Metaphysics: Immanuel Kant
Summary of Immanuel Kant's Metaphysics. From Kantian Idealism to Realism of Space & the Wave Structure of Matter. Metaphysics of Space and Motion (not Time) as Synthetic a priori Foundations.

Natural science (physics) contains in itself synthetical judgments a priori, as principles. ... Space then is a necessary representation a priori, which serves for the foundation of all external intuitions. (Immanuel Kant, 1781)If we take away the subject (Humans), or even only the subjective constitution of our senses in general, then not only the nature and relations of objects in space and time, but even space and time themselves disappear; and that these, as appearances, cannot exist in themselves, but only in us. What may be the nature of objects considered as things in themselves and without reference to the receptivity of our sensibility is quite unknown to us. Not only are the raindrops mere appearances, but even their circular form, nay, the space itself through which they fall, is nothing in itself, but both are mere modifications or fundamental dispositions of our sensible intuition, whilst the transcendental object remains for us utterly unknown. (Immanuel Kant, Critique of Pure Reason, 1781)

"Metaphysics is a dark ocean without shores or lighthouse, strewn with many a philosophic wreck."
(Immanuel Kant)


Introduction to Immanuel Kant's Metaphysics

Immanuel Kant is the most famous metaphysicist of western philosophy, and there is no doubt that his 'Critique of Pure Reason' is the most comprehensive analysis of Metaphysics since Aristotle's pioneering work which founded this subject.

Unfortunately for humanity, Kant made one small and yet fundamental mistake. And this error led to the belief that we could never know reality (the thing in itself), only our ideas of reality which were necessarily incomplete.

Firstly, Kant is correct that Space is a priori, or first necessary for us to have senses (which are a posteriori).

Natural science (physics) contains in itself synthetical judgments a priori, as principles. ... Space then is a necessary representation a priori, which serves for the foundation of all external intuitions. (Immanuel Kant, Critique of Pure Reason, 1781)

His error is to assume that Time is also a priori or necessary for us to sense the motion of matter 'particles' in Space. He writes;

There are two pure forms of sensible intuition, as principles of knowledge a priori, namely space and time. (Kant, 1781)

And from this he concludes that because Space and Time cannot be united, they must both be merely ideas. His error can be found in the following quote where he writes;

... even that of motion, which unites in itself both elements (Space and Time), presuppose something empirical. Motion, for example, presupposes the perception of something movable. But space considered in itself contains nothing movable; consequently motion must be something which is found in space only through experience -in other words, is an empirical datum. (Kant, 1781)

Please read this quote several times, for it contains an error that has had profound repercussions for humanity. The error? That 'space considered in itself contains nothing movable'. And this error then leads Kant to conclude that;

..in respect to the form of appearances, much may be said a priori, whilst of the thing in itself, which may lie at the foundation of these appearances, it is impossible to say anything. (Kant, 1781)

Metaphysics of Space and Motion (not Time) as Synthetic a priori

The solution to Kant's error is to realise that the exact opposite is true, that Space considered in itself contains wave motions, i.e. Space physically exists as a substance with the properties of a wave medium and contains wave motions.
Kant's error is obvious in hindsight, because he followed Newton, and thus was conditioned into thinking that motion applied to matter 'particles' in space and time. Thus 'empty space' had no 'particles' thus motion could not exist.

The solution is found by replacing the particle conception of matter in space and time with the wave structure of matter in space.

Thus the two pure forms of sensible intuition, as principles of knowledge a priori, are namely Space and (wave) Motion - that we must place in this a priori concept of Space the correct meaning - that Space is a wave-medium and contains within it a second thing, wave motions of space that form matter (i.e. synthetic a priori knowledge).

Thus we move from the Metaphysics of Space and Time to the Metaphysics of Space and (wave) Motion and finally unite these two things that give rise to all other things, as the wave structure of matter in Space explains.

It is also important to understand Aristotle's conception of metaphysics - he was very close to the truth as the following quotes demonstrate (I think Aristotle was the most brilliant of all philosophers).

The first philosophy (Metaphysics) is universal and is exclusively concerned with primary substance. ... And here we will have the science to study that which is just as that which is, both in its essence and in the properties which, just as a thing that is, it has. ...
About its coming into being and its doings and about all its alterations we think that we have knowledge when we know the source of its movement. ...
The entire preoccupation of the physicist is with things that contain within themselves a principle of movement and rest. And to seek for this is to seek for the second kind of principle, that from which comes the beginning of the change. ...
There must then be a principle of such a kind that its substance is activity. (Aristotle, 340BC)

Aristotle is correct, the substance is space, and it has properties of a wave medium for spherical standing wave motions that form matter.

Once we solve Kant's misunderstanding of Time being a priori rather than Motion, (that the Spherical Wave Motion of Space causes not only Time, but also Matter and Forces / Fields) then we can describe Reality correctly from this new (and most simple) Metaphysical foundation.

The Wave Structure of Matter in SpaceFig. 1 - The correct foundation is to describe matter in terms of one thing - the Wave Motion of Space. Thus motion applies to space, not matter, i.e. the (wave) motion of Space causes matter, time and forces / fields (interconnection).

Note: We have a page of wave diagrams that will help you visualise the spherical standing wave structure of matter (WSM) in space. Basically, we only see the high wave amplitude wave-center and have been deluded into thinking matter was made of tiny little 'particles'. A very naive conception in hindsight - and quantum physics was telling us all along that waves were central to light and matter interactions!

 

With this new synthesis of a priori meaning added to the concept of Space, we then find that the previous errors and contradictions (paradoxes) simply disappear.

Now this is a profound solution, for this error of Matter 'particles' moving about in Space and Time has now existed for 2,500 years, and has detrimentally influence such great minds as Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, Mach, and Einstein, and has ultimately led to our current Postmodern Skepticism and confusion.

The articles listed on the side of the page explain this in more detail. The wave structure of matter in space is simple sensible and obvious once known.

Geoff Haselhurst

PS - A few nice quotes from Kant. And the main Immanuel Kant philosophy page is good if you wish to understand this argument in more detail (which is profoundly important).

'... it becomes the manifest duty of the schools to enter upon a thorough investigation of the rights of speculative reason, and thus to prevent the scandal which metaphysical controversies are sure, sooner or later, to cause even to the masses'. (Immanuel Kant, 1781)This can never become popular, and, indeed, has no occasion to be so; for fine-spun arguments in favour of useful truths make just as little impression on the public mind as the equally subtle objections brought against these truths. On the other hand, since both inevitably force themselves on every man who rises to the height of speculation, it becomes the manifest duty of the schools to enter upon a thorough investigation of the rights of speculative reason, and thus to prevent the scandal which metaphysical controversies are sure, sooner or later, to cause even to the masses. (Immanuel Kant, Critique of Pure Reason, 1781)

'If we take away the subject (Humans), or even only the subjective constitution of our senses in general, then not only the nature and relations of objects in space and time, but even space and time themselves disappear ...' (Immanuel Kant, Critique of Pure Reason, 1781)Time was, when she (Metaphysics) was the queen of all the sciences; and, if we take the will for the deed, she certainly deserves, so far as regards the high importance of her object-matter, this title of honour. Now, it is the fashion of the time to heap contempt and scorn upon her; and the matron mourns, forlorn and forsaken, like Hecuba .. her empire gradually broke up, and intestine wars introduced the reign of anarchy; while the sceptics, like nomadic tribes, who hate a permanent habitation and settled mode of living, attacked from time to time those who had organized themselves into civil communities. But their number was, very happily, small; and thus they could not entirely put a stop to the exertions of those who persisted in raising new edifices, although on no settled or uniform plan. (Immanuel Kant, Critique of Pure Reason, 1781)


Metaphysics: Immanuel Kant
Summary of Immanuel Kant's Metaphysics. From Kantian Idealism to Realism of Space & the Wave Structure of Matter. Metaphysics of Space and Motion (not Time) as Synthetic a priori Foundations.

Metaphysics is the attempt to know reality as against mere appearance, or the study of first principles or ultimate truths, or again the effort to comprehend the universe, not simply by fragments, but somehow as a whole. (F.H. Bradley, 1846-1924)
Metaphysics Solves
Problems of Science
All things come out of the one and the one out of all things. ... I see nothing but Becoming. Be not deceived! The very river in which you bathe a second time is no longer the same one you entered before. (Heraclitus, 500BC)
One and the Many
Dynamic Unity of Reality
Metaphysics is universal and is exclusively concerned with primary substance. ... Here we have the science to study that which is just as that which is, both in its essence and in the properties which, just as a thing that is, it has. (Aristotle, 340BC)
Aristotle Metaphysics
Substance & Properties
No one doubts but that we imagine TIME from the very fact that we imagine other bodies to be moved slower or faster or equally fast. We are accustomed to determine duration by the aid of some measure of MOTION. (Spinoza, 1673)
Benedictus de Spinoza
Metaphysics of Motion
Absolute Space, in its own nature, without regard to any thing external, remains always similar and immovable. ... It seems probable to me that God formed matter in solid, hard, impenetrable, movable particles. (Sir Isaac Newton)
Sir Isaac Newton
Absolute Space / Particles
Reality cannot be found except in One single source, because of the interconnection of all things with one another. ... Substance cannot be conceived without activity, activity being the essence of substance in general. (Gottfried Leibniz, 1670)
Gottfried Leibniz
Metaphysics / Monadology
When we look towards external objects, and consider the operation of causes, we can never discover any power or necessary connexion which binds the effect to the cause, and renders the one a consequence of the other. (David Hume, 1737)
David Hume Metaphysics
Necessary Connection
Natural science contains in itself synthetical judgments a priori, as principles. ... Space then is a necessary representation a priori, which serves for the foundation of all external intuitions. (Immanuel Kant, 1781)
Immanuel Kant Metaphysics
Synthetic a priori Knowledge
Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended (as fields). Thus the concept 'empty space' loses its meaning. ... The field becomes an irreducible element of physical description, irreducible in the same sense as matter (particles) in Newton's theory. (Albert Einstein, 1950)
Albert Einstein
Field Theory of Matter
Do not allow yourselves to be deceived: Great Minds are Skeptical. ... There is nothing more necessary than truth, and in comparison with it everything else has only secondary value. (Friedrich Nietzsche, 1890)
Metaphysics of Skepticism
Skeptical / Skeptics Quotes



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Albert Einstein"When forced to summarize the general theory of relativity in one sentence: Time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter. ... Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended. In this way the concept 'empty space' loses its meaning. ... The particle can only appear as a limited region in space in which the field strength or the energy density are particularly high. ...
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Biography: Geoffrey Haselhurst, Philosopher of Science, Theoretical Physics, Metaphysics, Evolution. Our world is in great trouble due to human behaviour founded on myths and customs that are causing the destruction of Nature and climate change. We can now deduce the most simple science theory of reality - the wave structure of matter in space. By understanding how we and everything around us are interconnected in Space we can then deduce solutions to the fundamental problems of human knowledge in physics, philosophy, metaphysics, theology, education, health, evolution and ecology, politics and society.

This is the profound new way of thinking that Einstein realised, that we exist as spatially extended structures of the universe - the discrete and separate body an illusion. This simply confirms the intuitions of the ancient philosophers and mystics.

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