#
Quantum Theory: Albert Einstein

The Spherical Standing Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) explains
Einstein's Light Quanta 'Photon' / Photoelectric Effect of Quantum Physics.
Albert Einstein Quotes, Pictures, Biography

### Introductory Quotes: Einstein on Quantum Theory

In the year nineteen hundred, in the course
of purely theoretical (mathematical) investigation, Max Planck made a very
remarkable discovery: the law of radiation of bodies as a function of temperature
could not be derived solely from the Laws of Maxwellian electrodynamics.

To arrive at results consistent with the relevant experiments, radiation
of a given frequency f had to be treated as though it consisted of energy
atoms (photons) of the individual energy hf, where h is Planck's universal
constant.

This discovery became the basis of all twentieth-century research in physics
and has almost entirely conditioned its development ever since. Without
this discovery it would not have been possible to establish a workable theory
of molecules and atoms and the energy processes that govern their transformations.
Moreover, it has shattered the whole framework of classical mechanics and
electrodynamics and set science a fresh task: that of finding a new conceptual
basis for all physics. Despite remarkable partial gains, the problem is
still far from a satisfactory solution. (Albert Einstein, 1954)

All these fifty years of conscious brooding
have brought me no nearer to the answer to the question, '**What are
light quanta**?' Nowadays every Tom, Dick and Harry thinks he knows
it, but he is mistaken. (Albert Einstein, 1954)

I consider it quite possible that physics cannot be based on the field concept, i.e., on continuous structures. In that case, nothing remains of my entire castle in the air, gravitation theory included, [and of] the rest of modern physics. (Albert Einstein, 1954)

The quanta really are a hopeless mess.

(Albert Einstein, On doing Quantum Theory calculations with Pauli p58)

I still do not believe that the statistical method of the Quantum Theory is the last word, but for the time being I am alone in my opinion. (Albert Einstein, On Quantum Theory, p125 1936)

You believe in the God who plays dice, and
I in complete law and order in a world which objectively exists, and which
I, in a wildly speculative way, am trying to capture. I firmly believe,
but I hope that someone will discover a more realistic way, or rather a
more tangible basis than it has been my lot to find. Even the great initial
success of the Quantum Theory does not make me believe in the fundamental
dice-game, although I am well aware that our younger colleagues interpret
this as a consequence of senility. No doubt the day will come when we will
see whose instinctive attitude was the correct one.

(Albert Einstein to Max Born, On Quantum Theory, 1944)

Einstein thinks he has a continuous field
theory that avoids 'spooky action at a distance', but the calculation difficulties
are very great. He is quite convinced that some day a theory that does not
depend on probabilities will be found.

(Albert Einstein to Max Born, p158 Mar 1947)

I am well aware that no causality exists in relation to the observable; I consider this realisation to be conclusive. But in my opinion one should not conclude from this that the theory, too, has to be based on fundamental laws of statistics. It is, after all, possible that the (molecular) structure of the means of observation involves the statistical character of the observable, but that it is expedient in the end to keep the basis of the theory free from statistical concepts. (Albert Einstein to Max Born, p163 3 Mar 1948)

(Above 5 Quotes from 'The Born-Einstein Letters' Max Born, translated by Irene Born, Macmillan 1971)

The more success the quantum theory has, the
sillier it looks.

(Albert Einstein to Heinrich Zangger on Quantum Theory, May 20, 1912)

I think that a 'particle' must have a separate reality independent of the measurements. That is an electron has spin, location and so forth even when it is not being measured. I like to think that the moon is there even if I am not looking at it. (Albert Einstein)

All my attempts to adapt the theoretical foundation
of physics to this new type of knowledge (Quantum Theory) failed completely.
It was as if the ground had been pulled out from under one, with no firm
foundation to be seen anywhere, upon which one could have built.

(P. A Schlipp, Albert Einstein: Philosopher – Scientist, On Quantum
Theory, 1949)

Quantum theory is certainly imposing. But an inner voice tells me that it is not yet the real thing. Quantum theory says a lot, but does not really bring us any closer to the secret of the Old One. I, at any rate, am convinced that He (God) does not throw dice. (Albert Einstein, On Quantum Physics, Letter to Max Born, December 12, 1926)

### Introduction to Quantum Theory

The development during the present century is characterized
by two theoretical systems essentially independent of each other: the **theory
of relativity** and the **quantum theory**. The two
systems do not directly contradict each other; but they seem little adapted
to fusion into **one unified theory**.

Experiments on interference made with particle rays have given brilliant
proof that the **wave character of the phenomena of motion**
as assumed by the theory do, really, correspond to the facts.

de Broglie conceived an electron revolving about the atomic nucleus as being
connected with a hypothetical wave train, and made intelligible to some
extent the discrete character of Bohr's 'permitted' paths by the **stationary
(standing) character of the corresponding waves**. (**Albert
Einstein**, 1940)

It is obvious that Waves are central to Quantum Theory and thus to understanding
the structure of Matter. The problem has been the further introduction of
the 'particle' concept, and thus the resulting paradox of the 'Particle/Wave'
duality.

In this article we begin, as is necessary, by briefly describing the Metaphysics
of Space and Motion and the Spherical Standing Wave Structure of Matter.
We then demonstrate (from One Principle) that the solution to this apparent
paradox is to simply explain how the discrete 'particle' properties of Matter
and Light (quanta) are in fact caused by Standing Wave interactions.

Basically Einstein is correct, Matter is a Spherically Spatially extended
structure of Space (there is no 'particle') though most importantly we have
simplified Einstein's ideas from Matter as Continuous Spherical Fields in
Space-Time to Matter as Spherical Waves in Continuous Space.

## One Principle of the Wave Structure of Matter

On What Exists and its Properties

One Thing Space Exists with the Properties of a Wave-Medium

### The Formation of Matter from Waves in Space

Matter Exists as Spherical Standing Waves in Space.

The ‘Particle’ Effect of Matter is Caused by the Wave-Center
of the Spherical Standing Waves. (See Fig. 1)

+ =

Fig 1. This (very rough) diagram shows how the Spherical In and Out Waves form a Standing Wave around the Wave-Center 'particle'.

### The Properties of Space

i) Space, as One things existing, is necessarily Infinite, Eternal and Continuous (there are no 'particles').

ii) The velocity of Waves in Space is the Velocity of Light c.

This Wave Velocity is not constant and is determined by both the Wave Amplitude
and mass-energy density of Space. i. e.

High Wave Amplitude Waves Propagate with a Faster Wave Velocity. (e.g. waves
on water). This is the cause of Charge.

High mass-energy density Space causes a Slower Wave Velocity. (e.g. curvature of
light near Sun). This is the cause of Gravitational Mass.

### The Properties of Matter (Forces and Size of Matter)

i) Any Change in Velocity of the Spherical In-Waves from One Direction
changes where these In-Waves meet at their respective Wave-Center which
we see as a 'Force Accelerating a Particle'.

This is the Cause of** Newton's Law of Inertia:** Force = Mass
* Acceleration. (See Fig. 2)

ii) The Spherical In-Waves are formed from the Huygens' Combination of
Out-Waves from All other Matter in our Finite Spherical Universe.

This is the Cause of **Mach’s Principle: **Matter's Mass
(mass-energy density) is Determined by all other Matter in the Universe.

The remainder of this article is deduced from this One Principle (thus it is necessary and certain, not our opinion) and we are assuming that the reader understands these metaphysical principles and their importance to the Scientific Method (Physics, Philosophy, Metaphysics). We should also add that this central Principle of the Wave Structure of Matter not only explains and solves the problems of Quantum Theory, but also Einstein's Relativity and Cosmology, and thus unites these three famous subjects for the first time. (I know this is a big claim, but you can determine this for yourselves.)

So let us now explain and solve the many problems and paradoxes of Quantum
Theory using the Two Principles of the Metaphysics of Space and Motion and
the Spherical Wave Structure of Matter.

During the years 1900-1930, many experiments were done on the interactions
of light beams, particle beams, and metal targets. Analysis of these experiments
showed that Light and Matter had both Particle and Wave properties. As we
have said, the solution to this apparent paradox of the Particle/Wave duality
is to simply explain how the discrete 'particle' properties (quanta) are
in fact caused by standing Wave interactions.

To do this we must begin by explaining the experimental foundations of Quantum
Theory;

1. Max Planck's Discovery of the Particle (Quantum) Properties of Light,
E=hf. (1900)

2. de Broglie's Discovery of the Wave Properties of Electron Interactions,
y=h/mv. (1927)

3. The Equivalence of Energy, Mass and Frequency and the Compton Wavelength
Y of the Electron Y=h/mc = 2.43*10^{-12}m.

### 1.1 Max Planck's Discovery of the Particle (Quantum) Properties of Light (1900)

In 1900 Max Planck made a profound discovery. He showed (from purely formal/mathematical
foundations) that light must be emitted and absorbed in discrete amounts
if it was to correctly describe observed phenomena (i.e. Blackbody radiation).

Prior to then light had been considered as a continuous electromagnetic
wave, thus the discrete nature of light was completely unexpected, as Albert
Einstein explains;

About fifteen years ago [1899] nobody had yet doubted that
a correct account of the electrical, optical, and thermal properties of
matter was possible on the basis of Galileo-Newtonian mechanics applied
to molecular motion and of Maxwell's theory of the electromagnetic field.
(**Albert Einstein**, 1915)

Then Planck showed that in order to establish a law of heat radiation (Infra
red light waves) consonant with experience, it was necessary to employ a
method of calculation whose incompatibility with the principles of classical
physics became clearer and clearer. For with this method of calculation,
Planck introduced into physics the quantum hypothesis, which has since received
brilliant confirmation. (**Albert Einstein**, 1914)

In the year nineteen hundred, in the course of purely theoretical (mathematical)
investigation, Max Planck made a very remarkable discovery: the law of radiation
of bodies as a function of temperature could not be derived solely from
the Laws of Maxwellian electrodynamics. To arrive at results consistent
with the relevant experiments, radiation of a given frequency f had to be
treated as though it consisted of energy atoms (photons) of the individual
energy hf, where h is Planck's universal constant.

During the years following, it was shown that light was everywhere produced
and absorbed in such energy quanta. In particular, Niels Bohr was able to
largely understand the structure of the atom, on the assumption that the
atoms can only have discrete energy values, and that the discontinuous transitions
between them are connected with the emission or absorption of energy quantum.
This threw some light on the fact that in their gaseous state elements and
their compounds radiate and absorb only light of certain sharply defined
frequencies. (**Albert Einstein**, 1940)

Even the Greeks had already conceived the atomistic nature of matter and
the concept was raised to a high degree of probability by the scientists
of the nineteenth century. But it was Planck's law of radiation that yielded
the first exact determination - independent of other assumptions - of the
absolute magnitudes of atoms. More than that, he showed convincingly that
in addition to the atomistic structure of matter there is a kind of atomistic
structure to energy, governed by the universal constant h, which was introduced
by Planck.

This discovery became the basis of all twentieth-century research in physics
and has almost entirely conditioned its development ever since. Without
this discovery it would not have been possible to establish a workable theory
of molecules and atoms and the energy processes that govern their transformations.
Moreover, it has shattered the whole framework of classical mechanics and
electrodynamics and **set science a fresh task: that of finding a
new conceptual basis for all physics**. Despite remarkable partial
gains, the problem is still far from a satisfactory solution. (**Albert
Einstein**, 1950)

Albert Einstein (1905) used Planck's relationship to explain the results
of the photoelectric effect which showed that the energy E of ejected electrons
was wholly dependent upon the frequency f of incident light as described
in the equation E=hf. It is ironic that in 1921 Albert Einstein was awarded
the Nobel Prize for this discovery, though he never believed in particles
and acknowledged that he did not know the cause of the discrete energy transfers
(photons) which were contradictory to his continuous field theory of matter!

In 1954 Albert Einstein wrote to his friend Michael Besso expressing his
frustration;

All these fifty years of conscious brooding have brought
me no nearer to the answer to the question, 'What are light quanta?' Nowadays
every Tom, Dick and Harry thinks he knows it, but he is mistaken. (**Albert
Einstein**, 1954)

Most importantly, Albert Einstein also suspected that Matter could not be described by a continuous spherical force field;

I consider it quite possible that physics cannot be based
on the field concept, i.e., on continuous structures. In that case, nothing
remains of my entire castle in the air, gravitation theory included, [and
of] the rest of modern physics. (**Albert Einstein**, 1954)

Albert Einstein's suspicions were well justified, for he had spent a lifetime
trying (and failing) to create a unified field theory of matter that explained
both Quantum Theory / Light and Relativity / Gravity.

In fact Matter, as a Spherical Standing Wave which causes the 'Field' effect,
interacts with other matter in discrete standing wave patterns, not with
continuous force fields as he had imagined, thus his task was ultimately
impossible, as he sadly came to realise towards the end of his life.

However, his work on the photoelectric effect confirmed that light energy was only emitted and absorbed by electrons in discrete amounts or quanta. This quanta of light energy soon became known as the 'photon' (i.e. discrete like a particle) and led to the paradox that light behaved both as a continuous e-m wave (Maxwell, Albert Einstein) as well as a discrete particle/photon (Planck, Albert Einstein). So we see that Albert Einstein was partly responsible for the discovery of the particle/photon concept of light, though he completely rejected the notion of discrete particles. He writes;

Since the theory of general relativity implies the **representation
of physical reality by a continuous field, the concept of particles or material
points cannot play a fundamental part**, nor can the concept of motion.
(**Albert Einstein**)

Albert Einstein is correct that there are no discrete particles, and that
The particle can only appear as a limited region in space in which the field
strength or the energy density are particularly high. But it is the high
Wave-Amplitude of the Wave-Center of a Spherical Standing Wave in Space
(not of a continuous spherical force field) that causes the particle effect.
Thus of three concepts, **particles**, **force fields**,
and **motion**, it finally turns out that Motion, as the spherical
wave motion of space, is the correct concept, as it then explains both particles
and fields. (For further explanation see Article on Relativity)

It is most important to realise though that Albert Einstein was correct
in imagining matter as being spatially extended, as he explains;

I wished to show that space time is not necessarily something
to which one can ascribe to a separate existence, independently of the actual
objects of physical reality. **Physical objects are not in space,
but these objects are spatially extended**. In this way the concept
empty space loses its meaning. (**Albert Einstein**)

It is certainly true that the particle and its forces are very useful mathematical concepts, unfortunately, they also cause many problems and paradoxes because they are approximations to reality and do not physically exist. We can now finally solve these problems by understanding the reason for these discrete energy states, which are due to the fact that standing waves only exist at discrete frequencies, like notes on the string of a guitar, thus while the correct Spherical Standing Wave Structure of Matter predicts that energy exchanges will be discrete, as observed, the continuous e-m wave does not anticipate this. Thus the Spherical Standing Wave Structure of Matter explains Max Planck's (1900) discovery that there are only certain allowed discrete energy states for electrons in molecules and atoms, and further, that light is only ever emitted and absorbed by electrons in discrete or 'quantum' amounts, as the electrons move from one stable standing wave pattern to another. (This is explained in more detail in section 1.4)

### 1.2 de Broglie's Discovery of the Wave Properties of Electron Interactions (1927)

The next step was taken by de Broglie. He asked himself
how the** discrete states** could be understood by the aid
of current concepts, and hit on a parallel with **stationary (standing)
waves**, as for instance in the case of proper frequencies of organ
pipes and strings in acoustics. (**Albert Einstein**, 1954)

It is with some frustration that I now read these quotes, as it is obvious in hindsight as to their errors, and how simply they can now be solved! de Broglie's realisation that standing waves exist at discrete frequencies and thus energies is obviously true and important, yet he continued with the error of the particle concept and thus imagined particles moving in a wavelike manner! Nonetheless, as he was close to the truth he had considerable success with his theory, and these predicted wave properties of matter were shortly thereafter confirmed from experiments (Davisson and Germer, 1927) on the scattering of electrons through crystals (which act as diffraction slits). As Albert Einstein confirms;

Experiments on interference made with particle rays have
given brilliant proof that the **wave character** of the phenomena
of **motion** as assumed by the theory does, really, correspond
to the facts. (**Albert Einstein**, 1954)

So by 1927 the wave properties of matter had been predicted theoretically by de Broglie, and then confirmed by experiment. But unfortunately these scientists continued to believe in the existence of discrete particles, and thus they misinterpreted this most important discovery of the standing wave properties of matter.

### 1.2.1 de Broglie's Incorrect Interpretation of the Standing Waves as the Wave-Like Motion of a Particle in Orbit (1927)

In 1913, Niels Bohr had developed a simple (though only partly correct)
model for the hydrogen atom that assumed; (Our further comments in brackets)

i) That the electron particle moves in circular orbits about the proton
particle. (This is nearly correct, they are not 'orbits' but complex Standing
Wave patterns)

ii) Only certain orbits are stable. (This is nearly correct, only certain
Standing Wave patterns are resonantly stable)

iii) Light is emitted and absorbed by the atom when the electron 'jumps'
from one allowed orbital state to a another. (This is nearly correct, the
electrons move from one stable Standing Wave pattern to another. This is
known as 'Resonant Coupling' and is explained in Section 1.4.)

This early atomic model had some limited success because it was obviously
created to explain the discrete energy states of light emitted and absorbed
by bound electrons in atoms or molecules, as discovered by Planck in 1900.

de Broglie was aware of Bohr's model for the atom and he cleverly found
a way of explaining why only certain orbits were 'allowed' for the electron.
As Albert Einstein explains;

de Broglie conceived an electron revolving about the atomic
nucleus as being connected with a hypothetical wave train, and made intelligible
to some extent the discrete character of Bohr's 'permitted' paths by the
stationary (standing) character of the corresponding waves. (**Albert
Einstein**, 1940)

Fig: 1.2.1 The allowed discrete orbits of the electron as imagined by de
Broglie.

de Broglie assumed that because light had both particle and wave properties,
that this may also be true for matter. Thus he was not actually looking
for the wave structure of matter. Instead, as matter was already assumed
to be a particle, he was looking for wave properties of matter to complement
the known particle properties. As a consequence of this particle/wave duality,
de Broglie imagined the standing waves to be related to discrete wavelengths
and standing waves for certain orbits of the electron particle about the
proton. (Rather than considering the actual standing wave structure of the
electron itself.)

From de Broglie's perspective, and from modern physics at that time, this
solution had a certain charm. It maintained the particle - wave duality
for BOTH light and matter, and at the same time explained why only certain
orbits of the electron (which relate to whole numbers of standing waves)
were allowed, which fitted beautifully with Niels Bohr model of the atom.
de Broglie further explains his reasoning for the particle/wave duality
of matter in his 1929 Nobel Prize acceptance speech;

On the one hand the quantum theory of light cannot be considered
satisfactory since it defines the energy of a light particle (photon) by
the equation E=hf containing the frequency f. Now a purely particle theory
contains nothing that enables us to define a frequency; for this reason
alone, therefore, we are compelled, in the case of light, to introduce the
idea of a particle and that of frequency simultaneously. On the other hand,
determination of the stable motion of electrons in the atom introduces integers,
and up to this point the only phenomena involving integers in physics were
those of interference and of normal modes of vibration. This fact suggested
to me the idea that electrons too could not be considered simply as particles,
but that frequency (wave properties) must be assigned to them also. (**de
Broglie**, 1929)

The solution to their problems was first found by Wolff (1986). He discovered
two things (both of which deserve a Nobel prize in their own right);

Firstly, from reading Feynman's PhD thesis (see reference, Feynman and Wheeler,
1945) he was aware of Feynman's conception of charged particles which 'somehow'
generated Spherical Electromagnetic In and Out Waves (Feynman called them
advanced and retarded waves), but Wolff realised that there are no solutions
for spherical vector electromagnetic waves (which are mathematical waves
which require both a quantity of force and a direction of force, i.e. vector).
Wolff had the foresight to try using real waves, which are Scalar (defined
by their Wave-Amplitude only).

And this then led to a series of remarkable discoveries.

He realised that spherical In and Out-Waves removed the need for a separate
particle, as the Wave-Center of the Spherical Waves created the particle
effect.

He then discovered that when one spherical standing wave was moving relative
to another the Doppler shifts gave rise to BOTH the **de Broglie Wavelength**
AND the **Mass increase of Albert Einstein's Relativity**.
(i.e. Wolff demonstrated that when two charged particles (Wave-Centers of
two SSWs) are moving relative to one another they gives rise to beats of
interference (caused by the Doppler shifting of the In and Out Waves due
to relative Motion) which were identified in experiments as the de Broglie
wavelength y=h/mv, and also gave rise to the frequency increases and thus
energy/mass increases (as E=hf =mc^{2}) of special Relativity.

Thus in the one equation he had deduced, with mathematical certainty, the
two observed phenomena due to relative motion, which respectively found
central parts of both Quantum Theory and Albert Einstein's Special Relativity.
(Thus for the first time uniting these two theories from one common theoretical
foundation!)

This then led to his further work on resonant coupling which finally solved
the puzzle of the 'photon' and explained why light energy is only ever emitted
and absorbed in discrete amounts. (See Section 1.4)

Unfortunately for modern physics, and ultimately for human knowledge, this obvious solution was never considered by de Broglie, Albert Einstein, Bohr, Schrodinger, Heisenberg, Dirac, Born, Feynman, etc. etc. Thus the now obvious solution of realising that matter was a Spherical Standing Wave that causes the point particle effect at the Wave-Center remained unknown and ignored, and instead, the confusing and paradoxical concept of the particle / wave duality was retained.

### 1.3 The Compton Wavelength (2.43*10^{-12}m) of the Electron Y=h/mc
(1923)

As stated, in hindsight there were many clues as to the Wave Structure of the Electron. Another obvious clue being that the electron itself has a 'Compton' wavelength (named after American experimental physicist Holly Compton who discovered this from experiments with electron beams). But unfortunately they had come to accept the particle / wave duality of matter and simply continued to assume that somehow this paradoxical conception of matter was true, and thus beyond human comprehension. (So they stopped looking for an obvious solution!)

So let us briefly explain the Compton Wavelength. Experiments show that
Energy is directly related to both Frequency and Mass (this is true since
we now realise that they are ALL caused by Wave-Motion). As we know from
experiment the energy E and mass m of the electron, and the velocity of
light c, we can calculate the Compton Wavelength Y of the Electron as follows;
E=hf=mc2 and f=c/Y, thus hc/Y= mc^{2} resulting in Y=h/mc which
for the Electron = 2.43*10^{-12}m.

**
****Fig: 2.3 The Compton Wavelength (Y) of the Electron**
- While this wavelength is related to the actual Wavelength of the Spherical
Standing Wave, it is more complex than this. As the Spherical In-Wave flows
in towards the Wave-Center, both its Wave-Amplitude and mass-energy density of space increase,
thus the velocity and wavelength will also change. (Thus there is still
a substantial amount of mathematical analysis required on how the Wavelength
of the Electron changes with distance from the Wave-Center.)

### 1.4 The Schrodinger Wave Equations are founded on Standing Wave Interactions (1928)

Quantum theory was thus essentially founded on the experimental observations
of frequency and wavelength for both light and matter. These empirical facts
are obviously consistent with the Spherical Standing Wave structure of matter.

1. Planck's discovery that energy is related to frequency in the equation
E=hf

2. The Equivalence of Energy, Frequency and Mass E=hf=mc^{2}, which
deduces the Compton Wavelength Y=h/mc

3. The de Broglie wavelength y=h/mv

It was Erwin Schrodinger who discovered that when frequency **f**
and de Broglie wavelength **y** were substituted into general
wave equations it becomes possible to express energy **E**
and momentum mv (from the above equations) as wave functions - thus a confined
particle (e.g. an electron in an atom/molecule) with known energy and momentum
functions could be described with a certain wave function. From this it
was further found that only certain frequency wave functions, like frequencies
on musical strings, were allowed to exist. These allowed functions and their
frequencies depended on the confining structure (atom or molecule) that
the electron was bound to (analogous to how strings are bound to a violin,
and only then can they resonate at certain frequencies). Significantly,
these allowed frequencies corresponded to the observed discrete frequencies
of light emitted and absorbed by electrons bound in atoms/molecules. This
further confirmed the standing wave properties of matter, and thus that
only certain standing wave frequencies could exist which corresponded to
certain energy states. The agreement of observed frequencies and Schrodinger's
Wave Equations further established the fundamental importance of Quantum
Theory and thus the Wave properties of both light and matter. As Albert
Einstein explains;

How can one assign a discrete succession of energy values
E to a system specified in the sense of classical mechanics (the energy
function is a given function of the co-ordinates x and the corresponding
momenta mv)? Planck's constant h relates the frequency f =E/h to the energy
values E. It is therefore sufficient to assign to the system a succession
of discrete frequency f values. This reminds us of the fact that in acoustics
a series of discrete frequency values is coordinated to a linear partial
differential equation (for given boundary conditions) namely the sinusoidal
periodic solutions. In corresponding manner, Schrodinger set himself the
task of coordinating a partial differential equation for a **scalar
wave** function to the given energy function E (x, mv), where the
position x and time t are independent variables. (**Albert Einstein**,
1936)

And here we have a final piece of the puzzle in a sense, for it was Schrodinger
who discovered that the **standing waves are scalar waves**
rather than vector electromagnetic waves. This is a most important difference.
Electromagnetic waves are vector waves - at each point in Space the wave
equations yield a vector quantity which describes both a direction and an
amplitude (size of force) of the wave, and this relates to the original
construction of the e-m field by Faraday which described both a force and
a direction of how this force acted on other matter.

Spherical Wave Motions of Space are Scalar waves - at each point in Space
the wave equations yield a single quantity which simply describes the wave
amplitude (there is no directional component). For example, sound waves
are scalar waves where the wave amplitude describes the Motion (or compression)
of the wave medium (air). Likewise Space is a nearly rigid Wave-Medium which
propagates Wave-Motions.

With **de Broglie's** introduction of the concept of **standing
waves** to explain the discrete energy states of atoms and molecules,
and the introduction of **scalar waves** by **Schrodinger**,
they had intuitively grasped important truths of nature as Albert Einstein
confirms;

Experiments on interference made with particle rays have
given brilliant proof that the wave character of the phenomena of motion
as assumed by the theory does, really, correspond to the facts.

The de Broglie-Schrodinger method, which has in a certain sense the character
of a field theory, does indeed deduce the existence of only discrete states,
in surprising agreement with empirical facts. It does so on the basis of
differential equations applying a kind of **resonance** argument.
(**Albert Einstein**, 1927)

So let us now explain in more detail this phenomena of Light energy being emitted and absorbed in discrete amounts (photons) due to Resonant Standing Wave interactions. Firstly, we must understand Principle Two and realise that the velocity of wave Motions in Space is not constant, and in fact depends upon both the Wave-Amplitude and the mass-energy density of space (square of Wave-Amplitude). These are simply the properties of Space as a Wave-medium. (See Article on the Two Properties of the Metaphysics of Space and Motion and the Wave Structure of Matter.)

### 1.4.1 On the Forces of Charge and Light

It is the nature of Principles that they are stated rather than deduced.
Thus we must state the Properties of Space, as Principles, and then demonstrate
that logical deductions from these Principles do in fact correspond to observation.
What we have found is that if Space behaves in the following way, then it
gives rise to deductions which correspond to observation and experiment.

The Wave Velocity (velocity of light c) varies with both the Wave-Amplitude
and the mass-energy density of space (the square of the Wave-Amplitude).

i) The greater the Wave-Amplitude the greater the Wave-Velocity.

ii) The greater the mass-energy density of space the slower the Wave-Velocity.

We do not know why Space, as a Wave-Medium, behaves this way, other than
to say that these are simply the properties of Space. What we do discover
though, is that from these foundations we get a simple explanation of both
Charge/Light and Mass/Gravity.

As gravity is explained in the article on Relativity, the general idea is
only briefly summarised here. When In-Waves travel in through other Matter
/ Wave-Motions of Space, they slightly slow down due to the increased mass-energy
density of space, and this causes the Wave-Centers to naturally move together,
which we observe as Gravitational attraction. As mass-energy density of
space is always positive (squares are always positive), this always causes
a slowing of the In-Waves, thus explaining why gravity is always attractive.

On the other hand, Wave-Amplitude is both positive and negative, thus interacting
Wave-Amplitudes can either increase or decrease (i.e. combine or cancel
out), causing either an increase or decrease in the velocity of the In-Waves,
and a consequent moving together, or moving apart of the Wave-Centers.

It is this property of Space that causes Charge / Electromagnetic Fields
and in a slightly more complex manner, Light.

Thus when we place two electrons near one another in Space, then the Wave-Amplitude
of Space between them increases because the Waves are in phase and the Wave-Amplitudes
combine and increase, thus the Wave-Velocity increases (opposite to gravity's
slowing of In-Waves) and this causes the Wave-Centers to move apart. This
explains the electrical repulsion of like charges.

Conversely, if we place an electron and a positron (anti-matter being the
opposite phase Wave-Motion to Matter, thus a positron is the opposite phase
to an electron) then the Wave-Amplitude between the two Wave-Centers tends
to cancel out and become smaller, thus the Wave-Velocity between the two
Wave-Centers decreases (like gravity) and thus causes the Wave-Centers to
move together.

In fact this also explains the electron / positron (matter / antimatter)
annihilation, as the Wave-Centers will eventually overlap one-another and
the Wave-Amplitudes will completely cancel out (due to their equal and opposite
phase) and thus disappear.

This explains Charge, but does not explain Light, which is slightly more
complex, though it is still caused by the same fundamental properties of
Space.

### 1.4.2 On Resonant Coupling as the Cause of Light

What we must further realise is that Light is only emitted and absorbed
by electrons bound in atoms or molecules, and these electrons have some
complex repeating Standing Wave-Motion about the nucleus. Thus the electrons
behave as 'oscillating resonators' and it is common knowledge to electrical
engineers and physicists that two interconnected resonators can undergo
resonant coupling, where one resonator decreases in frequency and the other
one increases a corresponding amount.

Thus two bound resonating electrons (oscillators) exchange energy much like
classical coupled oscillators, such as electric circuits or joined pendulums.

The coupling provided by the non-linear centers of the resonances (high
Wave-Amplitude Wave-Centers where the Wave-Velocities change ) causes them
to change velocity, frequency, and wavelength, due to the interaction (modulation)
of each other's waves. Since significant coupling can only occur between
two oscillators which possess the same resonant elements, the frequency
(energy) changes are equal and opposite. This we observe as the law of conservation
of energy.

When opposite changes of frequency (energy) takes place between two resonances,
energy seems to be transported from the center of one resonance to another.
We observe a loss of energy where frequency decreases and added energy where
it increases. The exchange appears to travel with the speed of the IN waves
of the receiving resonance which is c, the velocity of light. When large
numbers of changes occur together, so we can sample part of it, we see a
beam of light. When single exchanges occur we see photons as discrete energy
exchanges.

The transitory modulated waves traveling between two resonances (as the
Electrons/Wave-Centers move from one standing wave pattern to another) create
the illusion of the photon. An exchange may require 10^{8} to 10^{15}
cycles to complete, depending on the degree of coupling and species of resonance.
For example, if one oscillator were an electron, its frequency mc^{2}/h
is about 10^{2}3 hertz, and if the transition time were 10^{-8}
seconds, the frequency change requires about 10^{15} cycles to complete.
Such a large number of cycles implies, in engineering slang, a large Q value,
which indicates great precision of the equal and opposite changes in oscillator
frequency, and the conservation of energy.

Thus we realise that these different standing Wave patterns cause a cyclical
oscillation in the Shape of the In and Out-Waves which describes a wave
function that is ultimately the cause of the 'electromagnetic' wavelength
and frequency of light. As only certain discrete 'orbits' (standing wave
functions) exist for the Wave-Center of the Spherical Standing Wave, then
it can only exchange frequencies in discrete levels which correspond to
discrete energy exchanges of light 'photons'. i.e. E=hf where only discrete
frequencies (f) area resonantly stable and thus 'allowed'. (There are no
separate light 'particles / photons' or collapsing wave functions, both
being mathematical existents only!)

Most importantly, these standing wave interactions and resonant coupling
are the reason for Schrodinger's Standing Wave Equations and their obvious
success at explaining the allowed energy states for electrons in atoms,
and thus the discrete photon effect of light as these electrons move from
one resonant standing wave pattern (quantum state) to another.

### 1.5 Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle & Born's 'Probability Waves' Interpretation of QT (1928)

On Chance and Probability in a Necessarily Interconnected finite spherical Universe within a Non-Determined Infinite Space

At the same time that the wave properties of matter were discovered, two
further discoveries were made that also profoundly influenced (and confused)
the future evolution of modern physics.

Firstly, Werner Heisenberg developed the uncertainty principle which tells
us that we (the observer) can never exactly know both the position and momentum
of a particle. As every observation requires an energy exchange (photon)
to create the observed 'data', some energy (wave) state of the observed
object has to be altered. Thus the observation has a discrete effect on
what we measure. i.e. We change the experiment by observing it! (A large
part of their problem though was to continue to assume the existence of
discrete particles and thus to try to exactly locate both their position
and motion, which is impossible as there is no discrete particle!)

Further, because both the observed position and momentum of the particle
can never be exactly known, theorists were left trying to determine the
probability of where, for example, the 'particle' would be observed.

Born (1928) was the first to discover (by chance and with no theoretical
foundation) that the square of the quantum wave equations (which is actually
the mass-energy density of space) could be used to predict the probability of where the
particle would be found. Since it was impossible for both the waves and
the particles to be real entities, it became customary to regard the waves
as unreal probability waves and to maintain the belief in the 'real' particle.
Unfortunately (profoundly) this maintained the belief in the particle/wave
duality, in a new form where the 'quantum' scalar standing waves had become
'probability waves' for the 'real' particle.

Albert Einstein unfortunately agreed with this probability wave interpretation,
as he believed in continuous force fields (not in waves or particles) thus
to him it was sensible that the waves were not real, and were mere descriptions
of probabilities. He writes;

On the basis of quantum theory there was obtained a surprisingly
good representation of an immense variety of facts which otherwise appeared
entirely incomprehensible. But on one point, curiously enough, there was
failure: it proved impossible to associate with these **Schrodinger
waves** definite **motions** of the mass points - and
that, after all, had been the original purpose of the whole construction.

The difficulty appeared insurmountable until it was overcome by Born in
a way as simple as it was unexpected. The de Broglie-Schrodinger wave fields
were not to be interpreted as a mathematical description of how an event
actually takes place in time and space, though, of course, they have reference
to such an event. Rather they are a **mathematical description**
of what we can actually know about the system. They serve only to make statistical
statements and predictions of the results of all measurements which we can
carry out upon the system. (**Albert Einstein**, 1940)

It seems to be clear, therefore, that Born's statistical
interpretation of quantum theory is the only possible one. The wave function
does not in any way describe a state which could be that of a single system;
it relates rather to many systems, to an **'ensemble of systems' in
the sense of statistical mechanics**. (**Albert Einstein**,
1936)

Albert Einstein is correct in one sense, mistaken in another. It is true
that matter is intimately interconnected to all the other matter in the
universe by the Spherical In and Out-Waves, something quantum theory discovered
but never correctly understood.

This has become known as quantum entanglement and relates to the famous
experiment posed by Albert Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) (see Section
1.7 for an explanation of this experiment) and when later technology allowed
its experimental testing, it confirmed quantum theory's entanglement.

Albert Einstein assumed this interconnectedness was due to the spherical spatially extended field structure of matter, instead, it is due to the interaction of the spherical spatially extended Standing Waves of matter with other matter's Wave-Centers distant in Space. Explaining this Standing Wave interaction of matter with other matter in the Space around it (action-at-a-distance) is largely the purpose of this Article and is one of the great powers of the Metaphysics of Space and Motion and the Spherical Wave Structure of Matter.

Nonetheless, Albert Einstein was very close to the truth. He realised that because matter is spherically spatially extended we must give up the idea of complete localization and knowledge of the 'particle' in a theoretical model. For the particle is nothing but the Wave-Center of a Spherical Standing Wave, and thus can never be isolated as an entity in itself, but is dependent on its interactions with all the other Matter in the Universe. And it is this lack of knowledge of the system as a whole that is the ultimate cause of the uncertainty and resultant probability inherent in Quantum Theory.

Thus the last and most successful creation of theoretical physics, namely quantum mechanics (QM), differs fundamentally from both Newton's mechanics, and Maxwell's e-m field. For the quantities which figure in QM's laws make no claim to describe physical reality itself, but only probabilities of the occurrence of a physical reality that we have in view. (Albert Einstein, 1931)

I cannot but confess that I attach only a transitory importance
to this interpretation. I still believe in the possibility of a model of
reality - that is to say, of a theory which represents things themselves
and not merely the probability of their occurrence. On the other hand, it
seems to me certain that we must give up the idea of complete localization
of the particle in a theoretical model. This seems to me the permanent upshot
of Heisenberg's principle of uncertainty. (**Albert Einstein**,
1934)

Albert Einstein believed that Reality could be represented by spherical force fields, that reality was not founded on chance (as Bohr and Heisenberg argued) but on necessary connections between things (thus his comment 'God does not play dice'!). He was largely correct, Matter is necessarily connected due to the Spherical Standing Wave Structure of Matter, but due to lack of knowledge of the system as a whole (the Universe), and the fact that it is impossible to determine an Infinite system (of which our finite spherical universe is a part - see Article on Cosmology), then this gives rise to the chance and uncertainty found in Quantum Theory.

### 1.6 A Brief Analysis of Feynman's Quantum Electrodynamics (QED, 1945)

QED is founded on the assumption that charged 'particles' somehow generate spherical electromagnetic (vector) In and Out Waves (a dynamic version of Lorentz's Theory of the Electron, as Feynman uses spherical electromagnetic Waves, rather than static force fields). It is important to realise though, that like most post-modern physicists, Richard Feynman was a Logical Positivist. Thus he did not believe in the existence of either particles or waves, he simply used this conceptual language as a way of representing how matter behaves in a logical way. As he says;

.. some things that satisfy the rules of algebra can be
interesting to mathematicians even though they don't always represent a
real situation. (**Feynman**)

This explains why he had such success and such failure at the same time, as he had the correct spherical wave structure of Matter, but he continued with two further errors, the existence of the particle, and the use of vector 'electromagnetic' waves (mathematical waves of force), rather than using the correct scalar 'quantum' waves. It is this error of Feynman's that ultimately led Wolff to make his remarkable discoveries of the WSM.

The problem for QED is twofold;

Firstly, there is the **Problem of 'Renormalisation'** -
Feynman must assume finite dimensions for the particle, else the spherical
electromagnetic waves would reach infinite fields strengths when the radius
of the spherical electromagnetic waves tends to zero. There must be some
non-zero cut-off that is arbitrarily introduced by having a 'particle' of
a certain finite size.

Effectively, Feynman gets infinities in his equations, and then he subtract
infinity from infinity and puts in the correct empirical answer (which is
not good mathematics, but it does then work extraordinarily well!)

Secondly, it is a mathematical fact that there are **no vector wave
solutions of the Maxwell Equations** (which found electromagnetic
fields) in spherical co-ordinates!

These are profound problems that have caused contradiction and paradox within Quantum Theory to the present day, and have led to the self fulfilling belief that we can never correctly describe and understand Reality.

... the more you see how strangely Nature behaves, the
harder it is to make a model that explains how even the simplest phenomena
actually work. So theoretical physics has given up on that. (**Feynman**)

In fact Nature behaves in a very sensible and logical way (which explains why mathematical physics exists as a subject and can describe so many phenomena, and also explains how we 'humans' have been able to evolve a logical aspect to our minds!). That it is not Nature which is strange, but our incorrect conceptions of Nature! Most importantly, the simple sensible solutions to these problems can be easily understood once we know the correct Wave Structure of Matter.

### 1.6.1 The Solution to the Problem of 'Renormalisation'.

Richard Feynman's PhD thesis (with J. A. Wheeler, 1945) used Spherical
IN (Advanced) and OUT (Retarded) e-m waves to investigate this spherical
e-m field effect around the electron and how accelerated electrons could
emit light (e-m radiation) to be absorbed by other electrons at-a-distant
in space.

One vexing problem of this e-m field theory was that it led to infinitely
high fields (singularities) at the center of the point particle electron.
This was avoided with a mathematical process called renormalisation whereby
infinity was subtracted from infinity and the correct experimental result
was substituted into the equation. It was Dirac who pointed out that this
is not good mathematics - and Feynman was well aware of this!

In 1937 Paul Dirac wrote;

I must say that I am very dissatisfied with the situation,
because this so called good theory does involve neglecting infinities which
appear in its equations, neglecting them in an arbitrary way. This is just
not sensible mathematics. Sensible mathematics involves neglecting a quantity
when it turns out to be small - not neglecting it just because it is infinitely
great and you do not want it! (**Dirac**, 1937)

Richard Feynman was obviously also aware of this problem, and had this to say about renormalisation.

But no matter how clever the word, it is what I call a
dippy process! Having to resort to such hocus pocus has prevented us from
proving that the theory of quantum electrodynamics is mathematically self
consistent. ... I suspect that renormalisation is not mathematically legitimate.
(**Feynman**, 1985)

Albert Einstein was also aware of this problem as he explains in his critique of Lorentz's electromagnetic field theory for electrons (as it is still the same fundamental problem of the particle / electromagnetic field duality).

The inadequacy of this point of view manifested itself
in the necessity of assuming finite dimensions for the particles in order
to prevent the electromagnetic field existing at their surfaces from becoming
infinitely large. (**Albert Einstein**, 1936)

Feynman's Spherical IN OUT wave theory is largely correct (and of course explains his success) but his error of using vector e-m waves resulted in infinities at the point particle as the radius tended to zero, and this led to the errors of renormalisation. In reality, Matter, as a structure of scalar spherical quantum waves, has a finite wave amplitude at the Wave-Center (as observed) and thus eliminates the infinities and the problems of renormalisation found in Feynman's Quantum Electrodynamics (QED).

### 1.6.2 The Solution to the Problem of there being NO Vector Wave Solutions of Maxwell's Equations in Spherical Co-ordinates

James Maxwell (1876) used the experimental (empirical) results of Faraday,
Coulomb, etc. to develop four equations, now famous, whose solutions described
an electromagnetic (e-m) wave which correctly deduced the velocity of light
c. Maxwell was correct that light is a wave traveling with velocity c -
but it is a wave developed from the interaction of the IN and OUT waves
of two spherical standing waves whose Wave-Centers are bound in resonant
standing wave patterns. (Thus it is the interaction of four waves which
probably explains why there are four Maxwell Equations.)

The Maxwell's Equations (M.E.), which describe the formation of electric
fields E by a charge distribution q and changing magnetic fields H, as well
as the formation of the H field by a changing E and electric currents i,
cannot describe a spherical electromagnetic wave! It is a mathematical fact
that there are no wave solutions of the M.E.s in spherical co-ordinates!
Only the scalar 'quantum' wave equation has spherical wave solutions. Similarly,
there are no imaginable M.E. solutions for a 'photon particle'. It is clear
that the M.E.s are not fundamental and the photon is only a mathematical
construction.

The failure of the M.E. in spherical co-ordinates can be imagined by saying,
You cannot comb the hair on a tennis ball. This means that if you attempt
to comb down an E field (the hair representing the electric vector) everywhere
flat onto a tennis ball (a spherical surface), you must create a 'cowlick'
somewhere on the ball which frustrates your attempt to comb it.

The questions arise, Why did theorists continue to favour the e-m field, the photon, and M.E. for 70 years in spite of the well-known flagrant failure of the mathematical description to agree with observation? Why were alternative descriptions of nature not sought?

We suspect the answer is because it worked once the errors were removed
with a bit of 'hocus pocus' mathematics and the aid of empirical data.

Unfortunately, this logical positivist view to retain the point particle
and vector force fields has been the root cause of the many paradoxes and
mysteries surrounding quantum theory. The resulting confusion has been increasingly
exploited in the popular press. Instead of searching for the simple behaviour
of nature, the physics community found that 'wave-particle duality' was
an exciting launching pad for more complex proposals that found support
from government funding agencies. The search for truth was put into limbo
and wave-particle duality reigned.

Once we understand though, that the particle theory of matter is a mathematical
(logical positivist) description of nature, then it becomes less confusing.
Essentially the particle is a mathematical construction to describe energy
exchange. It says nothing about the energy exchange mechanism and thus makes
no comment about how the particle exists, how it moves through Space, what
the Space around the particle is made of, and how matter particles 'emit'
and 'absorb' photon particles with other matter particles distant in Space.

Let us then consider one fundamentally important argument of Feynman's that light must be a particle.

For many years after Newton, partial reflection by two
surfaces was happily explained by a theory of waves,* but when experiments
were made with very weak light hitting photomultipliers, the wave theory
collapsed: as the light got dimmer and dimmer, the photomultipliers kept
making full sized clicks - there were just fewer of them. **Light
behaves as particles**.

* This idea made use of the fact that waves can combine or cancel out, and
the calculations based on this model matched the results of Newton's experiments,
as well as those done for hundreds of years afterwards. But when experiments
were developed that were sensitive enough to detect a single photon, the
wave theory predicted that the clicks of a photomultiplier would get softer
and softer, whereas they stayed at full strength - they just occurred less
and less often. No reasonable model could explain this fact.

This state of confusion was called the wave - particle duality of light.
(**Feynman**, 1985)

Feynman though is incorrect in two ways;

Firstly, he is making unjustified assumptions beyond what is observed. It
is true that light energy is emitted and absorbed in discrete amounts between
two electrons. But we DO NOT OBSERVE any 'Particles' - we only observe discrete
energy exchanges!

Secondly, the solution is to realize that the Spherical Standing Wave Structure
of Matter actually demands that all energy exchanges for light be of discrete
amounts because this is what occurs for 'Resonant Coupling', and for standing
Wave interactions in general.

It is also interesting to see how simply Feynman summarizes QED;

So now, I present to you the three basic actions, from
which all the phenomena of light and electrons arise.

-Action #1: A photon goes from place to place.

-Action #2: An electron goes from place to place.

-Action #3: An electron emits or absorbs a photon.

This can now be simplified to two actions with the WSM;

Action #1: An Electron, as the Wave-Center of a Spherical Standing Wave,
goes from place to place in Space (as determined by the spherical In-Waves.)

Action #2: An Electron resonantly couples with another Electron (emits or
absorbs a photon)

Once we realise that there are no separate electron or photon particles, thus we remove the problem as to how an electron particle can interact with a separate photon particle! Thus this solution is actually more consistent (and simpler) than Feynman's QED, particularly when we consider Feynman's further explanation of a positron being an electron which goes backwards in Time.

The backwards-moving electron when viewed with time moving
forwards appears the same as an ordinary electron, except that it is attracted
to normal electrons - we say it has a positive charge. For this reason it's
called a positron. The positron is a sister particle to the electron, and
is an example of an anti-particle. ..This phenomena is general. Every particle
in Nature has an amplitude to move backwards in time, and therefore has
an anti-particle. (**Feynman**, 1985)

As Wolff explains this is simply a mathematical truth caused by the fact
that a negative time in the wave equations changes the phase of the standing
waves to be equal and opposite, which corresponds to antimatter. (Antimatter
does no move 'backwards in time'!)

Further, notice what Feynman says about photons, which are treated as particles
in QED, and thus by Feynman's logic there should also be anti-photons, whereas
the WSM is clear on this point - there are anti-electrons (positrons) which
are opposite phase Spherical Standing Waves, but there are no separate photon
particles, thus no anti-photons!

And what about photons? Photons look exactly the same in
all respects when they travel backwards in time, so they are their own anti-particles.
You see how clever we are at making an exception part of the rule! (**Feynman**,
1985)

While it may be clever, it is not good philosophy, and it has led to a
very confused and absurd modern physics. Surely it is time for physicists
to start considering the fundamental theoretical problems of the existing
theories and to appreciate that the Metaphysics of Space and Motion and
the Spherical Wave Structure of Matter is a simple, sensible, and obvious
way to solve these problems!

Finally, let us explain how we can experimentally confirm the Spherical
Wave Structure of Matter (which would obviously be very convincing to the
skeptics!)

### 1.7 Wolff's Explanation of the Famous Albert Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen (EPR) Experiment and Further Predictions

'The Ultimate Paradox - Bell's Theorem' by Milo Wolff, Exploring the Physics of the Unknown Universe, 1994

In l935, Albert Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) put forward a gedanken (thought) experiment whose outcome they thought was certain to show that there existed natural phenomena that quantum theory could not account for. The experiment was based on the concept that two events cannot influence each other if the distance between them is greater than the distance light could travel in the time available. In other words, only local events inside the light sphere can influence one another.

Their experimental concept was later used by John Bell (1964) to frame a theorem which showed that either the statistical predictions of quantum theory or the Principle of Local Events is incorrect. It did not say which one was false but only that both cannot be true, although it was clear that Albert Einstein expected The Principle to be affirmed.

When later experiments (Clauser & Freedman 1972; Aspect, Dalibard, and Roger, 1982; and others) confirmed that quantum theory was correct, the conclusion was startling. The Principle of Local Events failed, forcing us to recognize that the world is not the way it appears. What then is the real nature of our world?

The important impact of Bell's Theorem and the experiments is that they clearly thrust, a formerly only philosophical dilemma of quantum theory, into the real world. They show that post-modern physics' ideas about the world are somehow profoundly deficient. No one understood these results and only scant scientific attention has been paid to them.

Figure 1.7.1 Experiment to test Bell's theorem. Polarized photons are emitted at the center, pass through the adjustable polarization filters on the left and right, and enter detectors on each side. Coincidences (simultaneous detection) are recorded and plotted as a function of the angular difference between the two settings of the polarization filters.

### The Essence of Bell's Theorem

His theorem relates to the results of an experiment like the one shown
in **Figure 1.7.1** (see above): A source of two paired photons,
obtained from the simultaneous decay of two excited atomic states, is at
the center. At opposite sides, are located two detectors of polarized photons.
The polarization filters of each detector can be set parallel to each other,
or at some other angle, freely chosen. It is known that polarizations of
paired photons are always parallel to each other, but random with respect
to their surroundings. So, if the detector filters are set parallel, both
photons will be detected simultaneously. If the filters are at right angles,
the two photons will never be detected together. The detection pattern for
settings at intermediate angles is the subject of the theorem.

Bell (and Albert Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen) assumed that the photons
arriving at each detector could have no knowledge of the setting of the
other detector. This is because they assumed that such information would
have to travel faster than the speed of light - prohibited by Albert Einstein's
Special Relativity. Their assumption reflects the Principle of Local Causes,
that is, only events local to each detector can affect its behaviour.

Based on this assumption, Bell deduced that the relationship between the
angular difference between detector settings and the detected coincidences
of photon pairs was linear, like line L in **Figure 1.7.2.**
His deduction comes from the symmetry and independence of the two detectors,
as follows: A setting difference of X, at one detector has the same effect
as a difference X, at the other detector. Hence if both are moved X, the
total angular difference is 2X and the total effect is twice as much, which
is a linear relationship.

Figure 1.7.2 The result of an experiment to test Bell's theorem Data points R of the experiments are shown with black dots. They agree with the line QM, predicted by the quantum mechanics, and do not agree with the line L, predicted by Albert Einstein's concept of causality.

This was a big surprise, because the failure of causality suggests that
the communication is taking place at speeds greater than the velocity of
light.

The curved line is the calculation obtained from standard quantum theory.

Bell, Albert Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen, or anyone who does not believe
in superluminal speeds, would expect to find line L.

In fact, the experiments yielded points R, which agreed with line QM. The
predictions of quantum theory had destroyed the assumptions of Albert Einstein,
Podolsky and Rosen!

The results of these experiments were so disbelieved that they were repeated
by other persons, using different photon sources, as well as particles with
paired spins. The most recent experiment by Aspect, Dalibard, and Roger,
used acousto-optical switches at a frequency of 50MHz which shifted the
settings of the polarizers during the flight of the photons, to completely
eliminate any possibility of local effects of one detector on the other.
Nevertheless, they reported that the EPR assumption was violated by five
standard deviations, whereas quantum theory was verified within experimental
error (about 2%).

### Do Non-local Influences Exist?

Bell's Theorem and the experimental results imply that parts of the universe
are connected in an intimate way (i.e. not obvious to us) and these connections
are fundamental (quantum theory is fundamental). How can we understand them?
The problem has been analysed in depth (Wheeler & Zurek 1983, d'Espagnat
1983, Herbert 1985, Stapp 1982, Bohm & Hiley 1984, Pagels 1982, and
others) without resolution. Those authors tend to agree on the following
description of the non-local connections:

1. They link events at separate locations without known fields or matter.

2. They do not diminish with distance; a million miles is the same as an
inch.

3. They appear to act with speed greater than light.

Clearly, within the framework of science, this is a perplexing phenomenon.
In some mysterious quantum way, communication does appear to take place
faster than light between the two detectors of the apparatus. These results
showed that our understanding of the physical world is profoundly deficient.

### Explaining the EPR-Bell 'Instant' Communication

The Spherical Wave Structure of Matter, particularly the behaviour of the In and Out Waves, is able to resolve this puzzle so that the appearance of instant communication is understood and yet neither Albert Einstein nor QM need be wrong. In order to show this, it is necessary to carefully look at the detailed process of exchanging energy between two atoms, by the action of the IN/OUT waves of both atoms. Remember that for resonant coupling it is necessary for the In and Out Waves of both electrons to interact with one another. The passage of both In-Waves through both Wave-Centers precedes the actual frequency shifts of the source and detector.

A means to detect this first passage event is not a capability of the usual
photo-detector apparatus and remains totally unnoticed. But the In-Waves
are symmetrical counterparts of the Out-Waves and carry the information
of their polarization state between parts of the experimental apparatus
before the Out-Waves cause a departing photon event. The IN-waves travel
with the speed of light so there is no violation of relativity.

At this point you may be inclined to disbelieve the reality of the In-Wave.
But there is other evidence for it. Remember, it explains the de Broglie
wavelength and thereby QM. It is necessary to explain the relativistic mass
increase of a moving object or the symmetry in its direction of motion.
It is responsible for the finite force of the SR electron at its center.
Are all of these merely coincidence? Especially, it is the combination of
In and Out Waves which explains these laws, not just the In-Waves. If you
believe in one you are forced to believe in the other.

(Note added by Haselhurst - In fact without In-Waves there
can be no Out-Waves, as the Out-Waves are simply the In-Waves after they
have propagated In and Out through the Wave-Center. Thus effectively Wolff
is saying that the electrons in the experiment are already interconnected
with one another, and hence are already 'aware' of one another's resonant
state and polarization, before the paired photons are emitted. It is this
subtle interconnection of Matter that explains the apparent conflict of
the EPR experiment.)

### Can Proof of the In-Waves be Found?

For someone to really believe a new theory, an experiment to show the existence of new phenomena not previously known is most persuasive.

To prove the existence of the In-Waves (and thus the pre-existing interconnection
of the electrons with the rest of the apparatus) would be just such a critical
experiment. This can likely be accomplished with an apparatus of the type
used by Aspect, Dalibard, and Rogers (1982) except that instead of making
a random filter setting during a photon's passage time, **the filter
setting should occur during the time period preceding photon departure**.
The purpose is to frustrate communication by the In-Waves. As the In-Waves
are necessary to the energy exchange process, then the result of the experiment
would be a linear relation between the angular difference of the two filters.
This would be the result originally expected by Albert Einstein for the
EPR experiment.

(End of Section from Milo Wolff.)

The Wave Structure of Matter is a profound new way of looking at how Matter exists and interacts with other matter in Space. Wolff has explained a very simple change to a very famous experiment that currently causes Quantum Theory, and Human intellectual knowledge in general, profound problems and paradoxes. Thus it seems to us absolutely essential that this experiment be re-done as suggested above. We sincerely hope that this work on the Metaphysics of Space and Motion and the Spherical Wave Structure of Matter will ultimately lead to this new 'Paradigm' being taken seriously, and that this experiment will be performed sooner rather than later!

## Quantum Theory Summary

Quantum Theory (1900-1930) discovered four main things;

a) Both matter and light sometimes behave as particles and sometimes behave
as waves. (Planck, de Broglie)

b) Schrodinger's Standing Wave equations can be used to describe the allowed
discrete energy states for electrons (Wave-Centers) in atoms or molecules.

c) It is impossible to know both the location and momentum of a particle
and this inherent uncertainty can be calculated using the square of the
Wave equation to determine the probability of where the particle will be
found. (Heisenberg, Born)

d) Matter seems to be subtly interconnected with other matter in the Universe.
(EPR Experiment)

With the Metaphysics of Space and Motion and the Wave Structure of Matter
we can now sensibly explain these phenomena;

a) The solution of the particle/wave duality of matter is obvious - Matter
is a Spherical Standing Wave which creates a 'particle effect' at the Wave-Center'.
The solution to the particle/wave duality of light is more complex (though
it is still obvious once known) and is a consequence of the standing wave
structure of matter and that only discrete standing wave interactions can
occur during 'Resonant Coupling' of two bound electrons.

b) Schrodinger's Wave equations confirm this discrete standing wave interaction,
that only certain discrete standing wave frequencies between matter are
resonantly stable which causes frequency (and thus energy) exchanges to
be in discrete 'quanta' which can be mathematically explained as 'particle/photon'
interactions.

c) Because Spherical Standing Waves are the size of the Universe, their
In-Waves are interacting with all the other matter in the Universe. As we
exist as complex arrangements of Wave-Centers here on earth, we do not have
immediate knowledge of how these In-Waves are interacting with this other
matter in the universe, and must simply wait until the In-Waves arrive at
the Wave-Center where we observe these changes in motion and position of
the Wave-Center. This lack of knowledge causes the uncertainty as to how
a Wave-Center will move about over time and thus qualitatively explains
why probability based upon wave equations can describe this uncertainty.

d) The Albert Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen (EPR) experiment performed by Aspect
in 1972 famously and controversially confirmed the apparent instant interconnection
of particles and contradicted Albert Einstein's Relativity which requires
that all matter to matter interactions be limited by the velocity of light.
Albert Einstein is in fact correct, the error of the experiment was to assume
matter was a particle rather than the Wave-Center of a Spherical Standing
Wave. Once this is understood then it explains how matter is subtly interconnected
with other matter in the Space around it (by the In and Out-Waves) and leads
to a minor change in the experiment which will confirm the Metaphysics of
Space and Motion and the Spherical Wave Structure of Matter as a sensible
and obvious solution to the problems and paradoxes of not only Quantum Theory,
but also of Albert Einstein's Relativity and Cosmology.

## References

Albert Einstein, Ideas and Opinions Crown Trade Paperbacks
1954

Albert Einstein, Relativity Crown Trade Paperbacks 1961

Feynman, Richard and Wheeler, John Interactions with the Absorber as the
Mechanism of Radiation PhD Thesis- Palmer Physical Laboratory, Princeton
University, Princeton, New Jersey 1945

Feynman, Richard P. The Strange Theory of Light and Matter Penguin 1985

Haselhurst, Geoff The Metaphysics of Space and Motion and the Wave Structure
of Matter 2000 https://www.spaceandmotion.com

Serway, R. A. Physics for Scientists and Engineers Third Edition, Saunders
College Publishing 1992

Wolff, Milo Exploring the Physics of the Unknown Universe, Technotran Press,
CA. 1990

Wolff, Milo Fundamental Laws, Microphysics and Cosmology, Physics Essays,
6, 1993

I end with an important quote from Wolff on his discovery of the Wave Structure of Matter;

(Wolff, 1990)

The Wave Structure of fundamental Particles evolved over five years. It
began with a simple speculation that waves in Space could explain the de
Broglie wavelength. It continued to agree with more laws and observations
than I first expected and I was amazed. The 'Particle' is two identical
spherical waves travelling radially in opposite directions so that together
they form a spherical standing wave. The wave which travels inward towards
the center is called an In-Wave, and the wave travelling outward is an Out-Wave.
The nominal location of the ‘Particle’ is the Wave-Center, but
as must be true for any charged Particle, it has presence everywhere in
Space because the charge forces extend throughout the Universe.

How do Solid Bodies form from Waves? - The solid crystal array is a matrix
of atoms held rigidly in space. How are the atoms suspended in space? We
must conclude that the crystal’s rigidity derives from fixed standing
waves propagating in a rigid wave medium. Calculations for diamonds and
nuclear structure yields an enormous rigidity. This is really a separate
argument about the rigidity of space, which is one of its properties.

What is a Light 'Photon'? - Two Spherical Standing Waves (SSW) oscillators
exchange energy much like classical coupled oscillators, such as electric
circuits or joined pendulums. The coupling provided by the non-linear centers
of the resonances (high mass-energy density of space Wave-Centers) allows them to shift
frequency patterned by the modulation of each other's In and Out-Waves.
Since significant coupling can only occur between two oscillators which
possess the same resonant elements, the frequency (energy) changes are equal
and opposite. This we observe as the law of conservation of energy. When
opposite changes of frequency (energy ) take place between two resonances,
energy seems to be transported from the center of one resonance to another.
We observe a loss of energy where frequency decreases and added energy where
it increases. The exchange appears to travel with the speed of the In-Waves
of the receiving resonance which is c, the velocity of light. When large
numbers of changes occur together, we can sample part of it and see a beam
of light (which causes the continuous electromagnetic waves of Modern Physics).
When single exchanges occur we see 'photons' as discrete Standing Wave interactions.
Thus the transitory modulated waves travelling between two resonances create
the illusion of the 'photon particle'.

## Help Humanity

*"You must be the change you wish to see in the world."
(Mohandas Gandhi)*

*"When forced to summarize the general theory of relativity in one sentence:
Time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter. ... Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended. In this way the concept 'empty space' loses its meaning. ... The particle can only appear as a limited region in space in which
the field strength or the energy density are particularly high. ...
The free, unhampered exchange of ideas and scientific conclusions is necessary for the sound development of science, as it is in all spheres
of cultural life. ... We must not conceal from ourselves that no improvement in the present depressing situation is possible without
a severe struggle; for the handful of those who are really determined to do something is minute in comparison with the mass of the lukewarm
and the misguided. ...
Humanity is going to need a substantially new way of thinking if it is to survive!" (Albert Einstein)*

Our world is in great trouble due to human behaviour founded on myths and customs that are causing the destruction of Nature and climate change. We can now deduce the most simple science theory of reality - the wave structure of matter in space. By understanding how we and everything around us are interconnected in Space we can then deduce solutions to the fundamental problems of human knowledge in physics, philosophy, metaphysics, theology, education, health, evolution and ecology, politics and society.

This is the profound new way of thinking that Einstein realised, that we exist as spatially extended structures of the universe - the discrete and separate body an illusion. This simply confirms the intuitions of the ancient philosophers and mystics.

Given the current censorship in physics / philosophy of science journals (based on the standard model of particle physics / big bang cosmology) the internet is the best hope for getting new knowledge known to the world. But that depends on you, the people who care about science and society, realise the importance of truth and reality.

## It is Easy to Help!

Just click on the Social Network links below, or copy a nice image or quote you like and share it. We have a wonderful collection of knowledge from the greatest minds in human history, so people will appreciate your contributions. In doing this you will help a new generation of scientists see that there is a simple sensible explanation of physical reality - the source of truth and wisdom, the only cure for the madness of man! Thanks! Geoff Haselhurst (Updated September, 2018)

A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it. (**Max Planck**, 1920)

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*"In a time of universal deceit - telling the truth is a revolutionary act."(George Orwell)*

*"Hell is Truth Seen Too Late."(Thomas Hobbes)*

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