Reality cannot be found except in One single
source, because of the interconnection of all things with one another. ...
It is a good thing to proceed in order and to establish propositions (principles).
This is the way to gain ground and to progress with certainty. ... I hold
that the mark of a genuine idea is that its possibility can be proved, either
*a priori* by conceiving its cause or reason, or *a posteriori*
when experience teaches us that it is a fact in nature. (**Gottfried
Leibniz**, 1670)

The purpose of this this page is to show you that we can understand physical reality - matter is made of waves in space - and this most simple solution does explain and deduce solutions to the central problems of knowledge. i.e. We can correctly imagine how matter exists and moves about in space and is connected to all other matter in the observable universe.

We can show that the Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) in Space is correct by deducing the laws of Nature that have been empirically observed and quantified over the past several centuries. This changes the foundations of science from inductive (uncertain) to deductive (certain).

The mathematical physics is derived from wave equations in an elastic medium (space).

The formula for the speed of waves in an elastic solid (space) is c^{2}
= force / density, where force = kx, x is the peak amplitude of the wave,
density is the mass density of the universe (Mass of Universe / Radius of
Universe). If we plug in x = Radius of Universe, k = 7.18 x 10^{17}
N/m, we get speed = speed of light (3 x 10^{8} meters/sec).

Importantly, this shows that the wave speed is non-linear (quadratic formula of square root of the amplitude) in relation to the amplitude of the wave. For those who find mathematics a bit of a struggle, well you just need to know two things.

i) Charge is due to wave amplitude interactions - where the higher the wave amplitude the faster the wave velocity (water waves and pendulums are like this too).

ii) Gravity is due to the mass density of space - the higher the mass density the slower the velocity of the waves.

Below are some wave diagrams that help visualise this. There is also a page of wave diagrams that is useful for understanding the wave structure of matter.

The error is obvious once known. Physics tried to describe an interconnected dynamic reality in terms of many discrete inert matter 'particles'. This then required the invention of 'forces / fields' to connect the motion of these discrete inert 'mass' particles in 'absolute space' and 'absolute time', where force = mass x acceleration (Newton's law of inertia). Newton (and Einstein) realised that this was just a mathematical solution that did not explain how matter is interconnected across the universe.

The
solution is also simple and obvious once known - just replace the motion
of discrete matter particles in space and time with the wave motion of space
that causes matter and time. (Schrodinger,
Wolff,
Haselhurst,
WSM
theorists).

A series of spherical waves that flow in and out through the wave center
form a spherical standing wave around this central point in space - the
wave center that forms the 'particle'.

The spherical in and out waves are both necessarily connected to, and in
continual two way communication with all other matter (waves) in the space
around them. Matter is a wave structure of the universe.

In Waves + | Out Waves = | Standing Wave | Spherical Standing Wave |

Because we tend to imagine matter as made of inert solid 'particles' like billiard balls then we think of matter moving through space as the continuous motion of these 'particles'. Physical reality is not like this. Motion really applies to space, as the wave motion of space that causes matter (and time). The actual motion of matter 'particles' is the re-positioning of the wave center and is determined by the spherical in waves. Matter moves in discrete steps (this solves all the motion paradoxes).

Because the wave amplitude increases near the wave center, the waves travel more quickly and have a longer wavelength. This is very important - it is the cause of all charge / electromagnetic interactions. The following diagrams explain this.

I am working on these Charge / Light diagrams this week - Geoff (February, 2010) |
Comments: Waves in an elastic wave medium (space) travel
faster with higher wave amplitude, thus the high wave amplitude waves
near the wave center travel faster and have a longer wavelength. Therefore
for two electrons, their in waves travel more quickly through the other
wave center causing them to be advanced (a hollow on the surface of
the spherical in wave, similar to the surface of a golf ball) which
causes the wave centers to re-position away from one another. This is
the cause of charge and why like charges repel. Matter and antimatter attract because the wave interactions are 180 degrees out of phase, thus the total wave amplitude is decreased and the velocity of waves decreases (the opposite of above). This also explains why matter and anti-matter annihilate due to destructive wave interference. |

Gravity is just the slowing of waves in higher energy density space (where
there are more matter waves).

This rough diagram shows that the spherical in waves traveling through the
earth are slower than the waves coming in through space. This causes the
wave center to reposition towards the earth - the cause of gravity.

This explains how the earth orbits the sun, why light curves past the sun.
Because the energy density is the square of the wave amplitude, the phase
of the waves makes no difference, thus matter and antimatter (electrons
and positrons) both slow down the waves. This is why gravity is always attractive
(whereas charge depends on the wave amplitude and is opposite for opposite
phase).

The spherical in and out waves are local, meaning that matter interactions are limited to the velocity of the in and out waves which is the velocity of light (as Einstein believed). However, Einstein could never understand how matter interactions could also be influenced by non-local phenomena that occur faster than the speed of light (see quantum physics and the EPR).

We can now understand this 'spooky action at a distance' (as Einstein called
it!) with the de Broglie phase wave that forms between two wave center 'particles'
in relative motion. The phase wave is planar, and has a velocity of c^{2}
/ relative velocity. This is deduced by Milo Wolff from simple Doppler shifts
of the in and out waves for relative motion.

This diagram is very rough, but you can see the phase wave forming at right
angles to the motion of the wave centers.

Given the Wave Structure of Matter the obvious question then arises:

"Where do the in waves come from that form our matter?"

The answer is simple, from the out waves of other matter around us in space (which is a direct consequence of Huygens' Principle). From this we can deduce that every wave center 'particle' is at the center of its observable universe within infinite space. The Cosmology page explains this in detail.

This shows how other matter's spherical Out-Waves form our matter's In-Waves (Huygens' Principle). Four important points! i) In reality there are about 10 ii) They are obviously not all the same distance away, but distributed throughout the space of our finite spherical observable Universe (Hubble Sphere) within infinite eternal Space. iii) These other wave-center 'particles' around us are also formed from the matter waves around them, and this process extends to infinity. iv) The diagram is misleading in showing the waves starting. In reality the waves are continually flowing out from other matter around us. i.e. The system is perpetual, the in and out waves are always being shared between electron wave-centers wherever you are in infinite space. So this is a very simplistic diagram of what is really going on. Electrons are very large complex wave structures of the observable universe (this is true for humans too!). |

The following two articles are by Milo Wolff and Mike Harney (WSM physicists).

(The following article is from the book: Schrodinger's Universe and the Origin of the Natural Laws)

Here we show how the Natural Laws originate from the Wave Structure of Matter. Until the WSM, all laws were derived from experimental measurements and the resulting empirical equations used to describe the measurements. Now we can have both understanding and the mathematical origins.

Philosophers have often sought the origin of Natural laws in a relationship between the microscopic world and the vast universe. Until recently, before large telescopes and technology were capable of deep-space investigation, there was no knowledge to support such inquiries of Nature. We did not know where natural laws come from or even that it was possible to find out. Some scientists believed, in a religious fashion, that we were not allowed to know, that we must just accept the laws given to us by Nature. Still others had believed that the natural laws were already complete and to obtain further understanding all we need do is mathematically manipulate them to discover their origins.

Understanding began because curious scientists such as Clifford, Einstein and Schroedinger had noticed that all is not well with the empirical laws of nature. In small ways they failed to predict. In addition, the ancient concept of Democritus, that particles are "points of substance" was in direct conflict with both the new wave mechanics and experimental observation. Until recently, we didn't understand inertia, or whether a particulate "photon" can exist, or how "spin" can arise in a spherically symmetric particle.

Before looking at the details of the origins of the natural laws, it is inspiring to think about the role of the mathematical natural laws and how some scientists think about them.

The Power of understanding in Equations. Great equations share with fine
poetry an extraordinary power. Poetry is the most concise and highly charged
form of language, just as equations are the most succinct form of understanding
of the physical reality that they describe. For example, E = mc^{2}
is itself enormously powerful: its symbols encapsulate knowledge that can
be applied to every energy conversion, from ones in every cell of every
living thing on Earth, to the most distant cosmic explosion. Better yet,
it seems to have held good since the beginning of time. The WSM tells us
why.

Great equations are just as rich a stimulus to the imagination as is poetry.
Shakespeare could no more have foreseen the multiple meanings that readers
have perceived in "Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?" than
Einstein could have predicted the myriad consequences of his equations of
relativity. None of this is to imply that poetry and scientific equations
are the same. Every poem is written in a particular language and loses its
magic in translation, whereas an equation is expressed in the universal
language of mathematics: E = mc^{2} is the same in English as it
is in Urdu. But there are differences; poets seek multiple meanings and
interactions between words and thoughts, whereas scientists intend their
equations to convey a single, logical meaning.

What is a Law of Nature? The natural laws describe natural behavior and are usually expressed as equations. Before the WSM, each law was a mathematical copy of measurements of Nature; thus it was an empirical law. An analogy popularized by the physicist Richard Feynman helps to clarify this relationship between equations and empirical laws. Imagine people watching a game of chess. If they had never been taught the rules of chess, they could work them out simply by observing how the players moved the various pieces. Now imagine that the players are not playing ordinary chess, but are moving the pieces according to a much more complicated set of rules on a hugely extended board. For the observers to be able to work out the rules of the game, they would have to watch parts of it extremely carefully, looking for patterns and any other clues they could muster. That, in essence, was the predicament of scientists before the WSM. They closely observed nature - the movements of the pieces - and tried to glean the underlying laws.

It is difficult to understand Nature beyond the empirical laws of even though they can be written down conveniently as equations. But some laws, like the WSM, are not empirical because they directly describe Nature itself. In physics, Einstein's equation of general relativity gives a new meaning to gravity by equating the curvature of space to the energy density of matter at that location. Then the curvature produces the gravity force. In quantum theory, Schrödinger's equation describes the behavior of matter in the micro-world as waves, enabling an understanding of atoms and molecules that had proved impossible with older ideas. John Nash, the Nobel prize-winning mathematician who suffered from schizophrenia and is the subject of the film A Beautiful Mind, came up with equations that determined how two people ought to behave in competitive games. Economists and biologists later found that his ideas were extremely relevant to their work.

The God of Nature is a Mathematician? Why is it that so many laws can be expressed as an absolute equation; i.e. that two different quantities (the equation's left and right sides) are exactly equal? Why do fundamental laws exist at all? A popular, tongue-in-cheek explanation is that God is a mathematician, an idea that unhelpfully replaces profound questions with an unverifiable proposition.

The Indian-American astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar probably spoke for most great theoreticians when he remarked that when he found some new fact or insight, it appeared to him to be something "that had always been there and that I had chanced to pick up". According to this view, the equations that underlie the workings of the universe are in some sense already "out there", independent of human existence, so that scientists are cosmic archaeologists, trying to unearth laws that have lain hidden since time began.

Of the hundreds of thousands of research scientists who have ever lived, very few have an important equation to their name. Two scientists who were adept at discovering fundamental equations and also perceptive about the role of mathematics in science, were Albert Einstein and the brilliant theoretical physicist Paul Dirac. Both were remarkable in their ability to find new equations that were as fecund as the greatest poetry. And both were captivated by the belief that the fundamental equations of physics must be beautiful.

What is Mathematical Beauty? This may sound strange. Yet beauty is a word that readily comes to all of us when we are moved by the sight of a smiling baby, a mountain vista, an exquisite orchid. What does it mean to say that an equation is beautiful? Fundamentally, it means that the equation can evoke the same rapture as other things that we describe as beautiful. Like a great work of art, a beautiful equation has among its attributes more than mere attractiveness - it has universality, simplicity, and elemental power. Think of masterpieces such as Cezanne's Apples and Pears, Buckminster Fuller's geodesic dome, Ella Fitzgerald's recording of Manhattan. They provide a presence of something monumental in conception, fundamentally pure and crafted so carefully that its power would be diminished if anything in it were changed.

An additional quality of a scientific equation is that it has utilitarian beauty. It must tally with every relevant experiment and make predictions of future experiments. This aspect is akin to the beauty of a classic Swiss clock or watch that is so well made and accurate that collectors love them and enjoy watching their movement.

The concept of beauty was especially important to Einstein. According to his son Hans, "He had a character more like that of an artist than of a scientist as we usually think of them. For instance, the highest praise for a good theory was not that it was correct or exact, but that it was beautiful." He once went so far as to say that "the only physical theories that we are willing to accept are the beautiful ones", taking it for granted that a good theory must agree with experiment.

Dirac was even more emphatic than Einstein in his belief in mathematical beauty as a criterion for the quality of theories. In the latter part of his career, he spent much time touring the world, giving lectures on the origins of the equation that bears his name, stressing that the pursuit of beauty had always been a lodestar as well as an inspiration. During a seminar in Moscow in 1955, when asked to summarize his philosophy of physics, he wrote on the blackboard in capital letters, "Physical laws should have mathematical beauty."

The remarkable beauty of the WSM is that it contains all of the natural laws from Newton (gravity and inertia) to Einstein (Special and General Relativity). This is not the result of an encyclopedic character but simply because the Natural Laws are themselves properties of the waves that constitute the matter of the Universe; And the waves in turn are properties of one thing, the wave medium of space. Thus to find the origins one need only look at the wave structures that are embedded in the space quantum medium of the Universe. Accordingly, having a single basis, Nature could not be more simple. The greatest simplicity has the greatest beauty.

Previous Empirical Natural Laws. Our previous knowledge of science and technology was based on measured natural laws that describe the behavior of particles. These laws are the rules for calculating electricity, gravity, Special and General relativity, quantum mechanics, and conservation of energy and momentum. Since these past laws were obtained only by measurement of nature rather than derived from knowledge of Nature, they are by definition empirical and† "of unknown origin". The Wave Structure of Matter is the actual origin of the natural laws.

For centuries, futile attempts have been made to find the origins of the laws using discrete particles. But this was hopeless because the laws are embedded in the properties of waves. In the era of the discrete particle, it was common to mistakenly attempt circular reasoning. For example, mechanical models from macro-physics were proposed to find the structure of an electron.†Such common errors were the use of toy tops, sheets and rings of charge, and planets in orbits. But this was impossible; one cannot use a discrete electron as a structural element to find itself.

Knowing the origins of the laws has a subtle philosophical value that is not immediately obvious. Many people ask, "How do I know the WSM is the correct description of Nature?" To answer, one must carefully understand the meanings of Nature and of Proof. Then a positive answer becomes clear.

Nature, as far as most scientists were concerned, was the sum total of all the empirical natural laws that have been observed and measured. Scientific Nature in the past was those laws expressed as equations. That is what we meant by Nature. Up to now, there have been no causes or sources identified that produce the laws. Experimental scientists simply found and accepted the measurements that were then cast into equations as best as possible. Along the way, they discovered that Nature seems to prefer simple mathematical relationships but they didn't know why. Nevertheless they marveled that many of the equations appear to be exact and wondered why Nature appeared to be a mathematician.

Thus to find a totally correct description of Nature is equivalent to finding the origin of all the empirically described laws. If a single origin can be found there is no simpler origin so that becomes proof that the correct description has been found. As mentioned earlier, quantum space is that single origin. Also a proof of a correct description is very demanding because it must include all the laws. If only one law is not found not to be a result of the WSM, then the proof fails. This has not occurred; in fact, if as Clifford and Schroedinger deduced and proposed; that particles and laws are the appearance of the structure of space, there is no logical possibility that all the laws are not included.

In the past, in the era of physics where discrete particles were assumed to be the elements of matter, scientific proof was a different concept. From time to time various claims were made for particular events or results related to a single law. No one ever claimed to have a proof of all the laws. Thus the standard demand of proof made on the claimant was to propose an experiment and if the measures obtained agreed with one or more laws, the claim was verified.

In the case of the WSM originating from a single unique quantum space, the concept of proof is different. Instead, a sufficient proof is finding a mathematically correct origin of all the Natural laws. There is no need or logic to propose special experiments. In fact, finding the origins of all the laws is the equivalent of all scientific measurements of laws ever made. This is the subtle philosophical meaning of the WSM proof.

Finding the origins of laws. Logic tells us that one cannot use the existing laws themselves to find their origins but must use other observed facts of Nature, together with established mathematics. As predicted by Schroedinger and Clifford (See History chapter), all laws are properties of wave structures in the universal wave-medium of space. The old empirical laws are then a result of the WSM. A prose description of the origins of natural Laws from the WSM is given below. Additional mathematical descriptions are provided in the last chapters. Chapters 2 and 3 have already shown that all laws are based upon two Principles (I and II) of the properties of space together with a third Minimum Amplitude Principle III (MAP) that is actually a result of II. The proof of the correctness of the WSM is that the origins so found must match or improve upon the previous measurements of all the empirical laws. This is found to be true.

The following are qualitative descriptions of the origins, intended to provide the clearest understanding of Nature and its behavior. However the mathematical reader may also like to compare with mathematical versions in chapters 12 and 13.

The properties associated with 'charge', a property of an electron, derive from Principle I, a wave equation whose only solutions, are two spherical wave pairs that form resonances located around a wave-center. Remarkably these wave pairs contain the experimental properties of the electron and positron, as follows:

a) charge polarity: The wave-centers will move together or apart in order
to minimize total amplitude according to MAP. Polarity depends on whether
there is a + or - amplitude of the in-wave at the center. If two electrons
are near one another, their identical waves add together producing maximum
amplitude causing them to move apart seeking a minimum. If one is a positron,
their waves will cancel each other producing a minimum amplitude that will
be decreased as they move together. These changing amplitudes appear as
forces dependent on total wave amplitude that changes with distance r as
1/r^{2} thus matching the usual empirical Coulomb law.

b) Annihilation: If a resonance (electron) is superimposed upon an anti-resonance (positron), they annihilate because the two wave sets are exactly opposite and sum to zero.

c) Spin: Previously, spin was a mystery because it is a property of waves only, not found in 'particulate models'. Spin occurs because of the rotation and reversal of the in-wave at the center to become an out-wave. Chapter 13 on Spin describes this and also shows how the famous Dirac Equation of spin is derived from wave rotation.

d) Finite charge potential at the center: Coulomb's classic law of charge says that force and electric potential of a charge are infinite at the center. This is never observed. Instead experiment shows a finite potential. The reason is seen in the amplitude equations of the Chapter 12 math of the Electron; exactly as observed.

e) Inverse-square Forces between charges. The inverse square rule is a
result of 3D space that causes wave amplitude to decrease as 1/r^{2}.
The charge force is a result of energy exchange near the wave-centers because
mass-energy density of space is large there. See the Equation
of the Cosmos.

Richard Feynman created the famous Feynman Diagrams used to analyze experimental tracks of particles. Before the WSM, the origin of his diagrams was unknown and there was much speculation as to whether they were always true. This is because they involve waves and spin of the in and out -waves.

The diagrams describe properties of electrons that depend upon inverting (changing signs, + or -) of: time (T), charge (C) and parity (P) in the electron-positron amplitude equations of Chapters 2, 3, and 12 and the Spin chapter 13. You can find the rules yourself by experimenting with the equations as follows.

To perform a Time inversion, change t to –t, which converts the positron into an electron.

To perform a mirror inversion (parity), imagine that the waves are viewed in a mirror. You will see that a positron is a mirror image of the electron.

To change a particle to an anti-particle (Charge inversion), switch the in-waves and the out-waves, and the spin direction.

Feynman used an empirical-theoretical rule that successive C, P, and T inversions on a particle return it to the initial state. You can prove this CPT rule yourself by manipulating the equations and find that it is a property of the electron-positron wave structure. See the Spin chapter.

Feynman's time travel. The CPT relations are the basis of Feynman diagrams that describe the tracks of electrons and positrons in experimental labs. They were previously empirical, but now are a known result of their wave structure. Feynman only suspected this. You can now understand Feynman's cryptic statement, "A positron is an electron traveling backward in time." This statement led to many sci-fi films about time travel, but as the electron equations show, the positron does not actually go backwards; It is a perfectly normal citizen particle but its inward and outward waves are opposite to the electron, thus +t in the electron is –t in the positron.

We see that the space resonance displays all physical properties of an electron, viz: electric charge, forces, annihilation, spin, conversion to a positron, and CPT relations between Charge, Parity and Time. These are all described with equations of waves. To a scientist familiar with wave optics, the truth of the wave structure of an electron seems irrefutable. This is how waves behave.

Quantum mechanics and special relativity were once thought unrelated. But the clue to their relationship is that they have one feature in common: Both laws depend on the relative velocity between two 'particles' that is two space resonances ( SR). Using WSM, you can find the origins by asking, "What happens when two space resonances are in relative motion? That is, One SR may be thought of as a source interacting with another SR, as an absorber. Using the equations of the electron with Doppler modified waves and relative velocity v, as follows:

Waves received at one SR = Doppler shifted waves { Φin + Φout} of the other SR

As a result of the Doppler, the in-waves Φ in are red-shifted and the
out-waves Φ out are blue-shifted. The amplitude Φ received at each
SR is the sum of Doppler-shifted in-and out-waves from the other. The results
are remarkable: The Doppler alters the combined in and out waves so that
each resonance sees the other with increased momentum and mass (rest frequency)
by exactly the correct relativity factor = [1- (v/c)^{2}]^{-1/2}
as shown in the math of Chapter 12. This is just the Special Relativity
mass increase of moving particles. It is significant that both the in and
out waves are equally involved; both are necessary and symmetrical.

QM. The Doppler effect also causes the electron waves to be modulated with a de Broglie wavelength L=h/mv = h/p. Recalling that this is the experimental basis of Quantum Mechanics, we conclude that quantum mechanics is a fundamental property of the Doppler-shifted space resonance, also symmetrically dependent on both the in and out waves. The de Broglie wavelength leads to the Schrodinger Equation. This produces a new insight. In the discrete particle model it had long been thought that both in- and out- waves were only "probability waves". Now we see them as the real structure of the electron and as the origin of quantum theory itself.

The above Doppler increase of frequency also causes an increase of mass
m (i.e. frequency) so that m = m_{o}[1 – v^{2}/c^{2}]^{-1/2}
as seen by a moving observer. It also causes the relativistic energy increase.
Rearranging the mass increase above produces the relativistic energy equation:

Before the WSM, there had been no known physical reason for the theoretical mass increase of special relativity. Likewise there were no physical explanations for quantum theory or spin. Were these separate laws connected or not? Indeed, many theorists proclaimed that these phenomena were irreconcilable! Few thought about a connection because most physicists were satisfied with the discrete particle. After all, discrete particles had been in the textbooks for decades. But now we simply see the WSM contains their simple physical connection: i.e. QM and Special Relativity are both Doppler effects due to their relative velocity.

An important property of Nature is the mechanism of energy transfer. Experience tells us that energy transfer is essential for communication or acquisition of knowledge of any kind. Storage of information, whether in a computer disk or in our brain, always requires an energy transfer. Energy is required to move a needle, to magnetize a tape, to stimulate a neuron. There are no exceptions. This rule of nature is embedded in biology and our instruments. Knowing the energy transfer mechanism between particles is essential to understanding the natural laws. For details of energy transfer, see the wave equations for an elastic wave medium (space).

Even though Einstein had originally proposed the 'photon' he knew he did not know the cause of discrete energy exchanges of light. ( See Einstein's 'Ideas and Opinions', 1954). In hindsight, he was correct about the futility of field theory based upon discrete particles but his later General Relativity Theory is now a true result of the WSM. Using the WSM the photon is now seen to be the observation of an wave-like energy transfer between wave centers. This is discussed in detail in the Energy chapter.

The mechanism of energy transfer between atoms and molecules occurs where
the density of space is high - at resonance wave-centers. This provides
coupling and permits shifts of wave frequency. When the waves of a potential
source and a potential receiver pass through each other's centers, and if
an allowed resonant transition exists between them, MAP Principle minimizes
the total of both amplitudes by choosing the transition. In the source,
the frequency (energy) of the wave state shifts downward. In the receiver,
there is an equal shift upward. Only wave states (oscillators) with equal
frequencies 'tuned' to each other can couple and shift frequency. Accordingly,
the frequency (energy) changes must be equal and opposite. This is exactly
the content of the Conservation of Energy law. Resonant energy transfer
is not too different from tuning up an orchestra matched to the first violin
playing 'A'. Each instrument is adjusted to resonate with the first violin.
This process also fulfills the proposal suggested by Einstein in the writing
of Tetrode (1922)^{: }*When I see a star 100 light-years away,
the star knew that its light would enter my eye 100 year ago - before I
was born!* Tetrode was predicting that energy exchange is a two-way symmetrical
resonance between source and receiver – not a one-way photon.

Gravity is a wave property of the in-waves of matter. To understand the gravity mechanism, first note that the in-waves of a particle, on arrival at the wave-center, determine the position and motion of the wave-center, the 'particle' we observe. Since any matter nearby like the Sun, will slightly increase the nearby medium density, this will proportionately decrease the in-wave speed causing the waves to arrive later, changing the position of the particle center. This motion is interpreted by us as the force of gravity. In short, gravity is a result of the additional density of the wave medium around the attracting body. There are no 'graviton' exchanges. We now understand previous puzzles of gravitation using discrete particles because gravity is a pure wave phenomenon.

Newton's important law is the fundamental beginning of modern physics. Newton originally saw inertia as an action-at-a-distance paradox because he expected that a distant discrete body was the recipient of the inertial energy transfer not knowing of the WSM. For the same reason, Mach's 1883 assertion was also first regarded as a paradox despite its obvious truth.

We have seen that the origin and mechanism of inertia is a property of space, the wave medium of the WSM. Space is a result of Principle II above that establishes the density of space proportional to the sum of the all the waves from all other observable matter – i.e. the Hubble universe. Einstein's General Relativity does the same thing on an astronomical scale. In short, Newton's Law implies that Space and an accelerated particle m, exchange energy as if space were a 'force field' on an accelerated m.

Let's calculate the resulting force: Visualize space as a potential field M that produces a force F on a mass m with an acceleration a. This is comparable to the electric force E that produces a force on a charge e. Energy is transferred between the mass and the surrounding space because the accelerated waves change relative frequencies. The resulting force and energy transfer appears instantaneous in agreement with astronomical observations and space missions.

There are two masses involved: One is m and the other is the equivalent
mass M_{u} of the Hubble universe. Since we know the radius of the
Hubble universe, R= c/H we can find its average mass knowing its density.
A density is given by the General Theory of Relativity as the critical density
d_{c} of a 'flat' universe,

Critical density = d_{c }= 3H^{2}/8ΠG

The vector mass field M acting on the accelerated mass m is

M = amG/c^{2}r

Where r is the average distance to the sources of the local space. This is taken as half of the Hubble distance r = (1/2)(c/H). The equivalent mass of the Hubble universe is

M_{u } = density x volume = d_{c} x (4/3)Π(c/h)^{3}

Then the force between the mass field M and the mass m is

F = Force = M x M_{u} = amG/c^{2}r x 3H^{2}/8ΠG
x (4/3)Π(c/H)^{3}

Surprisingly all the numerical factors above cancel and we are left with Newton's law

F = ma

Summarizing, we have used Principle II (from Mach's principle) that the mass density of the space medium is established by all masses of the universe, and that the local medium exchanges energy with any accelerated mass. As a result, we obtain Newton's Law, predict a flat universe, and establish a mechanism for 'action-at-a-distance'.

Einstein's theory describes the geometric properties of cosmological space and how matter behaves in it. The space medium of the WSM and the cosmological space of GTR are essentially identical. GTR explains these features by suggesting that gravitation (unlike electromagnetic forces) is a pure geometric effect of curved space-time, not a force of nature that propagates. Curved space is equivalent to the varying density of space in the WSM.

Note that in both GTR and WSM the properties of space are determined by
Principle II that calculates the distribution of all matter in the Universe.
And in both, the behavior of matter is determined by the space medium; termed
*space-time* in the GTR and quantum *space* in the WSM. These
two inverse properties form a fascinating reciprocity, or feedback, between
space and matter. It has been expressed by Wheeler, *Matter tells space
what it is and space tells matter how to behave.*

The solid structures of everyday life are held together by wave structures
that occur because of the Minimum Amplitude Principle that permits only
solids with minimum total wave amplitudes. Solidity and rigidity are properties
of the waves – there is no solid matter, the rigidity comes from the rigidity
of space. For example atoms in say a diamond, are held in a rigid lattice
by standing electron waves in the space medium traveling throughout the
carbon lattice to satisfy the MAP.

The strength of solids depends on the forces that produce the waves; these
depend on the energy density of space (the wave medium). The minimum energy
density of space can be estimated as the density of nuclear matter. It is
more than 10^{46} MeV per cubic centimeter, astoundingly large.
We have no sensation of its presence despite its existence all around us,
because humans can only sense energy transfers not space itself. Learning
how the space medium exists this way is a pioneering topic in science today.

Classical Maxwell Theory of moving charges is often in serious error because the approximation of the discrete particle is very poor at small dimensions and particulate currents do not have wave properties of interference. The currents obtained do not produce the calculated forces.

Recently Carver Mead at CalTech produced the first industrial application of the WSM in his book "Collective Electrodynamics" (MIT Press, 2000). He recognized that electrons and currents in tiny computer chips (Intel corp.) behave as coherent wave structures, based upon the experimental measurements of B.S. Deaver and W.M. Fairbank (1961). By recognizing the collective wave behavior of electrons in motion, he replaced Maxwell's magnetic equations with a new formalism using the magnetic vector potential A. He provided the microchip industry with a new tool to design microcircuits that operate at faster speeds.

Most persons are aware of our connection with the Sun as the source of
practical energy and life on Earth. But there is much more than the Sun.
The connectedness of laws and waves with the enormous amounts of all matter
in the universe is also fundamental to our life because; *All the natural
laws we observe here on Earth depends on the existence of the matter elsewhere
in the universe. Thus if the stars and galaxies were not in the heavens,
we could not exist.*

The conclusion that the natural laws and the appearance of matter here on Earth depend on all matter elsewhere in the Universe.

The pioneers of physics: Ernst Mach, Irwin Schrodinger, William Clifford, Albert Einstein and others were all aware of the affect of the whole Universe in determining the origin of the Natural Laws as described in the conclusion above and as stated mathematically in Principle II of the WSM and in Einstein's General Theory of Relativity. This conclusion however is not yet part of the dogma of the science community at large mostly because of the ancient belief in the existence of discrete particles rather wave structures in space.

Milo Wolff

When Milo Wolff says that WSM describes the laws of Nature, this is what I take it to mean: the four forces and some concepts from thermodynamics are the fundamental laws of Nature (I haven't simplified this - it's not easy to do because it depends on fundamentals of wave mechanics to describe anything, but you can boil down the basics from it I think):

Electric charge is the relation between standing waves that are 90 degrees out of phase. Electrons and protons are standing waves that have a fixed representation in space (the electrons and protons move, but the standing wave phase relative to the edge of the Hubble sphere is fixed - + charge waves are 90 degrees out of phase with - charge waves). The warpage of space from the respect of two standing waves that are 90 degrees out of phase leads to an attraction when the minimum amplitude principle is applied, and 0 degrees out of phase leads to repulsion when MAP is applied.

The movement of the wave center (electron or proton, etc) is a moving charge which in classical physics means electric current. We see the wave center moving and realize that there is a Doppler shift that compresses the out-waves in the direction of motion and rarefies the waves in the opposite direction of motion (in a sense, the wave center changes from a spherical wave center to an ellipsoid wave center when it moves - and the same formulas for the ellipse apply to magnetic field attraction - I have derived this already).

The ellipsoid wave-center created from motion of the wave center creates two phase attraction/repulsion zones - the direction of motion of the charge has the compressed wave (increasing its frequency, decreasing wavelength) and the direction away from motion has the rarefied wave (decreasing its frequency, increasing wavelength) and the same rules of attraction and repulsion between these compressed and rarefied areas apply when examined with the MAP principle. This shows how magnetic north and south are created in a magnetic field and in a single wire carrying current linearly down the wire, the magnetic field follows the right hand rule so that another wire carrying current in the opposite direction attracts it. In this situation, the rarefied area of the wave center of moving electrons in one wire attracts the compressed area of the wave-center of moving electrons in the other wire - the attraction is proportional the amount of compression or rarification (because the more the gap is left open in rarified wave center, the more the compressed wave center wants to fill it according to MAP).

The amount of compression/rarification is proportional to the speed of
the electrons (doppler shift increases with speed) and the speed of the
electrons are proportional to current. Hence, higher current in each wire
means stronger magnetic field. The elliptical nature of the wave centers
follows nicely from the Biot-Savart law of classical electromagnetics and
in calculating the magnetic field on a dipole magnet - B theta = m sin(theta)/r^{3}
where m = magnetic dipole moment.

Based on this analysis, there will never be any magnetic monopoles found because the nature of the magnetic field comes from the movement of the electron and it's (equally) compressed and rarefied wave center and there is no way to separate the wave center to get just the compressed or just rarefied waves - no easier than dividing an ellipse in two and expecting the formula for it to keep working as it normally does.

The same attraction of differences in compressed or rarified waves applies on the small scale and the large - it makes no difference what the scale is. With large objects like the Sun, many wave centers come together and the conglomerate is a warped space - not because mass warps space because warped space (standing waves warp space) creates mass. The speed of any outwave from this mass depends on the local mass density - the higher the density the slower the speed of the outwave. The ratio of the outwave speed-squared to the in-wave speed (c)-squared produces the time-dilation effect of a large mass (GRT G44 component), very similar to the Lorentz transformation which is also a ratio of out-wave to in-wave speed-squared in SRT.

Riemann geometry has been used in GRT to describe the movement of masses
in a geodesic around larger masses - an accurate but wholly mathematical
construction. Smaller masses out-waves really want to fill the space of
higher-mass outwaves due to MAP. Mass out-wavelength is found from speed
of outwave/ frequency of outwave, and speed of outwave is slower for more
massive objects, with the same frequency of electrons this makes the out-wavelength
smaller for more massive objects. Speed of outwave = sqrt (kx/mass density)
where mass density = Mu/Ru (no exceptions - always universal mass density),
k = 7.18 x10^{17} N/m, and x = characteristic compression length
of the mass, found from mc^{2} = 1/2kx^{2}, the definition
of mass from a moving wave.

Interestingly, two very fast objects (v/c = 0.9c for instance) will attract each other more than two slow objects because of the rarefied and compressed nature of the wave centers again - an interesting test of wave structure of matter.

Of course, there are no black holes or other singularities - this is a figment of mathematical imagination. Newton's laws of gravity are accurate in approximation without a knowledge of WSM. GRT is mostly accurate (because of the knowledge of mass warping space - but it's really in reverse) except for the singularity produced by invoking the 1/r term from Newton's law in all of Einstein's equations.

Again, the MAP principle applies but not to phase differences (as between electron and proton) but due to the way warped space behaves at 10^-15 meters. The fascinating reason it is different is because if two Hubble spheres are examined during intersection, we find not only the gravitational redshift (linear loss of energy with distance between sphere-centers), dark energy (non-linear loss part of curve when d becomes very close Ru) but also the characteristic equation that describes this energy loss is a polynomial of the 3rd order. Take a look again at equation 10 in;

http://redshift.vif.com/JournalFiles/V13NO2PDF/V13N2HAR.pdf

The three terms in the numerator of eq. 10 when each multiplied by a mass-energy
density of one hubble sphere in eq. 1 and then set equal to hc/lambda reveal
that lambda = 10^{-15} meters (strong force range) for one term,
10^{-35} meters (Planck Length - EM force) for another term, and
Ru (gravity) for last term.

Because each term produces a different force range, each force is stronger
or weaker based on this polynomial term (gravity is the weakest - the d^{3}
term in eq. 10, and the strong force being the 16R^{3} term). Because
of this polynomial in 3rd order and its coefficients, the curve of force
is non-linear and has characteristics that are different - such as the out-wave
interaction at the strong force.

More likely a manifestation of the Electromagnetic force as even current QCD theories of particle physics speak of the Electroweak force and have already proven they are combined at energies of Fermilab accelerators (W-Z boson is the moderator of Electroweak force, discovered in 1983).

These are what I interpret to be the fundamental laws of Nature (with Thermodynamics mixed in - MAP basically covers this).

The new information here is the following:

The Hubble spheres determine not just redshift but the 3 forces (electroweak considered one force) and their range. Also, there are no magnetic monopoles. The LHC will not find the Higgs (because it relies on a hypothetical energy of the Big Bang) nor will they find magnetic monopoles nor SuperSymmetry as proposed from current string theories. In fact, they won't find much of anything because (fortunately) the last verification of any significance was the electroweak combination (W-Z boson) which they artificially placed at a given energy in the Big Bang, therefore requiring the mass of every particle to come out a higher energy calculated from the electroweak energy. The whole thing will fall apart by 2012 and we will see particle physicists crying tears over confusion and loosing much grant money (already happening now).

Mike Harney

The following pages have been re-written over the past two months (Feb. 2010). They are the most important / useful pages for understanding how the WSM works, how we can be certain it is correct.

Truth Statements on Physical Reality - We can understand physical reality - matter is made of waves in space. These truth statements show people how to deduce physical reality for themselves and confirm it is true. It also provides a very concise summary of the central things the WSM explains. See if you can show any statement is not true.

Wave
Equation in an Elastic Wave Medium - Deducing the famous energy equations,
Einstein's E=mc^{2}, Planck's E=hf and Newton's F=ma from simple
wave equations in an elastic medium (space). This confirms that the equivalence
of matter and energy is because matter is made of waves, and waves propagate
energy. All forces are due to changes in wave velocity.

Metaphysics - Solving the central problem of metaphysics - what is the one active substance that causes and connects the many changing material things we experience. The solution is simple, space is a wave medium and contains wave motions. i.e. From the motion of matter particles in space and time, to the wave motion of space that causes matter and time.

Cosmology - Explaining how our observable universe exists as a finite spherical region of infinite eternal space.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) - I am building this FAQ page as I answer questions that people have posted on this site. So help us help you by posting questions!

Please also see the main pages on the left.

Geoff Haselhurst

(February, 2010)

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"When forced to summarize the general theory of relativity in one sentence: Time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter. ...

Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended. In this way the concept 'empty space' loses its meaning. ... The particle can only appear as a limited region in space in which the field strength or the energy density are particularly high. ...The

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