Physics
Aristotle Physics - There must then be a principle of such a kind that its substance is activity.Albert Einstein - PhysicsPhysics: Louis de BroglieNiels Bohr, Physics: Wave Structure of Matter Explains Discrete Energy States of Bohr's Atomic Orbits. Quotations Niels Bohr.Werner Heisenberg -  Light and matter are both single entities, and the apparent duality arises in the limitations of our language. Physics Quantum Theory Paul A. M. DiracPhysics: Erwin Schrodinger - The scientist only imposes two things, namely truth and sincerity, imposes them upon himself and upon other scientists.Max Born - One obvious objection to the hypothesis of an elastic Aether (Space) arises from the necessity of ascribing to it the great rigidity it must have to account for the high velocity of Waves. Such a substance would necessarily offer resistance to the motion of heavenly bodies, particularly to that of planets.Physics: Richard  Feynman - The more you see how strangely Nature behaves, the harder it is to make a model that explains how even the simplest phenomena actually work. So theoretical physics has given up on that.

Simple solutions to the Problems of Physics Caused by the 'Particle' Conception of Matter. From Matter as 'Particles' moving in Space and Time, to Matter as Spherical Wave Motions of Space.

Physics constitutes a logical system of thought which is in a state of evolution, whose basis (principles) cannot be distilled, as it were, from experience by an inductive method, but can only be arrived at by free invention. The justification (truth content) of the system rests in the verification of the derived propositions (a priori / logical truths) by sense experiences (a posteriori / empirical truths). ... Evolution is proceeding in the direction of increasing simplicity of the logical basis (principles). .. We must always be ready to change these notions - that is to say, the axiomatic basis of physics - in order to do justice to perceived facts in the most perfect way logically. (Albert Einstein, Physics and Reality, 1936)
The supreme task of the physicist is to arrive at those universal elementary laws from which the cosmos can be built up by pure deduction. (Albert Einstein, 1954)


Introduction to Physics: Wave Structure Matter (WSM) - Physics Aristotle - Physics Albert Einstein - Physics Quotes Quantum Theory - Famous Physics Quotes - Top of Page

Introduction to Physics

This page has a short summary of Physics with a simple explanation of their problems founded on the Wave Structure of Matter in Space. This is followed by a good collection of important / famous physics quotes.
The articles listed on each side of the page explain how the Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) simplifies and solves numerous problems of physics, philosophy and metaphysics by explaining how matter is necessarily interconnected to other matter in Space across the observable Universe.
Geoff Haselhurst (June, 2009)

Abrupt Abstract!: The solution was simple - just replace the current paradigm of matter / energy in space-time, with the most simple foundation - the wave motion of space.
We find that matter is a spherical in out wave structure in space, the wave-center forms the particle effect, the spherical in and out waves provide continual two way communication between all matter in the universe (matter shares its wave energy / vibrates with other matter in the space around it).

 

As a wave is an oscillation between kinetic and elastic energy of space (a wave medium) thus matter-energy in space-time is really just spherically vibrating space.

Time / change is due to the wave motion of space (which causes matter's dynamic activity that we perceive as change / time).

The 'particle' effect of matter is obviously formed at the wave-center of the spherical standing waves.

The 'particle / photon' effect of light is due to resonance and discrete standing wave interactions - this is why Schrodinger's wave equations are used to determine these discrete energy states.

The wave diagrams page makes this much easier to visualise.

Thus 'particle / field interactions in space-time' are really just wave interactions in space. The spherical in-waves change velocity when they interact with other matter waves while flowing in to the wave-center, causing the wave center to re-position (the particle to move around / accelerate).

This makes it easy to understand how the wave-center 'particle' is connected to and interacts with all the other matter in the universe.

Einstein, Schrodinger and Bohm were correct - matter is a spatially extended structure of the universe.

When forced to summarize the general theory of relativity in one sentence: Time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter.' ... Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended (as fields). In this way the concept 'empty space' loses its meaning. (Albert Einstein)

'What we observe as material bodies and forces are nothing but shapes and variations in the structure of space. Particles are just schaumkommen (appearances). ... The world is given to me only once, not one existing and one perceived. Subject and object are only one. The barrier between them cannot be said to have broken down as a result of recent experience in the physical sciences, for this barrier does not exist. ... I am opposing not a few special statements of quantum mechanics held today (1950s), I am opposing as it were the whole of it, I am opposing its basic views that have been shaped 25 years ago, when Max Born put forward his probability interpretation (of waves), which was accepted by almost everybody.' (Erwin Schrodinger)

The notion that all these fragments is separately existent is evidently an illusion, and this illusion cannot do other than lead to endless conflict and confusion. Indeed, the attempt to live according to the notion that the fragments are really separate is, in essence, what has led to the growing series of extremely urgent crises that is confronting us today. Thus, as is now well known, this way of life has brought about pollution, destruction of the balance of nature, over-population, world-wide economic and political disorder and the creation of an overall environment that is neither physically nor mentally healthy for most of the people who live in it. Individually there has developed a widespread feeling of helplessness and despair, in the face of what seems to be an overwhelming mass of disparate social forces, going beyond the control and even the comprehension of the human beings who are caught up in it. (David Bohm, Wholeness and the Implicate Order, 1980)

On Physics and the Wave Structure of Matter in Space

Philosophy, physics and metaphysics are not abstract concepts (academics may make them abstract and meaningless). They are the study of what we really are as humans existing in the Universe. This is why true knowledge of reality is profound - as it is about our true existence in Space.
We can now deduce that we humans are spatially extended wave structures of the Universe. Physics tells us that all matter interactions in space-time, are really just wave interactions in space.

Matter is very large - as big as the universe! But we only ever experience the high wave amplitude wave-centers and have been deceived into thinking matter was a tiny 'particle'.

Go and gaze at the night sky, all those brilliant bright stars surrounded by Space (if you are in the darkness of the country). That is you. This is why you can see stars, because those stars are a part of you, as you are a part of them. Einstein knew this.

A human being is part of the whole called by us universe, a part limited in time and space. We experience ourselves, our thoughts and feelings as something separate from the rest. A kind of optical delusion of consciousness. This delusion is a kind of prison for us, restricting us to our personal desires and to affection for a few persons nearest to us. Our task must be to free ourselves from the prison by widening our circle of compassion to embrace all living creatures and the whole of nature in its beauty. The true value of a human being is determined by the measure and the sense in which they have obtained liberation from the self. We shall require a substantially new manner of thinking if humanity is to survive. (Albert Einstein, 1954)

What follows is a short summary / solution to the central problems of physics, based on this most simple conception of the wave structure of matter in space.

Uniting the Fundamentals of Physics

Spherical Standing WaveThe main problem for physics has been the introduction of the concepts of 'particles', 'fields' and 'time' in addition to Space. But no one has been able to unite these different concepts (Einstein rejected the discrete particle concept and tried to represent matter/energy as continuous fields in space-time, but he could never explain the discrete aspects of light and matter found in Quantum Theory). However it is well accepted by scientists (and philosophers / metaphysicists ) that physical reality is interconnected (there is no separation between matter, energy, space and time, they are all one interconnected thing).

As Smolin, Einstein and Leibniz wrote;

A successful unification of quantum theory and relativity would necessarily be a theory of the universe as a whole. It would tell us, as Aristotle and Newton did before, what space and time are, what the cosmos is, what things are made of, and what kind of laws those things obey. Such a theory will bring about a radical shift - a revolution - in our understanding of what nature is. It must also have wide repercussions, and will likely bring about, or contribute to, a shift in our understanding of ourselves and our relationship to the rest of the universe. (Lee Smolin, 1997)

'When forced to summarize the general theory of relativity in one sentence: Time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter.' (Albert Einstein)

'Reality cannot be found except in One single source, because of the interconnection of all things with one another.' (Leibniz, Monadology)

The solution is very simple and obvious once known. All we needed to do was abide by these rules of Science (Occam's Razor / simplicity), and in particular, Physics, Philosophy and Metaphysics. i.e. To realise that there is an underlying unity / interconnection to reality, thus if you start with Space, then you cannot add anything else too it (e.g. particles, fields, time) and instead you must simply consider the Properties of Space.
As Aristotle profoundly wrote 2,500 years ago;

'The first philosophy (Metaphysics) is universal and is exclusively concerned with primary substance. ... And here we will have the science to study that which is just as that which is, both in its essence and in the properties which, just as a thing that is, it has. ... The entire preoccupation of the physicist is with things that contain within themselves a principle of movement and rest. And to seek for this is to seek for the second kind of principle, that from which comes the beginning of the change. (Aristotle, 340BC)

We can now explain this Substance and its Properties by describing Reality in terms of One thing, Space (a physical substance), existing with the Properties of a Wave Medium - which abides by the rules of Metaphysics, where matter's activity (change / time) comes from the wave motion of Space. Matter is formed from spherical standing waves in Space.

Geoff Haselhurst


A Brief History of Physics (Reality) and a Simple Solution to their Problems.

'My purpose therefore is, to try if I can discover what those principles are, which have introduced all that doubtfulness and uncertainty, those absurdities and contradictions into the several sects of philosophy; insomuch that the wisest men have thought our ignorance incurable, conceiving it to arise from the natural dullness and limitation of our faculties.' (George Berkeley, 1710)

'The development during the present century is characterized by two theoretical systems essentially independent of each other: the theory of relativity and the quantum theory. The two systems do not directly contradict each other; but they seem little adapted to fusion into one unified theory. For the time being we have to admit that we do not possess any general theoretical basis for physics which can be regarded as its logical foundation.' (Albert Einstein, 1940)

Physics classically evolved from Newton's Mechanics (1687), which was founded on 'mass' particles and instantly acting gravitational forces in Absolute Space and Time, i.e. F=m.a. Newton acknowledged that he did not know how these discrete and separate particles could instantly act on one another across Space - it was just mathematical formalism.

'It is inconceivable that inanimate brute matter should, without mediation of something else which is not matter, operate on and affect other matter without mutual contact. ... That gravity should be innate, inherent and essential to matter, so that one body may act upon another at-a-distance, through a vacuum, without the mediation of anything else by and through which their action may be conveyed from one to another, is to me so great an absurdity that I believe no man, who has in philosophical matters a competent faculty of thinking, can ever fall into it. ...
So far I have explained the phenomena by the force of gravity, but I have not yet ascertained the cause of gravity itself. ... and I do not arbitrarily invent hypotheses.' (Newton. Letter to Richard Bentley 25 Feb. 1693)

Then in the early 19th century Faraday added the concept of charged discrete particles generating continuous electric and magnetic fields which acted on other charged particles in Space around them. When Maxwell showed (Maxwell's Equations) that a wavelike interaction between the electric and magnetic fields (the Electromagnetic Wave) propagated with the measured velocity of light it seemed to confirm this electromagnetic (em) structure of Light and Matter, and that matter interactions where not instant-actions-at-a-distance (Newton), but limited by the velocity of light c (Einstein's Locality). This was then further formalised with Lorentz's em Theory of the Electron (1900).

However, at the turn of the 20th century, Plank's discovery of the discrete 'quantum' properties of light, followed by Einstein's work on the photoelectric effect (1905) shattered this continuous wave nature of light (light seemed to also behave as a discrete 'particle / photon').

With de Broglie's further conception of the wave properties of matter this meant that by the 1930s there was a particle wave duality for both light and matter (depending on the experiment)!
This became even more confusing with Born's discovery that the square of Schrodinger's Wave Equations (using standing waves / resonance to explain discrete energy states of light and matter) could be used to find the probability of where the 'particle' would be found. Add to this Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle, and Bohr's Copenhagen Interpretation (Nature is statistical rather than deterministic, particle and wave complement one another) then you can see how confusing Physics had become.

Albert Einstein tried to solve this mess by rejecting the 'particle' concept of matter and representing Matter as continuous spherical fields in Space-Time. He writes;

'Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended (as fields). In this way the concept 'empty space' loses its meaning. ... The field thus becomes an irreducible element of physical description, irreducible in the same sense as the concept of matter (particles) in the theory of Newton. ... The physical reality of space is represented by a field whose components are continuous functions of four independent variables - the co-ordinates of space and time. Since the theory of general relativity implies the representation of physical reality by a continuous field, the concept of particles or material points cannot play a fundamental part, nor can the concept of motion. The particle can only appear as a limited region in space in which the field strength or the energy density are particularly high.' (Albert Einstein, Metaphysics of Relativity, 1950)
'When forced to summarize the general theory of relativity in one sentence: Time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter.' (Albert Einstein)

He attempted a pure Continuous field theory of matter because he did not believe that there could be both a discrete particle and a continuous field (that acted on one another). While Einstein is most famous as a Mathematical Physicist, he also read Metaphysics and Philosophy, thus he agreed that there must be some kind of unity to reality to explain how matter is interconnected across the universe. As Aristotle, Leibniz and Bradley write;

'The first philosophy (Metaphysics) is universal and is exclusively concerned with primary substance. ... And here we will have the science to study that which is just as that which is, both in its essence and in the properties which, just as a thing that is, it has.
The entire preoccupation of the physicist is with things that contain within themselves a principle of movement and rest. And to seek for this is to seek for the second kind of principle, that from which comes the beginning of the change. ... That among entities there must be some cause which moves and combines things. ... There must then be a principle of such a kind that its substance is activity' (Aristotle, Metaphysics, 340BC)

'Reality cannot be found except in One single source, because of the interconnection of all things with one another. ... I maintain also that substances, whether material or immaterial, cannot be conceived in their bare essence without any activity, activity being of the essence of substance in general.' (Gottfried Leibniz, 1670)

' We may agree, perhaps, to understand by Metaphysics an attempt to know reality as against mere appearance, or the study of first principles or ultimate truths, or again the effort to comprehend the universe, not simply piecemeal or by fragments, but somehow as a whole.' (Bradley, 1846-1924)

However, Einstein failed in his attempts at a unified continuous field theory of matter, never able to explain the discrete properties of light and matter found in Quantum Theory. He wrote;

' All these fifty years of conscious brooding have brought me no nearer to the answer to the question, 'What are light quanta?' Nowadays every Tom, Dick and Harry thinks he knows it, but he is mistaken. … I consider it quite possible that physics cannot be based on the field concept, i.e., on continuous structures. In that case, nothing remains of my entire castle in the air, gravitation theory included, [and of] the rest of modern physics.' (Albert Einstein, 1954)

This failure and confusion has left us with a Postmodern view of reality, that there are no absolute truths, and we can only have approximate theories (true knowledge of reality is a naive dream). As Feynman famously wrote;

' The more you see how strangely Nature behaves, the harder it is to make a model that explains how even the simplest phenomena actually work. So theoretical physics has given up on that.' (Richard Feynman, The Strange Theory of Light and Matter)

Despite this pessimism, a few people have (over the past 20 years) shown that there is in fact a very simple sensible solution to these problems that (strangely) has been largely ignored over the past 70 years. To consider a pure Wave Structure of Matter in Space.
This Metaphysics of Space and the Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) solves these problems by describing Reality in terms of One thing, Space, existing with the Properties of a Wave Medium (which abides by the rules of Metaphysics, where matter's activity comes from the wave motion of Space). We can then explain these central concepts of physics, i.e. 'particles, fields and time' in the following manner.

Matter is formed from Spherical Standing Waves in Space which cause the 'particle' effect at their Wave Center. (See Wave Diagrams)

Time is due to the Wave Motion (activity) of Space.

Forces / Fields are caused by the interaction of the Spherical In and Out Waves with other matter in Space which changes the location of the Wave-Center (and which we 'see' as a 'force accelerating a particle').

Particle Wave Duality of Matter - This is obviously explained by the Wave-Center of the Spherical Standing Wave.

Particle Wave Duality of Light - This is a little more complex, but still simple once understood. The discrete 'particle / photon' effects of light occur because standing wave interactions (like electrons in certain wave functions in an atom) only exist at discrete frequencies, which equate to discrete energy states where E = hf. And this is why de Broglie & Schrodinger introduced wave equations into Quantum Theory in the first place, to explain these discrete aspects of reality / matter and its interactions).
As Schrodinger and Einstein wrote;

' What we observe as material bodies and forces are nothing but shapes and variations in the structure of space. Particles are just schaumkommen (appearances). ... The world is given to me only once, not one existing and one perceived. Subject and object are only one. The barrier between them cannot be said to have broken down as a result of recent experience in the physical sciences, for this barrier does not exist. ... I am opposing not a few special statements of quantum mechanics held today (1950s), I am opposing as it were the whole of it, I am opposing its basic views that have been shaped 25 years ago, when Max Born put forward his probability interpretation (of waves), which was accepted by almost everybody.' (Erwin Schrodinger on Quantum Theory)

' The next step was taken by de Broglie. He asked himself how the discrete states could be understood by the aid of current concepts, and hit on a parallel with stationary (standing) waves, as for instance in the case of proper frequencies of organ pipes and strings in acoustics. ... Experiments on interference made with particle rays have given brilliant proof that the wave character of the phenomena of motion as assumed by the theory does, really, correspond to the facts. (Albert Einstein, 1954)

Most importantly, the Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) simplifies Einstein's foundation from continuous spherical fields in space-time, to spherical waves in continuous Space. In fact the WSM, being founded on the existence of one thing, Space (and its properties as a wave medium), is the most simple science language for describing physical reality. Thus it has been negligent of Scientists in having not given the Wave Structure of Matter proper consideration when the wave properties of light and matter were first discovered.

Finally, does it work, i.e. does the Wave Structure of Matter unite the central theories of modern physics?
The answer is an emphatic yes.

The Wave Structure of Matter deduces fundamentals of Einstein's Relativity (relativistic mass increase) and Quantum Theory (de Broglie wavelength) due to Doppler effects of relative motion (in the one set of simple wave equations). See articles by Prof. Milo Wolff.

It also solves numerous problems in Cosmology by realising that the redshift with distance is due to decreasing wave interactions with distance. i.e. It is not a Doppler effect, thus there is no expansion from a Big Bang / creation. Space has always existed to infinity (which is logical given it is the one thing that exists, thus it cannot be created or bound by something else).

As Prof. Carver Mead wrote; (Professor emeritus at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), having taught there for over 40 years. Received the Lemelson-MIT Prize ($500,000) in 1999).

' It is my firm belief that the last seven decades of the twentieth century will be characterized in history as the dark ages of theoretical physics.'

' The quantum world is a world of waves, not particles. So we have to think of electron waves and proton waves and so on. Matter is 'incoherent' when all its waves have a different wavelength, implying a different momentum. On the other hand, if you take a pure quantum system - the electrons in a superconducting magnet, or the atoms in a laser - they are all in phase with one another, and they demonstrate the wave nature of matter on a large scale. Then you can see quite visibly what matter is down at its heart.' (Carver Mead Interview, American Spectator, Sep/Oct2001, Vol. 34 Issue 7, p68)

And David Bohm sums up the importance of this knowledge very well;

' The notion that all these fragments is separately existent is evidently an illusion, and this illusion cannot do other than lead to endless conflict and confusion. Indeed, the attempt to live according to the notion that the fragments are really separate is, in essence, what has led to the growing series of extremely urgent crises that is confronting us today. Thus, as is now well known, this way of life has brought about pollution, destruction of the balance of nature, over-population, world-wide economic and political disorder and the creation of an overall environment that is neither physically nor mentally healthy for most of the people who live in it. Individually there has developed a widespread feeling of helplessness and despair, in the face of what seems to be an overwhelming mass of disparate social forces, going beyond the control and even the comprehension of the human beings who are caught up in it.'
(David Bohm, Wholeness and the Implicate Order, 1980)

For more information on what is really a very simple and sensible description of physical reality please see the links on the side of this page. Below you will find an interesting collection of famous physics quotes.

Geoff Haselhurst


Introduction to Physics: Wave Structure Matter (WSM) - Physics Aristotle - Physics Albert Einstein - Physics Quotes Quantum Theory - Famous Physics Quotes - Top of Page

Aristotle Physics - There must then be a principle of such a kind that its substance is activity.Aristotle on Physics / Metaphysics

The first philosophy (Metaphysics) is universal and is exclusively concerned with primary substance. ... And here we will have the science to study that which is just as that which is, both in its essence and in the properties which, just as a thing that is, it has. (Aristotle, 340BC)

..about its coming into being and its doings and about all its alterations we think that we have knowledge when we know the source of its movement. (Aristotle, Metaphysics)

The entire preoccupation of the physicist is with things that contain within themselves a principle of movement and rest. And to seek for this is to seek for the second kind of principle, that from which comes the beginning of the change. (Aristotle, 340BC)

There must then be a principle of such a kind that its substance is activity. (Aristotle, 340BC)

It is clear, then, that wisdom is knowledge having to do with certain principles and causes. But now, since it is this knowledge that we are seeking, we must consider the following point: of what kind of principles and of what kind of causes is wisdom the knowledge? (Aristotle, Metaphysics)

Metaphysics involves intuitive knowledge of unprovable starting-points (concepts and truth) and demonstrative knowledge of what follows from them. (Aristotle, Metaphysics)

.. it is impossible that the primary existent, being eternal, should be destroyed.
.. that among entities there must be some cause which moves and combines things.
.. about its coming into being and its doings and about all its alterations we think that we have knowledge when we know the source of its movement. (Aristotle, Metaphysics)

The life of theoretical philosophy is the best and happiest a man can lead. Few men are capable of it (and then only intermittently). For the rest there is a second-best way of life, that of moral virtue and practical wisdom. (Aristotle, Metaphysics)

Aristotle was a fine philosopher and very close to the truth about reality with his conception of the 'Prime Mover' i.e. Space and its Wave Motions. So it is well worth reading his ideas on Physics (unfortunately most modern physicists would not have read Aristotle, which probably explains a lot about the problems of modern physics). Also see;
Aristotle - On Philosopher Aristotle's Metaphysics and Physics (Motion). (Aristotle was one of the greatest of the famous philosophers and should be read by all people interested in philosophy and wisdom.)


Introduction to Physics: Wave Structure Matter (WSM) - Physics Aristotle - Physics Albert Einstein - Physics Quotes Quantum Theory - Famous Physics Quotes - Top of Page

Physics: Albert Einstein - Physics constitutes a logical system of thought which is in a state of evolution, whose basis (principles) cannot be distilled, as it were, from experience by an inductive method, but can only be arrived at by free invention.Albert Einstein on Physics

Albert Einstein is one of my favourite philosophers despite the fact that I think he greatly confused modern physics with his Theory of Relativity. Below you will find some interesting quotes from Albert Einstein on Physics, for complete discussion of his Relativity Theory see: Physics: Albert Einstein's Theory of Special & General Relativity

Physics constitutes a logical system of thought which is in a state of evolution, whose basis (principles) cannot be distilled, as it were, from experience by an inductive method, but can only be arrived at by free invention. The justification (truth content) of the system rests in the verification of the derived propositions (a priori/logical truths) by sense experiences (a posteriori/empirical truths). ... Evolution is proceeding in the direction of increasing simplicity of the logical basis (principles). .. We must always be ready to change these notions - that is to say, the axiomatic basis of physics - in order to do justice to perceived facts in the most perfect way logically. (Albert Einstein, Physics and Reality, 1936)
It is the grand object of all theory to make these irreducible elements (axioms/assumptions) as simple and as few in number as possible, without having to renounce the adequate representation of any empirical content whatever. (Albert Einstein, 1954)
The supreme task of the physicist is to arrive at those universal elementary laws from which the cosmos can be built up by pure deduction. There is no logical path to these laws; only intuition, resting on sympathetic understanding of experience, can reach them. (Albert Einstein, 1918)
The development during the present century is characterized by two theoretical systems essentially independent of each other: the theory of relativity and the quantum theory. The two systems do not directly contradict each other; but they seem little adapted to fusion into one unified theory. For the time being we have to admit that we do not possess any general theoretical basis for physics which can be regarded as its logical foundation. (Albert Einstein, 1940)
If, then, it is true that the axiomatic basis of theoretical physics cannot be extracted from experience but must be freely invented, can we ever hope to find the right way? I answer without hesitation that there is, in my opinion, a right way, and that we are capable of finding it. I hold it true that pure thought can grasp reality, as the ancients dreamed. (Albert Einstein, 1954)

The supreme task of the physicist is to arrive at those universal elementary laws from which the cosmos can be built up by pure deduction. (Albert Einstein, 1954)

'I must not fail to mention that a theoretical argument can be adduced in favour of the hypothesis of a finite universe. The general theory of relativity teaches that the inertial mass of a given body is greater as there are more ponderable masses in proximity to it; thus it seems very natural to reduce the total inertia of a body to interactions between it and the other bodies in the universe, as indeed, ever since Newton’s time, gravity has been completely reduced to interaction between bodies.' (Albert Einstein, 1954)

'The non-mathematician is seized by a mysterious shuddering when he hears of 'four-dimensional' things, by a feeling not unlike that awakened by thoughts of the occult. And yet there is no more common-place statement than that the world in which we live is a four-dimensional space-time continuum. Space is a three-dimensional continuum. ... Similarly, the world of physical phenomena which was briefly called 'world' by Minkowski is naturally four dimensional in the space-time sense. For it is composed of individual events, each of which is described by four numbers, namely, three space co-ordinates x, y, z, and the time co-ordinate t.' (Albert Einstein, 1954)

'But the path (of general relativity) was thornier than one might suppose, because it demanded the abandonment of Euclidean geometry. This is what we mean when we talk of the 'curvature of space'. The fundamental concepts of the 'straight line', the 'plane', etc., thereby lose their precise significance in physics. In the general theory of relativity the doctrine of space and time, or kinematics, no longer figures as a fundamental independent of the rest of physics. The geometrical behaviour of bodies and the motion of clocks rather depend on gravitational fields which in their turn are produced by matter.' (Albert Einstein, 1919)

The development during the present century is characterized by two theoretical systems essentially independent of each other: the theory of relativity and the quantum theory. The two systems do not directly contradict each other; but they seem little adapted to fusion into one unified theory. For the time being we have to admit that we do not possess any general theoretical basis for physics which can be regarded as its logical foundation.
If, then, it is true that the axiomatic basis of theoretical physics cannot be extracted from experience but must be freely invented, can we ever hope to find the right way? I answer without hesitation that there is, in my opinion, a right way, and that we are capable of finding it. I hold it true that pure thought can grasp reality, as the ancients dreamed. (Albert Einstein, 1954)

I wished to show that space time is not necessarily something to which one can ascribe to a separate existence, independently of the actual objects of physical reality. Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended. In this way the concept empty space loses its meaning. (Albert Einstein)

When forced to summarize the general theory of relativity in one sentence:
Time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter. (Albert Einstein)

In the year nineteen hundred, in the course of purely theoretical (mathematical) investigation, Max Planck made a very remarkable discovery: the law of radiation of bodies as a function of temperature could not be derived solely from the Laws of Maxwellian electrodynamics. To arrive at results consistent with the relevant experiments, radiation of a given frequency f had to be treated as though it consisted of energy atoms (photons) of the individual energy hf, where h is Planck's universal constant. This discovery became the basis of all twentieth-century research in physics and has almost entirely conditioned its development ever since. Without this discovery it would not have been possible to establish a workable theory of molecules and atoms and the energy processes that govern their transformations. Moreover, it has shattered the whole framework of classical mechanics and electrodynamics and set science a fresh task: that of finding a new conceptual basis for all physics. Despite remarkable partial gains, the problem is still far from a satisfactory solution. (Albert Einstein, 1954)

Experiments on interference made with particle rays have given brilliant proof that the wave character of the phenomena of motion as assumed by the theory does, really, correspond to the facts. (Einstein, 1954)

de Broglie conceived an electron revolving about the atomic nucleus as being connected with a hypothetical wave train, and made intelligible to some extent the discrete character of Bohr's 'permitted' paths by the stationary (standing) character of the corresponding waves. (Einstein, 1954)

How can one assign a discrete succession of energy values E to a system specified in the sense of classical mechanics (the energy function is a given function of the co-ordinates x and the corresponding momenta mv)? Planck's constant h relates the frequency f =E/h to the energy values E. It is therefore sufficient to assign to the system a succession of discrete frequency f values. This reminds us of the fact that in acoustics a series of discrete frequency values is coordinated to a linear partial differential equation (for given boundary conditions) namely the sinusoidal periodic solutions. In corresponding manner, Schrodinger set himself the task of coordinating a partial differential equation for a scalar wave function to the given energy function E (x, mv), where the position x and time t are independent variables. (Einstein, 1954)

The de Broglie-Schrodinger method, which has in a certain sense the character of a field theory, does indeed deduce the existence of only discrete states, in surprising agreement with empirical facts. It does so on the basis of differential equations applying a kind of resonance argument. (Einstein, 1954)

It seems to be clear, therefore, that Born's statistical interpretation of quantum theory is the only possible one. The wave function does not in any way describe a state which could be that of a single system; it relates rather to many systems, to an 'ensemble of systems' in the sense of statistical mechanics. (Einstein, 1954)

Thus the last and most successful creation of theoretical physics, namely quantum mechanics (QM), differs fundamentally from both Newton's mechanics, and Maxwell's e-m field. For the quantities which figure in QM's laws make no claim to describe physical reality itself, but only probabilities of the occurrence of a physical reality that we have in view. … I cannot but confess that I attach only a transitory importance to this interpretation. I still believe in the possibility of a model of reality - that is to say, of a theory which represents things themselves and not merely the probability of their occurrence. On the other hand, it seems to me certain that we must give up the idea of complete localization of the particle in a theoretical model. This seems to me the permanent upshot of Heisenberg's principle of uncertainty. (Einstein, 1954)

Einstein observed that specialization is invariably damaging to Science as a whole;

The area of scientific knowledge has been enormously extended, and theoretical knowledge has become vastly more profound in every department of science. But the assimilative power of the human intellect is and remains strictly limited. Hence it was inevitable that the activity of the individual investigator should be confined to a smaller and smaller section of human knowledge. Worse still, this specialization makes it increasingly difficult to keep even our general understanding of science as a whole, without which the true spirit of research is inevitably handicapped, in step with scientific progress. Every serious scientific worker is painfully conscious of this involuntary relegation to an ever-narrowing sphere of knowledge, which threatens to deprive the investigator of his broad horizon and degrades him to the level of a mechanic....
It is just as important to make knowledge live and to keep it alive as to solve specific problems. (Albert Einstein, 1954)

Scientific research is based on the idea that everything that takes place is determined by laws of Nature, and therefore this holds for the action of people. (Albert Einstein, 1954)


Introduction to Physics: Wave Structure Matter (WSM) - Physics Aristotle - Physics Albert Einstein - Physics Quotes Quantum Theory - Famous Physics Quotes - Top of Page

Physics Quotes on Quantum Theory

Physics: Louis de Broglie Louis De Broglie on Physics / Quantum Theory

Determination of the stable motion of electrons in the atom introduces integers, and up to this point the only phenomena involving integers in physics were those of interference and of normal modes of vibration. This fact suggested to me the idea that electrons too could not be considered simply as particles, but that frequency (wave properties) must be assigned to them also. (Louis de Broglie, 1929, Nobel Prize Speech)

Thus I arrived at the following general idea which has guided my researches: for matter, just as much as for radiation, in particular light, we must introduce at one and the same time the corpuscle concept and the wave concept. In other words, in both cases we must assume the existence of corpuscles accompanied by waves. But corpuscles and waves cannot be independent, since, according to Bohr, they are complementary to each other; consequently it must be possible to establish a certain parallelism between the motion of a corpuscle and the propagation of the wave which is associated with it. (Louis de Broglie)

If that turns out to be true, I'll quit physics. (Max Von Laue, Nobel Laureate Physics 1914, of de Broglie's thesis on electrons having wave properties)

De Broglie described himself as;

... having much more the state of mind of a pure theoretician than that of an experimenter or engineer, loving especially the general and philosophical view ... .

The central question in de Broglie's life was whether the statistical nature of atomic physics reflects an ignorance of the underlying theory or whether statistics is all that can be known. For most of his life he believed the former although as a young researcher he had at first believed that the statistics hide our ignorance. Perhaps surprisingly, he returned to this view late in his life stating that;

... the statistical theories hide a completely determined and ascertainable reality behind variables which elude our experimental techniques.

This last statement is very important. It is the same position that Einstein supported. The Wave Structure of Matter confirms this view. Reality is necessarily connected (by Space and Spherical In & Out Waves that form matter) but we lack knowledge of all its interconnections, which gives rise to the statistical / probability aspects of reality as determined by Quantum Theory.


Phyiscs Albert Einstein Albert Einstein on Physics / Quantum Theory

According to the Wave Structure of Matter in Space, it is the conception of matter as discrete particles generating continuous forces in Space and Time that causes physics such problems. For Quantum Theory this error of too many existents (Space AND Time, Particles, Forces) without any clear connection, causes their problems with the statistical interpretations of reality. As Einstein writes;

The next step was taken by de Broglie. He asked himself how the discrete states could be understood by the aid of current concepts, and hit on a parallel with stationary (standing) waves, as for instance in the case of proper frequencies of organ pipes and strings in acoustics. (Albert Einstein, 1954)

Experiments on interference made with particle rays have given brilliant proof that the wave character of the phenomena of motion as assumed by the theory does, really, correspond to the facts. (Albert Einstein, 1954)

On the basis of quantum theory there was obtained a surprisingly good representation of an immense variety of facts which otherwise appeared entirely incomprehensible. But on one point, curiously enough, there was failure: it proved impossible to associate with these Schrodinger waves definite motions of the mass points - and that, after all, had been the original purpose of the whole construction. The difficulty appeared insurmountable until it was overcome by Born in a way as simple as it was unexpected. The de Broglie-Schrodinger wave fields were not to be interpreted as a mathematical description of how an event actually takes place in time and space, though, of course, they have reference to such an event. Rather they are a mathematical description of what we can actually know about the system. They serve only to make statistical statements and predictions of the results of all measurements which we can carry out upon the system. (Albert Einstein, 1940)

It seems to be clear, therefore, that Born's statistical interpretation of quantum theory is the only possible one. The wave function does not in any way describe a state which could be that of a single system; it relates rather to many systems, to an 'ensemble of systems' in the sense of statistical mechanics. (Albert Einstein, 1936)

All attempts to represent the particle and wave features displayed in the phenomena of light and matter, by direct recourse to a space time model, have so far ended in failure. And Heisenberg has convincingly shown, from an empirical point of view, that any decision as to a rigorously deterministic structure of nature is definitely ruled out, because of the atomistic structure of our experimental apparatus. (Albert Einstein, 1954)

For the time being we have to admit that we do not possess any general theoretical basis for physics which can be regarded as its logical foundation. The field theory, so far, has failed in the molecular sphere. It is agreed on all hands that the only principle which could serve as a basis of quantum theory would be one that constituted a translation of the field theory into the scheme of quantum statistics. Whether this will actually come about in a satisfactory manner, nobody can venture to say.
Some physicists, among them myself, cannot believe that we must abandon, actually and forever, the idea of direct representation of physical reality in space and time; or that we must accept the view that events in nature are analogous to a game of chance . Probably never before has a theory been evolved which has given a key to the interpretation and calculation of such a heterogeneous group of phenomena of experience as has quantum theory. In spite of this, however, I believe that the theory is apt to beguile us into error in our search for a uniform basis for physics, because, in my belief, it is an incomplete representation of real things, although it is the only one which can be built out of the fundamental concepts of force and material points (quantum corrections to classical mechanics). The incompleteness of the representation leads necessarily to the statistical nature (incompleteness) of the laws. (Albert Einstein, 1954)

As I have written before - it now seems obvious to me that Einstein's solution is found by rejecting particles AND continuous spherical forces AND Time - to describe reality from one thing, Space and the spherical wave motions that form matter. This solves so many of their problems that I will always find it strange that they never considered it! I also emphasise that there is a big difference between a necessarily connected universe (WSM), and a deterministic universe. To me, one Space must be Infinite, thus the system as a whole can never be determined (but it is necessarily connected). I see this as the reason for our limited free will.
The Wave Structure of Matter agrees with Einstein,

The more success the quantum theory has, the sillier it looks. (Albert Einstein to Heinrich Zangger, May 20, 1912)

God does not play dice with the cosmos. (Albert Einstein)

I think that a 'particle' must have a separate reality independent of the measurements. That is an electron has spin, location and so forth even when it is not being measured. I like to think that the moon is there even if I am not looking at it. (Albert Einstein)


Niels Bohr, Physics: Wave Structure of Matter Explains Discrete Energy States of Bohr's Atomic Orbits. Quotations Niels Bohr. Niels Bohr on Physics / Quantum Theory

The Wave Structure of Matter does not agree with Niels Bohr;

Einstein, don't tell God what to do. (Niels Bohr in response to Einstein)

Those who are not shocked when they first come across quantum mechanics cannot possibly have understood it. (Niels Bohr on Physics)

When it comes to atoms, language can be used only as in poetry. The poet, too, is not nearly so concerned with describing facts as with creating images.
It is wrong to think that the task of physics is to find out how Nature is. Physics concerns what we say about Nature. (Niels Bohr, 1885-1962)

Niels Bohr brainwashed a whole generation of physicists into believing that the problem (of the interpretation of quantum mechanics) had been solved fifty years ago. ( Murray Gell-Mann, Noble Prize acceptance speech, 1976)


Max Born - One obvious objection to the hypothesis of an elastic Aether (Space) arises from the necessity of ascribing to it the great rigidity it must have to account for the high velocity of Waves. Such a substance would necessarily offer resistance to the motion of heavenly bodies, particularly to that of planets. Max Born on Physics /Quantum Theory

The Wave Structure of Matter does agree with Max Born when he writes;

No concealed parameters can be introduced with the help of which the indeterministic description could be transformed into a deterministic one. Hence if a future theory should be deterministic, it cannot be a modification of the present one but must be essentially different. (M. Born, 1949)

This is correct, by moving from the Metaphysics of Space and Time (which also requires matter 'particles and forces / fields', thus four separate existents) to the Metaphysics of Space and Motion and the Spherical Wave Structure of Matter, founded on One thing Space and its Properties as a Wave Medium. i.e. Spherical Wave Motions of Space cause matter 'particles' (Wave-Centers) and 'forces' (interactions of Spherical In and Out Waves changing location of Wave-Center). Time is simply the human perception that matter is in motion, thus it is ultimately Motion which causes Time (as Aristotle and Spinoza suspected, though not motion of matter, but the wave motion of Space itself!). If they had realised this Wave Structure of Matter at the turn of last century, then we would not have had the problems of Quantum Theory that have clearly manifested over the past 80 years. And so the Wave Structure of Matter in Space obviously does not agree with the following comments from Born;

If God has made the world a perfect mechanism, He has at least conceded so much to our imperfect intellects that in order to predict little parts of it, we need not solve innumerable differential equations, but can use dice with fair success. (Max Born)

One obvious objection to the hypothesis of an elastic Aether (Space) arises from the necessity of ascribing to it the great rigidity it must have to account for the high velocity of Waves. Such a substance would necessarily offer resistance to the motion of heavenly bodies, particularly to that of planets. Astronomy has never detected departures from Newton's Laws of Motion that would point to such a resistance. (Max Born, 1924)


Born's 'Probability Waves' Interpretation of QT (1928)

On Chance and Probability in a Necessarily Interconnected finite spherical Universe within a Non-Determined Infinite Space

At the same time that the wave properties of matter were discovered, two further discoveries were made that also profoundly influenced (and confused) the future evolution of modern physics.
Firstly, Werner Heisenberg developed the uncertainty principle which tells us that we (the observer) can never exactly know both the position and momentum of a particle. As every observation requires an energy exchange (photon) to create the observed 'data', some energy (wave) state of the observed object has to be altered. Thus the observation has a discrete effect on what we measure. i.e. We change the experiment by observing it! (A large part of their problem though was to continue to assume the existence of discrete particles and thus to try to exactly locate both their position and motion, which is impossible as there is no discrete particle!)
Further, because both the observed position and momentum of the particle can never be exactly known, theorists were left trying to determine the probability of where, for example, the 'particle' would be observed.

Born (1928) was the first to discover (by chance and with no theoretical foundation) that the square of the quantum wave equations (which is actually the mass-energy density of space) could be used to predict the probability of where the particle would be found. Since it was impossible for both the waves and the particles to be real entities, it became customary to regard the waves as unreal probability waves and to maintain the belief in the 'real' particle. Unfortunately (profoundly) this maintained the belief in the particle/wave duality, in a new form where the 'quantum' scalar standing waves had become 'probability waves' for the 'real' particle.
Albert Einstein unfortunately agreed with this probability wave interpretation, as he believed in continuous force fields (not in waves or particles) thus to him it was sensible that the waves were not real, and were mere descriptions of probabilities. He writes;

On the basis of quantum theory there was obtained a surprisingly good representation of an immense variety of facts which otherwise appeared entirely incomprehensible. But on one point, curiously enough, there was failure: it proved impossible to associate with these Schrodinger waves definite motions of the mass points - and that, after all, had been the original purpose of the whole construction. The difficulty appeared insurmountable until it was overcome by Born in a way as simple as it was unexpected. The de Broglie-Schrodinger wave fields were not to be interpreted as a mathematical description of how an event actually takes place in time and space, though, of course, they have reference to such an event. Rather they are a mathematical description of what we can actually know about the system. They serve only to make statistical statements and predictions of the results of all measurements which we can carry out upon the system. (Albert Einstein, 1940)

It seems to be clear, therefore, that Born's statistical interpretation of quantum theory is the only possible one. The wave function does not in any way describe a state which could be that of a single system; it relates rather to many systems, to an 'ensemble of systems' in the sense of statistical mechanics. (Albert Einstein, 1936)

Albert Einstein is correct in one sense, mistaken in another. It is true that matter is intimately interconnected to all the other matter in the universe by the Spherical In and Out-Waves, something quantum theory discovered but never correctly understood.
This has become known as quantum entanglement and relates to the famous experiment posed by Albert Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) (see Section 1.7 for an explanation of this experiment) and when later technology allowed its experimental testing, it confirmed quantum theory's entanglement.

Albert Einstein assumed this interconnectedness was due to the spherical spatially extended field structure of matter, instead, it is due to the interaction of the spherical spatially extended Standing Waves of matter with other matter's Wave-Centers distant in Space. Explaining this Standing Wave interaction of matter with other matter in the Space around it (action-at-a-distance) is largely the purpose of this Article and is one of the great powers of the Metaphysics of Space and Motion and the Spherical Wave Structure of Matter.

Nonetheless, Albert Einstein was very close to the truth. He realised that because matter is spherically spatially extended we must give up the idea of complete localization and knowledge of the 'particle' in a theoretical model. For the particle is nothing but the Wave-Center of a Spherical Standing Wave, and thus can never be isolated as an entity in itself, but is dependent on its interactions with all the other Matter in the Universe. And it is this lack of knowledge of the system as a whole that is the ultimate cause of the uncertainty and resultant probability inherent in Quantum Theory.

Thus the last and most successful creation of theoretical physics, namely quantum mechanics (QM), differs fundamentally from both Newton's mechanics, and Maxwell's e-m field. For the quantities which figure in QM's laws make no claim to describe physical reality itself, but only probabilities of the occurrence of a physical reality that we have in view. (Albert Einstein, 1931)

I cannot but confess that I attach only a transitory importance to this interpretation. I still believe in the possibility of a model of reality - that is to say, of a theory which represents things themselves and not merely the probability of their occurrence. On the other hand, it seems to me certain that we must give up the idea of complete localization of the particle in a theoretical model. This seems to me the permanent upshot of Heisenberg's principle of uncertainty. (Albert Einstein, 1934)

Albert Einstein believed that Reality could be represented by spherical force fields, that reality was not founded on chance (as Bohr and Heisenberg argued) but on necessary connections between things (thus his comment 'God does not play dice'!). He was largely correct, Matter is necessarily connected due to the Spherical Standing Wave Structure of Matter, but due to lack of knowledge of the system as a whole (the Universe), and the fact that it is impossible to determine an Infinite system (of which our finite spherical universe is a part - see Article on Cosmology), then this gives rise to the chance and uncertainty found in Quantum Theory.


Paul Dirac, Physics Quantum Theory Paul Dirac on Physics / Quantum Theory

Paul Dirac was a very smart sensible Physicist.

This statistical interpretation is now universally accepted as the best possible interpretation for quantum mechanics, even though many people are unhappy with it. People had got used to the determinism of the last century, where the present determines the future completely, and they now have to get used to a different situation in which the present only gives one information of a statistical nature about the future. A good many people find this unpleasant; Einstein has always objected to it. The way he expressed it was: 'The good God does not play with dice'. Schroedinger also did not like the statistical interpretation and tried for many years to find an interpretation involving determinism for his waves. But it was not successful as a general method. I must say that I also do not like indeterminism. I have to accept it because it is certainly the best that we can do with our present knowledge. One can always hope that there will be future developments which will lead to a drastically different theory from the present quantum mechanics and for which there may be a partial return of determinism. However, so long as one keeps to the present formalism, one has to have this indeterminism.
(P.A.M. Dirac, 'The Development Of Quantum Mechanics' Conferenza Tenuta il 14 Aprile 1972, in Roma, Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, 1974)


Werner Heisenberg -  Light and matter are both single entities, and the apparent duality arises in the limitations of our language. Werner Heisenberg of Physics / Quantum Theory

The problems of the particle and thus the resulting paradox of the particle/wave duality, have caused great confusion within modern physics over the past seventy years, as Werner Heisenberg writes;

Both matter and radiation possess a remarkable duality of character, as they sometimes exhibit the properties of waves, at other times those of particles. Now it is obvious that a thing cannot be a form of wave motion and composed of particles at the same time - the two concepts are too different. (Heisenberg, 1930)

The solution of the difficulty is that the two mental pictures which experiment lead us to form - the one of the particles, the other of the waves - are both incomplete and have only the validity of analogies which are accurate only in limiting cases. (Heisenberg, 1930)

Light and matter are both single entities, and the apparent duality arises in the limitations of our language.
It is not surprising that our language should be incapable of describing the processes occurring within the atoms, for, as has been remarked, it was invented to describe the experiences of daily life, and these consist only of processes involving exceedingly large numbers of atoms. Furthermore, it is very difficult to modify our language so that it will be able to describe these atomic processes, for words can only describe things of which we can form mental pictures, and this ability, too, is a result of daily experience. Fortunately, mathematics is not subject to this limitation, and it has been possible to invent a mathematical scheme - the quantum theory - which seems entirely adequate for the treatment of atomic processes; for visualisation, however, we must content ourselves with two incomplete analogies - the wave picture and the corpuscular picture. (Heisenberg, 1930)

The solution to this apparent paradox is to simply explain how the discrete particle properties of matter and light (quanta) are in fact caused by the Spherical Standing Wave Structure of Matter. See;

Quantum Theory: Particle Wave Duality - The particle-wave duality of Matter is obviously explained by the WSM. Spherical Standing Waves (Scalar Quantum Waves not Electromagnetic Vector Waves) cause the Particle effect at their Wave-Center.

Quantum Theory: Light Quanta (Photons) - Likewise the particle-wave duality of Light is also explained by the WSM. Light is a wave phenomena, but Standing Wave Interactions (Resonant Coupling) only occur at discrete frequencies which explains Schrodinger's wave equations and the discrete energy exchanges of Light Quanta (Photons).


Erwin Schrodinger  - The scientist only imposes two things, namely truth and sincerity, imposes them upon himself and upon other scientists. Erwin Schrodinger on Physics / Quantum Theory

These quotes from Schrodinger can be clearly understood by the Wave Structure of Matter, which confirms that there are no separate and discrete particles, no subject and object that are not also part of one interconnected thing (Space and its Wave Motions).
As Schrodinger writes;

What we observe as material bodies and forces are nothing but shapes and variations in the structure of space. Particles are just schaumkommen (appearances).The world is given to me only once, not one existing and one perceived. Subject and object are only one. The barrier between them cannot be said to have broken down as a result of recent experience in the physical sciences, for this barrier does not exist. (Erwin Schrodinger)

Because Schrodinger believed in real waves, he was never happy with Max Born's statistical / probability interpretation of the waves that became commonly accepted (and was actively promoted by Heisenberg and Bohr).

Let me say at the outset, that in this discourse, I am opposing not a few special statements of quantum mechanics held today (1950s), I am opposing as it were the whole of it, I am opposing its basic views that have been shaped 25 years ago, when Max Born put forward his probability interpretation, which was accepted by almost everybody.(Schrödinger E, The Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. Ox Bow Press, Woodbridge, CN, 1995).I don't like it, and I'm sorry I ever had anything to do with it. (Erwin Schrodinger talking about quantum mechanics)

And I very strongly agree with Schrodinger (and greatly respect him) when he writes;

The scientist only imposes two things, namely truth and sincerity, imposes them upon himself and upon other scientists. (Schrodinger)


Physics: Richard  Feynman - The more you see how strangely Nature behaves, the harder it is to make a model that explains how even the simplest phenomena actually work. So theoretical physics has given up on that. Richard Feynman on Physics / Quantum Theory

Unfortunately, due to this confusion of the particle wave duality of light and matter, and Born's statistical interpretation of Schrodinger's Wave Equations, Physics itself became uncertain and confused, as Feynman famously wrote;

I think it is safe to say that no one understands quantum mechanics. (Richard Feynman on Physics)

The next question was - what makes planets go around the sun? At the time of Kepler some people answered this problem by saying that there were angels behind them beating their wings and pushing the planets around an orbit. As you will see, the answer is not very far from the truth. The only difference is that the angels sit in a different direction and their wings push inward. (Richard Feynman, Character Of Physical Law)

One does not, by knowing all the physical laws as we know them today, immediately obtain an understanding of anything much.
I love only nature, and I hate mathematicians.

... the more you see how strangely Nature behaves, the harder it is to make a model that explains how even the simplest phenomena actually work. So theoretical physics has given up on that. (Richard Feynman 1918-1988)

What I am going to tell you about is what we teach our physics students in the third or fourth year of graduate school... It is my task to convince you not to turn away because you don't understand it. You see my physics students don't understand it. ... That is because I don't understand it. Nobody does.
(Feynman, Richard P. Nobel Lecture, 1966, 1918-1988, QED, The Strange Theory of Light and Matter)


Concluding Remarks on Physics / Quantum Theory

Fritjof Capra got a lot right in his Tao of Physics due to his knowledge of Eastern Philosophy and Western Physics, thus his realisation of the Dynamic Unity of the Universe is important.

A careful analysis of the process of observation in atomic physics has shown that the subatomic particles have no meaning as isolated entities, but can only be understood as interconnections between the preparation of an experiment and the subsequent measurement. Quantum theory thus reveals a basic oneness of the universe. The mathematical framework of quantum theory has passed countless successful tests and is now universally accepted as a consistent and accurate description of all atomic phenomena. The verbal interpretation, on the other hand, i.e. the metaphysics of quantum theory, is on far less solid ground. In fact, in more than forty years physicists have not been able to provide a clear metaphysical model. (Fritjof Capra, 1975)

Quantum Theory is founded on Wave Equations. Thus it is a strange thing, that for thousands of years we have imagined matter as discrete and separate particles and yet when the wave properties of matter where discovered they never thought to try a pure Spherical Standing Wave Structure of Matter. (i.e. Real waves in a Real Space). Instead Quantum Theory evolved along the path of the particle / wave duality of light and matter, and Born's statistical interpretations of the waves (which in hindsight was obviously going to lead to the end of a meaningful physics).

While Einstein tried to solve these problems by correctly rejected the concept of the discrete and separate 'particle' (which required fields to connect them) his error was to try and create a pure unified field theory of matter as continuous spherical fields. Again, in hindsight he should have realised that the 'field' evolved from the 'particle' and by rejecting particles he should have also rejected the force fields (which were assumed to be generated by particles and act on other particles). Then he would have likely realised that the only other sensible solution was to see if the waves of Quantum Theory could explain the particle and the field. As Stephen Hawking writes (correctly);

But maybe that is our mistake: maybe there are no particle positions and velocities, but only waves. It is just that we try to fit the waves to our preconceived ideas of positions and velocities. The resulting mismatch is the cause of the apparent unpredictability. (Hawking, 1988)

And once we understand the Wave Structure of Matter, we find that we can quite easily understand how a Spherical Standing wave must form a pointlike 'particle' effect at its Wave-Center, while also existing across the universe due to its Spherical In and Out Waves, thus explaining Paul Davies comments;

The idea that something can be both a wave and a particle defies imagination, but the existence of this wave-particle duality is not in doubt. .. It is impossible to visualize a wave-particle, so don't try. ... The notion of a particle being everywhere at once is impossible to imagine. (Davies, 1985)
The rules of clockwork might apply to familiar objects such as snooker balls, but when it comes to atoms, the rules are those of roulette. (Paul Davies, God and the New Physics)

As the many articles below explain, the Spherical Standing Wave Structure of Matter in Space does solve many of the problems of Physics very simply and sensibly by providing the Metaphysical foundations for the fundamental laws of Nature (which found our knowledge of the real world).

In particular, see;
Quantum Physics: Quantum Theory / Wave Mechanics - Historical Analysis and Solutions to Problems of Quantum Theory (Quantum Mechanics). On Planck, Einstein, Bohr, de Broglie, Schrodinger, Heisenberg, Born, Feynman, Wolff.

'Experiments on interference made with particle rays have given brilliant proof that the wave character of the phenomena of motion as assumed by Quantum Theory do, really, correspond to the facts.' (Albert Einstein, 1940)


Introduction to Physics: Wave Structure Matter (WSM) - Physics Aristotle - Physics Albert Einstein - Physics Quotes Quantum Theory - Famous Physics Quotes - Top of Page

Famous Physics Quotes

... that, in a few years, all great physical constants will have been approximately estimated, and that the only occupation which will be left to men of science will be to carry these measurements to another place of decimals. (James Clerk Maxwell, 1831-1879)

The electron is not as simple as it looks. (William Lawrence Bragg, British Physicist, 1890-1971)

All science is either physics or stamp collecting. (Ernest. Rutherford)

It was as if you fired a 15-inch shell at a sheet of tissue paper and it came back to hit you. (Ernest Rutherford, about the scattering of alpha particles from gold foil, which resulted in the discovery of the atom nucleus)

Experience has shown that science frequently develops most fruitfully once we learn to examine the things that seem the simplest, instead of those that seem the most mysterious. (Marvin Minsky)

Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic. (Arthur C. Clarke)

The most exciting phrase to hear in science, the one that heralds new discoveries, is not 'Eureka!' (I found it) but 'That's funny...' (Isaac Asimov)

I am acutely aware of the fact that the marriage between mathematics and physics, which was so enormously fruitful in past centuries, has recently ended in divorce. ( Freeman John Dyson, Missed Opportunities)

The second law of thermodynamics holds, I think, the supreme position among the laws of Nature. If someone points out to you that your pet theory of the Universe is in disagreement with Maxwell's equations - then so much the worse for Maxwell's equations. If it is found to be contradicted by observation - well, those experimentalists do bungle things up sometimes. but if your theory is found to be against the second law of thermodynamics I can give you no hope; there is nothing to do but to collapse in deepest humiliation. (Sir Arthur Eddington)

I am standing on the threshold about to enter a room. It is a complicated business. ... I must make sure of landing on a plank travelling at twenty miles a second round the sun - a fraction of a second too early or too late, the plank would be miles away. I must do this whilst hanging from a round planet, head outward in space, and with a wind of aether blowing at no one knows how many miles a second through every instice of my body.
(Arthur S. Eddington, British Astrophysicist, 1882-1944, The nature of the Physical World, 1928)

For the truth of the conclusions of physical science, observation is the supreme Court of Appeal. (Sir Arthur Eddington)

I ask you to look both ways. For the road to a knowledge of the stars leads through the atom; and important knowledge of the atom has been reached through the stars. (Sir Arthur Eddington)

We have found a strange footprint on the shores of the unknown. We have devised profound theories, one after another, to account for its origins. At last, we have succeeded in reconstructing the creature that made the footprint. And lo! It is our own (Sir Arthur Eddington)

Something unknown is doing we don't know what. (Sir Arthur Eddington)

It is impossible to trap modern physics into predicting anything with perfect determinism because it deals with probabilities from the outset. (Sir Arthur Eddington)

When forced to summarize the general theory of relativity in one sentence: Time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter. (Albert Einstein)

As far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain, and as far as they are certain, they do not refer to reality. (Albert Einstein, 1879-1955)

Only two things are certain: a finite universe and human stupidity; and I'm not certain about the universe. (Albert Einstein, 1879-1955)

I don't believe in mathematics. (Albert Einstein, quoted by Carl Seelig, in 'Albert Einstein')

It was absolutely marvelous working for Pauli. You could ask him anything. There was no worry that he would think a particular question was stupid, since he thought all questions were stupid. (Victor Frederick Weisskopf)

What Einstein said wasn't all that stupid. (Wolfgang Pauli as a student, after hearing Einstein, 20 years his senior give a lecture)

My goal is simple. It is complete understanding of the universe, why it is as it is and why it exists at all. (Stephen Hawking, On Aim of Physics)

Physics is becoming so unbelievably complex that it is taking longer and longer to train a physicist. It is taking so long, in fact, to train a physicist to the place where he understands the nature of physical problems that he is already too old to solve them. (Eugene Wigner)

Lee Smolin Uniting Quantum Theory, Relativity, Cosmology, Universe, Cosmos, Truth, Reality(Lee Smolin, 1997) A successful unification of quantum theory and relativity would necessarily be a theory of the universe as a whole. It would tell us, as Aristotle and Newton did before, what space and time are, what the cosmos is, what things are made of, and what kind of laws those things obey. Such a theory will bring about a radical shift - a revolution - in our understanding of what nature is. It must also have wide repercussions, and will likely bring about, or contribute to, a shift in our understanding of ourselves and our relationship to the rest of the universe.




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Albert Einstein"When forced to summarize the general theory of relativity in one sentence: Time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter. ... Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended. In this way the concept 'empty space' loses its meaning. ... The particle can only appear as a limited region in space in which the field strength or the energy density are particularly high. ...
The free, unhampered exchange of ideas and scientific conclusions is necessary for the sound development of science, as it is in all spheres of cultural life. ... We must not conceal from ourselves that no improvement in the present depressing situation is possible without a severe struggle; for the handful of those who are really determined to do something is minute in comparison with the mass of the lukewarm and the misguided. ...
Humanity is going to need a substantially new way of thinking if it is to survive!" (Albert Einstein)


Biography: Geoffrey Haselhurst, Philosopher of Science, Theoretical Physics, Metaphysics, Evolution. Our world is in great trouble due to human behaviour founded on myths and customs that are causing the destruction of Nature and climate change. We can now deduce the most simple science theory of reality - the wave structure of matter in space. By understanding how we and everything around us are interconnected in Space we can then deduce solutions to the fundamental problems of human knowledge in physics, philosophy, metaphysics, theology, education, health, evolution and ecology, politics and society.

This is the profound new way of thinking that Einstein realised, that we exist as spatially extended structures of the universe - the discrete and separate body an illusion. This simply confirms the intuitions of the ancient philosophers and mystics.

Given the current censorship in physics / philosophy of science journals (based on the standard model of particle physics / big bang cosmology) the internet is the best hope for getting new knowledge known to the world. But that depends on you, the people who care about science and society, realise the importance of truth and reality.

It is easy to help - just click on the social network sites (below) or grab a nice image / quote you like and add it to your favourite blog, wiki or forum. We are listed as one of the top philosophy sites on the Internet (600,000 page views / week) and have a wonderful collection of knowledge from the greatest minds in human history, so people will appreciate your contributions. Thanks! Geoff Haselhurst - Karene Howie - Email



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