If "the laws of the universe" have no direction in time, why does the real world? Why do laws like the second law, which have a direction for time, work?

The conventional answer to this question is, strangely, the Big Bang. The Big Bang started the universe off in a highly orderly and regular state- a "perfect" state of very low entropy. Since the universe must run down through states of increasing disorder, closer to equilibrium (the state in which there is no flow of energy), the direction of time is defined. Time is just the direction "away" from the Big Bang. If there was no Big Bang, there would supposedly be no difference between past and future. The universe would be at equilibrium, and no event would diminish past from future. But the unique event of the Big Bang, so symmetric in space, creates an asymmetry in time.
Thus, if there was no Big Bang - as seems to be the case - we have further questions: Why does time move forward? Is there a difference between past and future, or is it, as Einstein believed, merely a persistent illusion?

The importance of the answers extends far beyond their role at the center of a consistent cosmology. They strike at the heart of some of the greatest mysteries faced by science, philosophy and religion - the questions of the nature of human consciousness, the relation of mind and body, and free will. The distinction between past, present, and future is basic to our experience of consciousness - we are conscious in the now, we remember the past, but we cannot know the future. It also is central to our idea of free will, for it implies that our actions in the present affect the future, that the past is fixed but the future can be changed. How can these ideas be reconciled with a concept of physical laws in which past, present and future all exist equally and cannot be distinguished?
The problem of 'reversible time,' then, arises because scientists improperly abstract reality and believe their highly accurate equations to be absolutely, infinitely precise. It is reversible time that is subjective, an illusion, not irreversible time. The real world is continually coming into existence, created by an infinitely complex web of instabilities and interactions. As Prigogine puts it, 'Time is creation. The future is just not there'.
Time's irreversibility is based on the continuity of space, on its infinite divisibility. (Lerner, 1991)

If you want understand this in more detail then the following articles are useful.

Metaphysics: Uniting Space Time Matter and Motion

Deducing the Most Simple Science Theory of Reality

Solution to the Problem of the One and the Many and the related Problems of the Infinite and the Finite, Eternal and Temporal, Absolute and Relative, Continuous and Discrete, Simple and Complex, Matter and Universe.

Immanuel Kant: Metaphysics

By understanding what time really is, and thus uniting space time matter and motion with the wave motion of Space we can now explain and solve the fundamental problems of Science, Philosophy, Physics and Theology (i.e. all human knowledge - by understanding the necessary connection between cause and effect).

Geoff Haselhurst


Philosophy & Physics Quotes on Time

I ask you both, why did these creators of the world suddenly wake up, after apparently having been asleep from time immemorial? Even if there was then no world, time must still have been passing. Time, I say, and not those periods of time which are measured by the number of nights and days in the course of a year. I admit that these depend upon the circular movement of the world. But from all eternity there has been an infinite time, unmeasurable by any periodical divisions. This we can understand from the analogy of space. But we cannot even conceive that once upon a time there was no time at all. (Cicero)

Absolute, True, and Mathematical Time, of itself, and from its own nature flows equably without regard to any thing external, and by another name is called Duration: Relative, Apparent, and Common Time is some sensible and external (whether accurate or unequable) measure of Duration by the means of motion, which is commonly used instead of True time; such as an Hour, a Day, a Month, a Year ...
For the natural days are truly unequable, though they are commonly considered as equal, and used for a measure of time: Astronomers correct this inequality for their more accurate deducing of the celestial motions. It may be, that there is no such thing as an equable motion, whereby time may be accurately measured. All motions may be accelerated and retarded, but the True, or equable progress, of Absolute time is liable to no change. The duration or perseverance of the existence of things remains the same, whether the motions are swift or slow, or none at all ... (Max Born)

Motion must always have been in existence, and the same can be said for time itself, since it is not even possible for there to be an earlier and a later if time does not exist. Movement, then, is also continuous in the way in which time is - indeed time is either identical to movement or is some affection of it. (There is, however, only one continuous movement, namely spatial movement, and of this only circular rotation.) (Aristotle, Metaphysics)

No one doubts but that we imagine time from the very fact that we imagine other bodies to be moved slower or faster or equally fast. We are accustomed to determine duration by the aid of some measure of motion. (Spinoza, Ethics)

Time in itself, absolutely, does not exist; it is always relative to some observer or some object. Without a clock I say 'I do not know the time' . Without matter time itself is unknowable. Time is a function of matter; and matter therefore is the clock that makes infinity real. (Fowles, The Aristos)

The entire preoccupation of the physicist is with things that contain within themselves a principle of movement and rest.
(Aristotle, Metaphysics)

It need hardly be pointed out that with things that do not change there is no illusion with respect to time, given the assumption of their unchangeability. (Aristotle)

..about its coming into being and its doings and about all its alterations we think that we have knowledge when we know the source of its movement. (Aristotle, Metaphysics)





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Biography: Geoffrey Haselhurst, Philosopher of Science, Theoretical Physics, Metaphysics, Evolution. Our world is in great trouble due to human behaviour founded on myths and customs that are causing the destruction of Nature and climate change. We can now deduce the most simple science theory of reality - the wave structure of matter in space. By understanding how we and everything around us are interconnected in Space we can then deduce solutions to the fundamental problems of human knowledge in physics, philosophy, metaphysics, theology, education, health, evolution and ecology, politics and society.

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