Website Introduction and Brief Summary

In a time of universal deceit - telling the truth is a revolutionary act. (George Orwell)
You must be the change you wish to see in the world. (Gandhi)
All that is necessary for evil to succeed is for good men to do nothing. (Edmund Burke)
Hell is Truth Seen Too Late. (Thomas Hobbes)

Karene Howie. Research Assistant, Student of Philosophy, Physics, Metaphysics.Geoffrey Haselhurst. Philosopher of Science, Metaphysics, Theoretical Physics. On Truth and Reality, the Metaphysics of Space and Motion and the Wave Structure of Matter (the most simple science theory of physical reality, which clearly works and is thus important to humanity).Hello Everyone - We have set this page up as a 'blog' of our Introductions. So though the page may seem a little long, it just contains five introductions to this website that date back to 2005. They are perhaps all a bit abrupt (but we realise how busy people are, a curse of the modern world!). We hope that together they provide a good overview of what this site is about, why we think it is important.
At the bottom of the page there is a nice collection of quotes that we hope will motivate you to get involved and help save our planet as a way of protecting your life and the lives of your children.
With kindness, beauty and truth,
Karene and Geoff








Site Introduction (2012): Despite several thousand years of failure to correctly understand physical reality (hence the current postmodern view that this is impossible) there is an obvious solution.
Simply unite Science (Occam's Razor / Simplicity) with Metaphysics (Dynamic Unity of Reality) and describe reality from only one substance existing, as Leibniz wrote;
'Reality cannot be found except in One single source, because of the interconnection of all things with one another'.
Given we all experience many minds and many material things, but always in one common Space, we are thus required to describe physical reality in terms of Space. We then find there is only one solution, a Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) where the electron is a spherical standing wave. See Wave Diagrams.
In hindsight the error was obvious, to try and describe an interconnected reality with discrete 'particles', which then required forces / fields to connect them in space and time. This was always just a mathematical solution which never explained how matter was connected across the universe.

I realise that there are a lot of 'crackpot' theories about truth and reality on the internet, but it is easy to show that the Wave Structure of Matter is the correct solution as it deduces the laws of Nature (the fundamentals of Physics & Philosophy) perfectly (there are no opinions). While the Wave Structure of Matter is obvious once known, to begin it will seem strange simply because it takes time for our minds to adjust to new knowledge.

For those who are religious / spiritual, I think Albert Einstein expresses the enlightened view of God. He writes 'I believe in Spinoza's God who reveals himself in the orderly harmony of what exists, not in a God who concerns himself with the fates and actions of human beings.' This harmony arises from a Wave Structure of Matter in Space (we are all interconnected in this space that we all commonly experience). This unity of reality (God, Brahman, Tao, Spirit, Energy, Light, Vibration) is central to all major world religions, thus their common moral foundation of 'Do unto others as to thyself' as the other is part of the self.

Please help our world (human society / life on earth) by sharing this knowledge.
Clearly our world is in great trouble due to human overpopulation and the resultant destruction of Nature, climate change and the pollution of air, land and water. The best solution to these problems is to found our societies on truth and reality rather than past myths and customs (which invariably cause harm).
We are listed as one of the Top Philosophy Websites on the Internet with around 600,000 page views each week, and rank in the top 20 in Google for many academic search terms - so we just need a bit of help to get in the top five. Given the Censorship in Physics / Philosophy of Science Journals (founded on the standard model / particle physics) the internet is clearly the best way to get new knowledge visible to the world.
A world now in great need of wisdom from truth and reality.
Sincerely,
Geoff Haselhurst - Karene Howie - Full Introduction - Email - Nice Letters - Share this Knowledge

In a time of universal deceit - telling the truth is a revolutionary act. (George Orwell)
You must be the change you wish to see in the world. (Mohandas Gandhi)
All that is necessary for evil to succeed is for good men to do nothing. (Edmund Burke)
Hell is Truth Seen Too Late. (Thomas Hobbes)

Introduction (Jan. 2009)

Hello and welcome! Please excuse the abruptness of this introduction - it is written with Albert Einstein's ideals of kindness, beauty and truth in mind.

I am convinced that we have finally worked out what physical reality is. i.e. We can correctly imagine how matter exists and moves about in Space (including you and I and all other life on earth, all those stars across the universe). This website explains why I am certain this is true - why I think this knowledge is vital for the future survival of humanity.

I appreciate that after several thousand years of failure to understand truth and reality it is now generally accepted by our skeptical postmodern world that true knowledge of reality is impossible. However the solution was simple and obvious once known. We just had to take Science (Occam's Razor / Simplicity) and Metaphysics (Dynamic Unity of Reality) seriously and thus describe reality from only one substance existing, as Leibniz wrote;
Reality cannot be found except in One single source, because of the interconnection of all things with one another.
When we deduce the most Simple Science Theory of Reality we find that there is only one possible solution:
Space must be the substance which exists and matter is formed from waves in Space.

In hindsight the error was obvious - to try and describe an interconnected reality from the foundation of many discrete and separate things, matter 'particles' moving around in space and time, which then required the invention of continuous forces / fields to connect the discrete 'particles'. This was always just a mathematical approach which never explained how matter was physically interconnected in Space.
Conversely, the wave structure of matter (by describing reality in terms Space, the one thing all matter exists in) enables us to clearly picture how matter is interconnected. The spherical IN and OUT waves interact with all other wave-center 'particles' in the universe. Thus matter is in continual two way communication with all the matter around it (matter is active and dynamic) which explains both how it can move, and the true cause of time.

The Wave Structure of Matter in SpaceAn electron is simply a spherical standing wave in space. The positron (antimatter) is just the opposite phase wave.
We can then show that this is the correct solution, as the Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) in Space deduces the fundamentals of Physics & Philosophy. i.e. Once you know reality it is obvious that it is correct as it explains so many things so perfectly. And the solutions are deduced, there are no opinions.

I realise that there are a lot of 'crackpot' theories about truth and reality on the internet, but you can work this out for yourselves and you will see that it is correct. It is the most simple solution, it works perfectly and it is obvious once known (though it does take a while for our minds to adjust to new knowledge).
Science does work, we just needed the correct (most simple) foundation of space and its wave motions (rather than the motion of matter particles and their connecting forces / fields in space and time). Physical reality (what we really are as humans) is obviously important, it is the source of all truth and wisdom. But this knowledge only helps society if the majority are aware of it.
Please help our world (human society / life on earth) by sharing these pages. We are creating hell on earth by destroying Nature (a part of our true selves).

-----------------------------------------------------------------

Why Space is the most simple foundation for describing the world we all experience.

Imagine driving your car on a busy road. There are obviously many other people driving their cars, thus many minds and material things, but they all interact in the same space. This is true when crowds of people collectively watch some event (e.g. fireworks, a sporting event, a lunar eclipse, the distant stars), we always experience many minds and material things, but always in one common Space.
Thus Space is the most simple foundation for Science, as it is always perceived as the one thing that we all commonly experience.
So now we must consider the Properties of Space, as Aristotle and Leibniz explained. Given the particle / wave duality of light and matter, and that we cannot add 'particles' to Space then there is only one solution: Space has the properties of a wave medium and matter is formed from wave motions of Space. Further, we know that matter interacts spherically from Einstein's relativity, thus the most simple solution is that matter is formed from spherical standing waves in Space.

So how do Waves explain the 'particle' properties of light and matter? Simple. The particle effect of matter is formed at the wave-center of the spherical standing wave (see diagram) and the particle effect of light is due to resonance and discrete frequency interactions where energy E=hf (Planck's constant by frequency). Basically quantum physics is founded on wave equations, and general relativity on the mathematics for the curvature of a sphere (where matter curves space-time). So you can see that the spherical wave structure of matter unites these two central concepts of physics (Einstein's spherical geometry and quantum waves) perfectly.

What about time? Well it is really a human construction, there is just the present now (space), but it is in a state of change (space is vibrating if you prefer). The future is just the In waves flowing through space that will form your future wave center 'particles', the past is your out waves.

For those who are religious / spiritual, you can consider space as God (Brahman, Tao, Spirit, Energy, Light). What is certain is that discrete and separate 'particles' do not exist - we are all connected to this space that we all commonly experience. And this underlying unity of reality (God) is central to all major world religions, thus their common moral foundation of 'Do unto others as to thyself' (as the other is part of the self / we are all one with god).
While I am certain that matter is formed from waves in space, there is still much to explain about our minds, our human emotions and moral / spiritual sense. This is no doubt the future of theology and our understanding of God, to explore the properties of this Space we all find ourselves existing in.

Understanding this underlying unity of reality is now critically important to humanity. Our world is in great trouble, heading rapidly towards self destruction due to human overpopulation and the resultant destruction of Nature, climate change and the pollution of air, land and water, contaminating everything we consume. Clearly the best solution to these problems is to found our societies on truth and reality rather than past myths and customs which invariably cause conflict and harm.

Support an open honest (sensible logical) science discussion of Truth & Reality
(anchor link to help section lower on this page).
I am not naive to the difficulties that humanity faces. But history shows that truth eventually triumphs, that there are enough sensible logical people in the world who appreciate the importance of truth.
We are listed as one of the Top Philosophy Websites on the Internet with around 600,000 page views each week, and rank in the top 20 in Google for many academic search terms - so we just need a bit of help to get in the top five (our aim). Given the Censorship in Physics / Philosophy of Science Journals (founded on the standard model / particle physics) the internet is clearly the best way to get new knowledge visible to the world.
A world now in great need of wisdom from truth and reality.

Sincerely,
Geoff Haselhurst - Karene Howie - Email - Nice letters we receive

A Short Summary

For the past 350 years (since Newton) physics has been misled by focusing on the 'particle' structure of matter in 'space-time', rather than the more simple Wave Structure of Matter in Space. i.e. The mistake of studying light and matter 'particles' rather than the Space they exist in.

'What we observe as material bodies and forces are nothing but shapes and variations in the structure of space. Particles are just schaumkommen (appearances).' (Erwin Schrodinger on Quantum Physics / Wave Mechanics)Quantum Physics: The Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) provides a simple sensible solution to the particle-wave duality of light and matter.
As Schrodinger wrote, 'What we observe as material bodies and forces are nothing but shapes and variations in the structure of space. Particles are just schaumkommen (appearances).'
The 'particle' effect of matter is caused by the Wave-Center of the Spherical Standing Waves in Space (see Wave Diagrams).
The discrete 'photon particle' properties of light are caused by standing wave interactions (resonant coupling) which only occur at discrete frequencies (thus discrete energy states, where E=hf). This is why Schrodinger's Wave Equations are used to determine the allowed energy / wave states of electrons in matter - because matter is made of waves (obviously!).

'When forced to summarize the general theory of relativity in one sentence: Time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter.' (Albert Einstein)Albert Einstein's Theory of Relativity also correctly realized that matter was large, a structure of space / the universe (there were no discrete little 'particles' which require 'continuous fields' in 'space-time' to connect them).
He writes, 'When forced to summarize the general theory of relativity in one sentence: Time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter. ... since physical reality is represented by a continuous field, the concept of particles or material points cannot play a fundamental part, ... and can only appear as a limited region in space in which the field strength or the energy density are particularly high.' (Albert Einstein)

Einstein just made the mistake of working from a continuous field theory of matter-energy in space-time, rather than the discrete standing Wave Structure of Matter in Space (which is why his continuous field theory failed, as it could never explain the discrete 'particle' properties of light and matter caused by discrete standing wave interactions / resonant coupling).

'Can we visualize a universe which is finite yet unbounded? ... The supreme task of the physicist is to arrive at those universal laws from which the cosmos can be built up by pure deduction.' (Albert Einstein)Cosmology. If we start with this most simple foundation that only one thing exists, space, then it is necessarily infinite and eternal. From this foundation of our finite observable universe being part of infinite space we can then show that you get a redshift with distance due to decreasing overlap of Hubble spheres (finite observable universe). Basically every wave center 'particle' is at the center of its finite spherical universe within infinite space - and as matter moves further apart there is less overlap of Hubble spheres, thus less wave interactions which leads to a redshift with distance.
Further, we can then deduce Mach's principle and unite finite matter with infinite space due to Huygens' principle / sharing of waves (this is very important - one of the great deductions from Milo's Wolff's pioneering work on the Wave Structure of Matter).

I have spent twelve years thinking on the Wave Structure of Matter (WSM), while reading the history of physics, philosophy and metaphysics. I have met (over the internet) an emerging group of scientists and philosophers (most importantly Dr Milo Wolff) who have also independently discovered the Wave Structure of Matter, share this same certainty that it is correct due to its simplicity and power to explain many things, that this knowledge is important to Humanity.

It is now clear that all matter interactions are really wave interactions in Space. We humans, and everything we experience around us (the earth and its life, the sun and stars) all exist as very complexly evolved wave centers of (spherically) vibrating space - all intimately interconnected to one another by our spherical in and out waves in space (which is why you can see stars across the universe, as they are a part of you, and you are a part of them - a nice thought really).

Separate and discrete 'bodies' made of 'particles' are an illusion of the mind and how it represents our senses - the fact that we have senses tells us we are connected to things around us in Space. It is just that most wave interactions occur at the high wave amplitude wave center (of the spherical standing waves), so we have evolved to see these high amplitude wave center 'particles'.

True Knowledge of Reality will transform Humanity. By understanding how things are necessarily interconnected (which is central to all science / knowledge) we can determine which of our ideas correspond to real things that exist Vs. imaginary things (e.g. dragons, particles). This certainty of truth will end the current 'postmodern relativistic' (social construct / logical positivist) view of no absolute truths that leaves postmodern philosophy, physics & metaphysics full of doubt, conflict and confusion. And clearly these errors in thinking and acting ultimately harm us and our societies.
Science does work (deduced / no opinions). We can clearly imagine Reality and the physical existence of Space and its spherical standing wave motions that cause matter and its interactions.
If you give truth and reality a chance they will repay you many times over, by providing true guidance (wisdom) for how to think and live on our precious planet - with much greater harmony amongst ourselves and Nature (the Universe) from which we evolved, and to which we owe our future existence.

Sincerely,
Geoff Haselhurst - Karene Howie - Email - Nice Letters


Introduction / Summary (Feb. 2007): Hi Everyone.
Firstly, our thanks to the people who have taken the time to write us such Nice Letters - we really appreciate it! Below is a brief introduction & summary to this Physics Philosophy Metaphysics Website which we hope everyone will read.

Over the past ten years we have read many great minds on the subjects of truth and reality (physics, philosophy and metaphysics) and collected numerous famous quotes and images which make up a large part of these pages. We are now listed as the Top Philosophy Website on the Internet, getting around 100,000 page views each day of which 10,000 people (10%) use this website fairly frequently and view quite a few pages (so we assume people appreciate these pages as a useful resource). However, we wish to emphasise that the purpose of this website is not just to present existing knowledge, but rather to show that despite the postmodern view of 'no absolute truths', there is actually a very simple sensible language for understanding physical reality and thus knowing absolute truth.

(NOTE: It has been a lot of work to build this website so that it gets a large number of visitors. We have done this for two reasons; because we need help to develop this knowledge, and help to add links to these pages so they rank well in Google. The downside is that the website is still a rough draft and will not be complete for several years yet - so some patience and understanding is required!)

So let us now briefly explain this most simple science theory of physical reality and why we think it is correct.

In hindsight the mistake is obvious. We start with Space (empirical senses require Space for things to exist in - we all commonly experience existing in Space). The error was to add 'time' and 'particles' to Space which then led to the problems of how these things are interconnected, thus we had to also add 'forces / fields' to connect the 'particles' in 'space-time'. Newton first formalised this particle conception of matter (which dates back to Ancient Greek Philosophy), and it became the foundation for all of Physics. However, Philosophy and Metaphysics have always known that there was an underlying Dynamic Unity of Reality, to explain the necessary interconnection of all things in the Universe.

The solution is to begin and end with Space (not add other things to it!). Thus we must consider the Properties of Space. And given the particle / wave duality of light and matter, it then follows that if there are no 'particles' then we should consider if matter is a Wave Structure of Space - that Space (which we all commonly experience) exists with the Properties of a Wave Medium.
Thus the Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) assumes that Space is the one thing that exists, which causes and connects the many things we experience (matter as spherical standing waves in space). This is the most Simple Science Theory for describing physical reality, and it clearly works, as it deduces (and thus unites) fundamentals of Quantum Physics, Albert Einstein's Theory of Relativity and Cosmology (see also the Problems of the Big Bang Theory). Anyone can determine the truth of this for themselves - it is deduced, not anyone's opinion.

Why is this important? Well it tells us what we really are as humans, how we exist as matter in Space, how we are subtly interconnected to all other matter in the universe (which is pretty amazing when you really think about it!). And it corrects past errors of knowledge that currently cause harm not just to the Sciences, but to Society itself. i.e. To those with some knowledge of philosophy and metaphysics, it solves Aristotle's problem of Metaphysics (Prime Mover), by describing the one substance that exists (Space) and its properties (Wave Medium), which then solves David Hume's Problem of Causation and Necessary Connection by explaining how matter is necessarily interconnected to other matter in Space by its spherical In and Out Waves. This is why Science works (how logic and senses can exist), because waves behave logically due to the Properties of Space, and we can sense matter in the space around us because our spherical In Waves interact with other matter waves in the Space around us, and ultimately determine the location of our wave center 'particles'.

And when considered, it is strange / negligent to 'write off' science while the most simple and obvious solution has been ignored (this is why philosophy is known as the discovery of the obvious, as we are often blind to the obvious, history clearly confirms this). Now that this knowledge has been realised, it seems to me that scientists would be silly / negligent to ignore it. Yet the frustrating thing is that most will ignore this knowledge. As I see things (human nature) the main problems are;

i) Several thousand years of failure to work out reality (which is simple and obvious once known), thus most people / academics are now so skeptical that they just assume it is impossible for us to correctly imagine reality (we are trapped in the Mind!). Any mention of absolute truth and reality is deemed 'crackpot'. This is made more difficult again as the internet is full of crackpot theories on truth and reality - and most people are not natural philosophers (including most academic philosophers and physicists) thus they do not have the skills / ability to determine quality from crap, truth from fanciful imagination (this sounds harsh, but it is common observation of many philosophers, from Albert Einstein to Plato and Aristotle).

ii) The current censorship in physics publications which makes it very difficult to get new knowledge published in scientific journals (particularly when it contradicts the existing 'particle' paradigm, despite the general acceptance that particle physics does not work and causes numerous paradoxes & problems). See article by Nobel Prize wining Physicist Brian Josephson on Censorship in Physics Preprint Archive (Science Publications / Journals)

iii) Most academics are now very specialised, very busy, and tend to have a vested interest in maintaining the existing knowledge foundations (since they have built a career on them). This makes it difficult for them to consider new knowledge (even if they wanted to).

iv) People tend to have their own conceptions of truth and reality (which they like), and once humans have formed their ideas they rarely change.

v) We have evolved from primitive tribal (herd like) animals. We are emotional / religious creatures seeking common beliefs which bind us together and enhance the survival of our tribe (we are more likely to fight for a common emotional belief, our history of warfare shows this). Thus our minds are not well suited for thinking carefully about truth and reality (we tend to be confused by our limitless imaginations and incomplete senses, often believe things simply because they are part of our ancestry and culture).

vi) Finally, we only sense a fraction of the real world, which is then represented by our mind (e.g. the sky is not blue, though we do see a certain frequency of light waves as the Wave Structure of Matter explains). Likewise, we 'see' things as separate and discrete objects when reason (and physics) tell us that all things in the universe are subtly interconnected (e.g. to explain why the earth orbits the sun, how we can see stars across the universe).

Given these difficulties, it seems that using the Internet is the most efficient way to get this knowledge visible to the world (thus explaining why this website exists - and why we depend upon your help). History shows that despite our human frailties, true knowledge does slowly filter into society, that there are enough sensible logical people with skeptical open minds who recognise truth when they see it.

Philosophy and Society: Wisdom from Truth and Reality
I am sure that most people realise that the world has many serious and disturbing problems. e.g. Human overpopulation resulting in pollution of air food and water, the destruction of Nature (with radical climate change a likely result), and the endless conflicts that arise when our societies are founded on custom / myth rather than truth (our current world / society).

It also seems that we individuals have little power to improve things. This is something that initially depressed me, I live in Nature (on 600 acres of natural bush) and find Nature both beautiful and amazing. It is clearly true that we evolved from Nature and depend upon Nature for survival, yet as a collective we are obviously destroying Nature, thus our future survival (stop and think about your children for a moment, their future).
History shows us though, that it is we individuals who do actually change the world, because it is individuals who discover knowledge, and it is knowledge that changes the world by changing how we think and live. Where we have true knowledge we tend to act more wisely (philosophy is founded on this), when our knowledge is untrue (myth, custom) we are more foolish, stupid and inclined to conflicting 'cultural / relative truths' that cause Humanity endless conflicts and brutality.

So I hope that you will take heart and determination from this - it is you, the people who are now reading this website, who contribute to our collective society, that change our world. And if you want to make the world better, you do it with true knowledge, which requires a correct understanding of physical reality. Most significantly, with the evolution of the Internet / Google, knowledge is now freely available to the world, and can be spread very quickly. We are hoping that we can convince 1% of people who use this website to help. It is very simple, just add a link to one of our pages that you like. Assuming only 1 in a thousand people help we will still get around 100 links a week which would be enough to get the main pages on the Wave Structure of Matter (and how this explains and solves numerous problems of knowledge in physics, philosophy and metaphysics) in the top ten at Google over the next year or so (our aim).

In ending, we have spent most of the past 6 months building our Philosophy Gift Shop (which has been very successful, it is one of the top shops at cafepress out of about 3 million). We are now using the profits to employ 2 people part time to help with our work.
We are now back working full time on this website, which still needs substantial improvement. After nearly ten years of thinking about the Wave Structure of Matter it is very obvious that it explains and solves numerous problems of physics philosophy and metaphysics, errors of knowledge that are currently causing humanity great harm. Thus I cannot help but think that this knowledge is very important to Humanity, our future survival.

I realise that we live in apathetic and cynical times, but we depend on your help. True knowledge of reality will transform Humanity, and I think it is the only thing that can save us from our present path of self destruction.
Sincerely,
Geoff Haselhurst - Email

(With thanks to Karene Howie for her many thousands of hours of research, writing up quotes, and aesthetic design of website / use of images.)

P. S. - An easy way to help us promote this knowledge is to bookmark it into the social network / bookmarking websites that are displayed on every page. Thanks.


Introduction
The Metaphysics of Space & the Wave Structure of Matter

I must admit that I have spent considerable time thinking about writing an introduction to this website on Truth and Reality. As a philosopher these concepts are central to all the work I do. Unfortunately, I happen to live at a time where 'reality' is more closely associated with 'reality TV', and it seems everyone is entitled to their own truths, no matter how fanciful they may be (the joy of 'relative truth'). It is almost deemed insulting to some, to suggest that there is a physical reality, and as a consequence, absolute truths that are necessarily derived from this reality. When considered though, this postmodern view of 'no absolute truths' is rather strange, because people, generally, don't jump out of windows thinking they can fly, as they recognise this absolute truth of gravity and the resultant risk of injury or death. And there are many examples of these absolute truths in daily life that we must abide by to survive, e.g. sleeping, eating, breathing, etc.
So my first point is that there are absolute truths, founded on physical reality, and these are clearly important for our survival.

However, of profoundly more importance is that I am now quite convinced that the source of this absolute truth, i.e. physical reality itself, has finally been discovered (i.e. we have finally worked out the correct language for describing how matter exists and moves about in Space). That careful study of these subjects of Philosophy, Physics and Metaphysics over the past ten years has convinced me (and many others) that there is a very simple and sensible way of describing reality that clearly corrects a lot of past errors and problems of human knowledge.

Basically summarised, the current paradigm of representing matter as discrete 'particles' that generate 'fields' in 'space-time', while useful, is only an approximation of reality, and it causes numerous problems because of this. (This is well known, and explains the academic foundations of our postmodern culture of no absolute truths).
To correct these errors it is necessary to reject the 'particle' conception of matter (as Einstein did, see below) and describe matter in terms of Spherical Standing Waves in Space that cause the particle effect at their Wave-Center.

Effectively we are combining the Absolute Space assumed by Newton (1678) with the spherically spatially extended structure of matter as assumed by Albert Einstein in his Theory of Relativity (1905 - 1916) and the scalar wave properties of matter discovered by Schrodinger and de Broglie (foundations of Quantum Theory, 1928).
Two further points are important here to correctly understand these central concepts of the Wave Structure of Matter.

Firstly, Newton's Absolute Space was considered a 'background' reference frame for the motion (and acceleration) of matter 'particles'. Thus in Newton's Space matter did not affect Space (matter was somehow separate as 'particles'). Einstein rejected the 'particle' conception of matter and tried to unite matter and Space (and time, gravity) as one thing, by representing matter as continuous spherical fields. So in Einstein's relativity matter does affect Space, as matter and space are united (i.e. matter is spherically spatially extended and represented as a spherical field).
The Wave Structure of Matter agrees with Einstein, Matter and Space are one and the same thing (there are no 'particles'), and thus matter does affect space and its properties. The central difference is we are describing matter in terms of Spherical Waves in Continuous Space, rather than Einstein's (failed) field theory of matter as Continuous Spherical Fields in Space-Time.

Secondly, and this is mainly to physicists, it is important to recognise that there are two very different types of waves used in physics, the vector electromagnetic waves developed by Maxwell, which describe both a quantity and direction of force, and the Scalar waves of Quantum Theory, which are described by a Wave Amplitude only. The Wave Structure of Matter, which describes matter as Spherical Waves in a physically real Space, requires the use of the Scalar Waves from Quantum Theory (as Physicists would know, there are no spherical solutions for vector electromagnetic waves - which is why Richard Feynman had such problems!)

The Wave Structure of Matter is explained in more detail in the short summary to physics below. And while I do realise that new knowledge is generally confusing to begin (a limitation of the human mind that affects us all), I can assure you, that once understood, the Wave Structure of Matter is surprisingly simple, and very obvious and sensible.

Significantly, we are describing reality from One thing, Space, and its properties as a Wave Medium, rather than from Many things, Matter, and their properties of generating Fields. There are two reasons why this unity of reality is important.

Firstly, Metaphysics is founded on the Principle that the many things we experience must somehow be inter-connected by One thing that causes and connects them. And this is not an abstract academic idea, it is just confirming our experience of the world (look around you and think about how you are connected to these other objects that you see in Space). I have many quotes on this unity of reality (it is the central foundation of both philosophy and metaphysics since the time of Ancient Greek and Indian philosophy) but Leibniz summarises it most concisely.

Reality cannot be found except in One single source, because of the interconnection of all things with one another. (Gottfried Leibniz, 1670)

Secondly, and this relates to Science, there is the fundamental principle of simplicity, Occam's razor, where the theory that describes the most things from the least assumptions is the best theory. And it is clear to anyone who takes the time to consider this, that the Wave Structure of Matter, by being founded on One thing existing, Space, and its wave motions that form matter, is the most simple way of describing reality. The scientific measure of its truth is to then show that it deduces correctly what we observe from observation and experiment, which then takes us to the pioneering work of mathematical physicist Dr Milo Wolff, who has deduced many of the central laws of modern physics from this most simple foundation for the Sciences, the Wave Structure of Matter.

Nonetheless, I realise that what I believe and write about reality is pretty meaningless and irrelevant to the vast majority of people. Considering that the internet is full of well meaning crackpots, combined with the current complexity / diversity of knowledge, and the past failures to correctly describe Reality, it is pretty obvious few people will take this seriously (or make any effort to understand it to determine its truth - and there are many valid reasons for this apparent apathy and cynicism.)
I believe though, that the best I can do as a philosopher is to carefully explain this knowledge as simply and sensibly as possible, and perhaps more importantly, explain why knowledge of reality and its resultant absolute truths is critically important to our future survival (particularly now, with the many problems that currently confront humanity).
Though I have read many wonderful minds (I admit to being fascinated by the history and evolution of human knowledge) I think David Bohm sums up the reasons why this knowledge of the unity of reality is fundamentally important to humanity, as he writes;

The notion that all these fragments is separately existent is evidently an illusion, and this illusion cannot do other than lead to endless conflict and confusion. Indeed, the attempt to live according to the notion that the fragments are really separate is, in essence, what has led to the growing series of extremely urgent crises that is confronting us today. Thus, as is now well known, this way of life has brought about pollution, destruction of the balance of nature, over-population, world-wide economic and political disorder and the creation of an overall environment that is neither physically nor mentally healthy for most of the people who live in it. Individually there has developed a widespread feeling of helplessness and despair, in the face of what seems to be an overwhelming mass of disparate social forces, going beyond the control and even the comprehension of the human beings who are caught up in it.
(David Bohm, Wholeness and the Implicate Order, 1980)

The real problem that this new knowledge faces is that it contradicts the current post-modern belief that it is impossible to know Reality, and thus to have Absolute Truth. All knowledge is relative to cultural constructions, which are ultimately merely ideas, not real things existing in themselves (Kantian Idealism). I suspect it would be 'academic suicide' to even use these terms of Truth and Reality in a title as I have done (though they accurately reflect the content). You are asking to be branded a 'crackpot', either ignorant of our current 'enlightened post-modern' knowledge, and thus deluded, or allowing ego and imagination to sway reason and good sense.
In my defense, which is really a defense of Philosophy and Science, I reply;
Over the past ten years I have taken the time to study the great minds of human history (there are many beautiful and brilliant minds to read). This becomes clear as you read this website, which is filled with thousands of quotes from many great minds over thousands of years.
Now this in no way means that what I write is true, my point is more that by presenting the existing knowledge from the original source, explaining the problems and how they can be solved, this then allows you to make up your own mind as to the validity of the argument. (As I see philosophy and science, you can't tell someone the truth, but you can show them how to work it out for themselves.)
And based upon this knowledge of philosophy, physics and metaphysics, it is now clear to me that the Wave Structure of Matter is a far better way to describe Reality than the current paradigm of particles and fields in space and time.

Clearly, if this knowledge of the Wave Structure of Matter is correct, then it is very important to Humanity, and has the power to solve many of our problems, both in the spheres of human knowledge, and how we are to live on Earth (without destroying ourselves and the Nature which created us and upon which we depend). As I see it, the world needs our help, and this help must be founded on the Truth, not just our good intentions, if it is to actually work and make things better.
In a busy world I urge people to take the time to read and think about the Wave Structure of Matter. Truth and Reality are not only fascinating subjects, they describe what we really are as Humans, how we have evolved to exist as matter in this Space of the universe, and thus offer great wisdom as to how we should live here on our fragile and most amazing little planet, our dear Earth and its wonderful diversity of life.

So there you have it - the end of the serious lecture / introduction (sorry!). My hope is that it encourages you to take the time to read the following summary of the Wave Structure of Matter (which is only a couple of pages long and i think it is very useful!). You will also find in this website many articles on philosophy, physics and metaphysics that I believe explain and solve most of the major / central problems of these fields of knowledge.
And yes, I appreciate that this claim clearly falls in the class of 'crackpot', however it is also the obvious consequence of correctly knowing physical reality. So i hope you will think about it!
Sincerely,
Geoff Haselhurst, Email, (December 2005).


Short Summary of Physics and the Wave Structure of Matter in Space

At a fundamental level Modern Physics is founded on the concepts of particles and fields in space and time. Further difficulties arise because both light and matter exhibit a particle / wave duality, and there are two main fields, charge (electromagnetic) and mass (gravitational / inertial). While this is still a little simplistic, it makes the point that we have a number of different concepts without any clear understanding of how they are connected. This causes numerous problems for Human knowledge (and society), as we do not understand the necessary connections between these many things we experience. And as Hume made clear (see David Hume's Problem of Causation and Necessary Connection), without this knowledge of necessary connection between things that exist we can have no causal theory of knowledge, leaving the Sciences founded on Induction from repeated observation which is always uncertain (rather than deduction from metaphysical principles which is certain);

Experience only teaches us, how one event constantly follows another; without instructing us in the secret connexion, which binds them together, and renders them inseparable. (David Hume)

So how do we solve these problems? I think the simplest way to explain this is to list these central concepts of physics, show which path Albert Einstein took to try and unite them from a common foundation (which he failed to do), and then demonstrate from the most simple foundation (founded on One thing Space existing as a Wave Medium) how we can finally unite these concepts in a meaningful way that describes reality without paradox or contradiction. Now I know that most of you will be very skeptical of such a big claim, but the solution is pretty simple and obvious once known so I hope you will persevere (and it is concise / short!).

Central Concepts of Modern Physics

Newton's Mechanics - Space, Time, Matter as Particles with 'Mass', Force = Mass by Acceleration.
Continuous Electromagnetic Field Theory (Faraday, Maxwell, Lorentz, Einstein / Relativity) - Matter as Particles with 'Charge', Continuous Spherical Electromagnetic Fields, Light as Vector Electromagnetic Waves, Gravitational Fields (local theory - all matter interactions limited by velocity of light c)
Discrete Quantum Theory (Planck, Einstein, de Broglie, Schrodinger, Born) - Light as Discrete Particles (Photons), Scalar Waves, Probability Waves, Particle Wave Duality (Light & Matter), Quantum Entanglement (apparently non local theory - appear to be instantaneous matter interactions).

While this is still a little simplistic, you can see how confusing Physics becomes when you have so many concepts, some of which clearly contradict others (e.g. light and matter behave as both particles and waves, discrete particles and continuous fields, local and non local interactions). Albert Einstein attempted to simplify this mess with his 'field theory of matter' where he discarded the 'particle' concept and tried to represent matter as spherical fields in space-time, as he writes;

Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended (as fields). In this way the concept 'empty space' loses its meaning. ... The field thus becomes an irreducible element of physical description, irreducible in the same sense as the concept of matter (particles) in the theory of Newton. ... The physical reality of space is represented by a field whose components are continuous functions of four independent variables - the co-ordinates of space and time. Since the theory of general relativity implies the representation of physical reality by a continuous field, the concept of particles or material points cannot play a fundamental part, nor can the concept of motion. The particle can only appear as a limited region in space in which the field strength or the energy density are particularly high. (Albert Einstein, 1950)

When forced to summarize the general theory of relativity in one sentence:
Time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter. (Albert Einstein)

Now there are a number of Problems with Albert Einstein's Field Theory of Matter, as he was well aware, and which, late in his life, caused him to write to his friend Michael Besso expressing his frustration;

All these fifty years of conscious brooding have brought me no nearer to the answer to the question, 'What are light quanta?' Nowadays every Tom, Dick and Harry thinks he knows it, but he is mistaken. … I consider it quite possible that physics cannot be based on the field concept, i.e., on continuous structures. In that case, nothing remains of my entire castle in the air, gravitation theory included, [and of] the rest of modern physics. (Albert Einstein, 1954)

In hindsight it is easier to understand Einstein's error - the clue is that Quantum Theory's discovery of the wave properties of matter did not occur until 1928, whereas Einstein's continuous electromagnetic field foundations were developed from 1905 to 1916 based largely on the ideas of James Clerk Maxwell (Maxwell's Equations, 1870s) and Lorentz's Theory of the Electron (1900). So basically his mistake was to work with fields in space-time (mathematical) rather than real waves in Space (physical), largely because he did not have knowledge of the Wave properties of matter when he developed his Theory of Relativity.

In terms of the Metaphysical foundations of Physics, the central error has been to try and describe reality from the Many material things we experience, matter 'particles'. (i.e. Science, which is empirically founded). And even though Einstein rejected the 'particle', his field theory of matter is still founded on this priority of matter (that matter's field interactions cause the effect of space and time).
However, Metaphysics has known for several thousand years that it is necessary to describe reality from One thing existing to explain matter's interconnection in Space and the Universe. As Aristotle, Leibniz and Bradley write;

The first philosophy (Metaphysics) is universal and is exclusively concerned with primary substance. ... And here we will have the science to study that which is, both in its essence and in the properties which, just as a thing that is, it has. (Aristotle, 340BC)
Reality cannot be found except in One single source, because of the interconnection of all things with one another. ... I do not conceive of any reality at all as without genuine unity. (Gottfried Leibniz, 1670)
We may agree, perhaps, to understand by Metaphysics an attempt to know reality as against mere appearance, or the study of first principles or ultimate truths, or again the effort to comprehend the universe, not simply piecemeal or by fragments, but somehow as a whole. (Bradley, 1846-1924)

By abiding by this central rule of Metaphysics and describing Reality in Terms of One thing existing, Space, and its Properties as a Wave Medium for Spherical Standing Waves that form Matter, we find a very simple solution to all of the above problems of Physics (again this is a big claim, but this website does explain many of these things). Basically Einstein is correct, Matter is a Spherically Spatially extended structure of Space (there is no 'particle') though most importantly we have simplified Einstein's ideas from;

Matter as Continuous Spherical Fields in Space-Time
to
Matter as Spherical Waves in Continuous Space.

Represents Spherical In-Wave (our future) flowing In to form the Wave-Center (our present) + Represents Spherical Out-Wave (our past) flowing Out of the Wave-Center (our present) = Combined In-Waves and Out-Waves form a Spherical Standing Wave about the Wave Center (our present). This explains the particle / wave duality of Matter. Matter is a Spherical Standing Wave - the Wave-Center causes the 'particle' effect of matter. This rough diagram shows how the In-Waves and Out-Waves form a Standing Wave around the Wave-Center 'particle'.

Significantly, we have now decreased the number of concepts from Einstein's 5 (continuous, spherical, fields, space, time) where there is no clear understanding of how they are connected, down to 4 concepts (spherical, waves, continuous, space) where we can clearly connect these four things back to One thing existing, Space, and its Properties as a Wave Medium for Spherical Waves that form matter. And after you have studied philosophy and metaphysics for a while, you come to realise that this solution to the most central and profound of all problems, the Problem of the One and the Many, of how the many things are caused and connected by the One thing then enables you to explain and solve numerous other problems that this lack of knowledge of necessary connection caused.

And from this dynamic unity of reality it is quite simple to show that:
The discrete 'particle' effect of matter is caused by the Wave-Center of the Spherical Standing Waves (the diagram shows that this is an obvious solution to the particle / wave duality of matter!).
The discrete 'particle' effect of light is caused by discrete Standing Wave Interactions / Resonant Coupling.
Time is caused by Wave Motion (as spherical wave motions of Space which cause matter's activity and the phenomena of time).
Forces / Fields are caused by wave interactions of the Spherical In and Out Waves with other matter in the universe which change the location of the Wave-Center (and which we 'see' as a 'force accelerating a particle').
Quantum Entanglement is likewise caused by the Interaction between the In and Out-Waves and all the other matter in the universe, thus matter is always subtly connected to other matter in the universe (i.e. matter is large not small, we only see the Wave-Center and have been deceived by its 'particle' effect). However, Einstein's 'Locality' is correct, all matter to matter interactions are limited by the velocity of Waves in Space.

Of most significance (the real beauty of this solution) is that not only does it solve the problems of Albert Einstein's Theory of Relativity, but it also solves the basic problems of Quantum Theory / Quantum Mechanics (founded on Wave Equations) and Cosmology (uniting finite matter & universe with infinite eternal space - The Big Bang Theory being founded on a basic error).

Geoff Haselhurst (January, 2005)


Change the World with Truth and Reality

Below are some relevant quotes that we hope you find interesting / illuminating! The three central points are;

i) The underlying dynamic unity of reality (which the Wave Structure of Matter in Space clearly explains) has been known for thousands of years (though this has largely been ignored by western scientists, Einstein, Schrodinger and Bohm are the most famous exceptions).

ii) If you want to change / improve the world, well it is up to you, and it requires knowledge of truth, and thus reality (good intentions are not good enough - in fact they just lead to hell on earth).

iii) The discovery of reality is obviously the most profound knowledge that we can have, and given human nature, it is also the most difficult to get fairly considered by science / society. Few people have enough knowledge to judge it sensibly / logically, and those who do tend to be corrupted by the current postmodern view of 'no absolute truths' thus ignore it. (Which is why we need your help in getting these pages to rank well on the Internet!)


Rachel Carson / Silent Spring -  We Stand now where two roads diverge ... On the profound importance of preserving Nature if Humanity wishes to survive.(Rachel Carson) We stand now where two roads diverge. But unlike the roads in Robert Frost's familiar poem, they are not equally fair. The road we have long been traveling is deceptively easy, a smooth superhighway on which we progress with great speed, but at its end lies disaster. The other fork of the road - the one 'less traveled by' - offers our last, our only chance to reach a destination that assures the preservation of the earth. The choice, after all, is ours to make.

Margaret Mead - Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful committed citizens can change the world, indeed it is the only thing that ever has.(Margaret Mead) Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful committed citizens can change the world, indeed it is the only thing that ever has.
Albert Einstein(Albert Einstein) The free, unhampered exchange of ideas and scientific conclusions is necessary for the sound development of science, as it is in all spheres of cultural life. ...
We must not conceal from ourselves that no improvement in the present depressing situation is possible without a severe struggle; for the handful of those who are really determined to do something is minute in comparison with the mass of the lukewarm and the misguided. ... Humanity is going to need a substantially new way of thinking if it is to survive.
When forced to summarize the general theory of relativity in one sentence: Time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter. ...
Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended (as fields). In this way the concept 'empty space' loses its meaning. ... The field thus becomes an irreducible element of physical description, irreducible in the same sense as the concept of matter (particles) in the theory of Newton. ... The physical reality of space is represented by a field whose components are continuous functions of four independent variables - the co-ordinates of space and time. Since the theory of general relativity implies the representation of physical reality by a continuous field, the concept of particles or material points cannot play a fundamental part, nor can the concept of motion. The particle can only appear as a limited region in space in which the field strength or the energy density are particularly high.
The subtlety of the concept of space was enhanced by the discovery that there exist no completely rigid bodies. All bodies are elastically deformable.

Erwin Schrodinger  - The scientist only imposes two things, namely truth and sincerity, imposes them upon himself and upon other scientists.(Erwin Schrodinger) What we observe as material bodies and forces are nothing but shapes and variations in the structure of space. Particles are just schaumkommen (appearances). ... The world is given to me only once, not one existing and one perceived. Subject and object are only one. The barrier between them cannot be said to have broken down as a result of recent experience in the physical sciences, for this barrier does not exist. ... Let me say at the outset, that in this discourse, I am opposing not a few special statements of quantum mechanics held today (1950s), I am opposing as it were the whole of it, I am opposing its basic views that have been shaped 25 years ago, when Max Born put forward his probability interpretation, which was accepted by almost everybody. ... I don't like it, and I'm sorry I ever had anything to do with it. ... The scientist only imposes two things, namely truth and sincerity, imposes them upon himself and upon other scientists.

David Bohm - Holographic Universe and the Dynamic Unity of Reality(David Bohm, Wholeness and the Implicate Order, 1980) The notion that all these fragments is separately existent is evidently an illusion, and this illusion cannot do other than lead to endless conflict and confusion. Indeed, the attempt to live according to the notion that the fragments are really separate is, in essence, what has led to the growing series of extremely urgent crises that is confronting us today. Thus, as is now well known, this way of life has brought about pollution, destruction of the balance of nature, over-population, world-wide economic and political disorder and the creation of an overall environment that is neither physically nor mentally healthy for most of the people who live in it. Individually there has developed a widespread feeling of helplessness and despair, in the face of what seems to be an overwhelming mass of disparate social forces, going beyond the control and even the comprehension of the human beings who are caught up in it.

Lee Smolin Uniting Quantum Theory, Relativity, Cosmology, Universe, Cosmos, Truth, Reality(Lee Smolin, 1997) A successful unification of quantum theory and relativity would necessarily be a theory of the universe as a whole. It would tell us, as Aristotle and Newton did before, what space and time are, what the cosmos is, what things are made of, and what kind of laws those things obey. Such a theory will bring about a radical shift - a revolution - in our understanding of what nature is. It must also have wide repercussions, and will likely bring about, or contribute to, a shift in our understanding of ourselves and our relationship to the rest of the universe.

Max Planck - A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it.(Max Planck) A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it.

 

Charles Darwin - On the resistance of society to new ideas(Charles Darwin) Although I am fully convinced of the truth of the views given in this volume I by no means expect to convince experienced naturalists whose minds are stocked with a multitude of facts all viewed, during a long course of years, from a point of view directly opposite to mine. But I look with confidence to the future to young and rising naturalists, who will be able to view both sides of the question with impartiality.

Galileo Galilei - On the difficulties of getting people to consider new knowledge and truths that contradict past customs and beliefs.(Galileo Galilei, 1600) I wish, my dear Kepler, that we could have a good laugh together at the extraordinary stupidity of the mob. What do you think of the foremost philosophers of this University? In spite of my oft-repeated efforts and invitations, they have refused, with the obstinacy of a glutted adder, to look at the planets or Moon or my telescope. ...
In questions of science, the authority of a thousand is not worth the humble reasoning of a single individual.

Karl Popper - The scandal of Philosophy(Karl Popper, 1975) In my opinion, the greatest scandal of philosophy is that, while all around us the world of nature perishes - and not the world of nature alone - philosophers continue to talk, sometimes cleverly and sometimes not, about the question of whether this world exists. They get involved in scholasticism, in linguistic puzzles such as, for example, whether or not there are differences between 'being' and 'existing'. ... Denying realism amounts to megalomania (the most widespread occupational disease of the professional philosopher). ... If a theory corresponds to the facts but does not cohere with some earlier knowledge, then this earlier knowledge should be discarded.

The wonderful Bertie Russull(Bertrand Russell) Thought is subversive and revolutionary, destructive and terrible, Thought is merciless to privilege, established institutions, and comfortable habit. Thought is great and swift and free. ...
The whole problem with the world is that fools and fanatics are always so certain of themselves, and wiser people so full of doubts. ...
Do not fear to be eccentric in opinion, for every opinion now accepted was once eccentric. ...
Many people would sooner die than think; in fact, they do so. ...
It has been said that man is a rational animal. All my life I have been searching for evidence which could support this.

Friedrich Nietzsche(Friedrich Nietzsche, The Greeks) Greek philosophy seems to begin with a preposterous fancy, with the proposition that water is the origin and mother-womb of all things. Is it really necessary to stop there and become serious? Yes, and for three reasons: firstly, because the preposition does enunciate something about the origin of things; secondly, because it does so without figure and fable; thirdly and lastly, because it contained, although only in the chrysalis state, the idea :everything is one. ... That which drove him (Thales) to this generalization was a metaphysical dogma, which had its origin in a mystic intuition and which together with the ever renewed endeavors to express it better, we find in all philosophies- the proposition: everything is one! ...
There is nothing more necessary than truth, and in comparison with it everything else has only secondary value.
This absolute will to truth: what is it? Is it the will to not allow ourselves to be deceived? Is it the will not to deceive? One does not want to be deceived, under the supposition that it is injurious, dangerous, or fatal to be deceived. ... Do not allow yourselves to be deceived: Great Minds are Skeptical.
What if God were not exactly truth, and if this could be proved? And if he were instead the vanity, the desire for power, the ambitions, the fear, and the enraptured and terrified folly of mankind? (Nietzsche, 1890)

Arthur Schopenhauer - The subtle and pervasive power of Truth(Arthur Schopenhauer) It is a ticklish question, the steering of the public, good and docile as it is on the whole. Although as a rule the absurd culminates, and it seems impossible for the voice of the individual ever to penetrate through the chorus of foolers and fooled, still there is left to the genuine works of all times a quite peculiar, silent, slow, and powerful influence; and as if by a miracle, we see them rise at last out of the turmoil like a balloon that floats up out of the thick atmosphere of this globe into purer regions. Having once arrived there, it remains at rest, and no one can any longer draw it down again. ...
The task is not so much to see what no one yet has seen, but to think what no body yet has thought about that which everyone sees. ...
For the incredibly great majority of men are by their nature absolutely incapable of any but material aims; they cannot even comprehend any others. Accordingly, the pursuit of truth alone is a pursuit far too lofty and eccentric for us to expect that all or many, or indeed even a mere few, will sincerely take part in it. ... But life is short, and truth works far and lives long: let us speak the truth. (Arthur Schopenhauer, 1818)

Immanuel Kant - On the Duty of Philosophy to correct errors in knowledge(Immanuel Kant, 1781) It is the duty of philosophy to destroy the illusions which had their origin in misconceptions, whatever darling hopes and valued expectations may be ruined by its explanations. ... and thus to prevent the scandal which metaphysical controversies are sure, sooner or later, to cause even to the masses.

David Hume on the Importance of Philosophy and Truth to Society (David Hume, 1737) And though the philosopher may live remote from business, the genius of philosophy, if carefully cultivated by several, must gradually diffuse itself throughout the whole society, and bestow a similar correctness on every art and calling.
When we look about us towards external objects, and consider the operation of causes, we are never able, in a single instance, to discover any power or necessary connexion; any quality, which binds the effect to the cause, and renders the one an infallible consequence of the other. There is required a medium, which may enable the mind to draw such an inference, if indeed it be drawn by reasoning and argument. What that medium is, I must confess, passes my comprehension; and it is incumbent on those to produce it, who assert that it really exists, and is the origin of all our conclusions concerning matter of fact. This question I propose as much for the sake of information, as with an intention of raising difficulties. I cannot find, I cannot imagine any such reasoning. But I keep my mind still open to instruction, if any one will vouchsafe to bestow it upon me.
We find in the course of nature that though the effects be many, the principles from which they arise are commonly few and simple, and that it is the sign of an unskilled naturalist to have recourse to a different quality in order to explain every different operation.

Gottfried Leibniz(Gottfried Leibniz, 1670) I agree with you that it is important to examine our presuppositions, thoroughly and once for all, in order to establish something solid. For I hold that it is only when we can prove all that we bring forward that we perfectly understand the thing under consideration. I know that the common herd takes little pleasure in these researches, but I know also that the common herd take little pains thoroughly to understand things. ... a distinction must be made between true and false ideas, and that too much rein must not be given to a man's imagination under pretext of its being a clear and distinct intellection. ... Reality cannot be found except in One single source, because of the interconnection of all things with one another. ... I do not conceive of any reality at all as without genuine unity. ... I maintain also that substances, whether material or immaterial, cannot be conceived in their bare essence without any activity, activity being of the essence of substance in general.

George Berkeley Philosophy - Berkeley's Idealism explained from Realism of Wave Structure of Matter - Nothing seems of more importance, towards erecting a firm system of sound and real knowledge, which may be proof against the assaults of scepticism, than to lay the beginning in a distinct explication of what is meant by thing, reality, existence. (Berkeley)(George Berkeley) Nothing seems of more importance, towards erecting a firm system of sound and real knowledge, which may be proof against the assaults of scepticism, than to lay the beginning in a distinct explication of what is meant by thing, reality, existence: for in vain shall we dispute concerning the real existence of things, or pretend to any knowledge thereof, so long as we have not fixed the meaning of those words. ... we are under an invincible blindness as to the true and real nature of things. ...
Hence a great number of dark and ambiguous terms presumed to stand for abstract notions, have been introduced into metaphysics and morality, and from these have grown infinite distractions and disputes amongst the learned. ...
My purpose therefore is, to try if I can discover what those principles are, which have introduced all that doubtfulness and uncertainty, those absurdities and contradictions into the several sects of philosophy; insomuch that the wisest men have thought our ignorance incurable, conceiving it to arise from the natural dullness and limitation of our faculties. ...

Spinoza(Spinoza) I have striven not to laugh at human actions, not to weep at them, nor to hate them, but to understand them. ...
But if men would give heed to the nature of substance they would doubt less concerning the Proposition that Existence appertains to the nature of substance: rather they would reckon it an axiom above all others, and hold it among common opinions. ... A substance cannot be produced from anything else: it will therefore be its own cause, that is, its essence necessarily involves existence, or existence appertains to the nature of it. ...
No two or more substances can have the same attribute and it appertains to the nature of substance that it should exist. It must therefore exist finitely or infinitely. But not finitely. For it would then be limited by some other substance of the same nature which also of necessity must exist: and then two substances would be granted having the same attribute, which is absurd. It will exist, therefore, infinitely.

Aristotle(Aristotle) The first philosophy (Metaphysics) is universal and is exclusively concerned with primary substance. ... And here we will have the science to study that which is just as that which is, both in its essence and in the properties which, just as a thing that is, it has.
The entire preoccupation of the physicist is with things that contain within themselves a principle of movement and rest. And to seek for this is to seek for the second kind of principle, that from which comes the beginning of the change.
There must then be a principle of such a kind that its substance is activity.
... it is impossible that the primary existent, being eternal, should be destroyed.
... that among entities there must be some cause which moves and combines things.
..about its coming into being and its doings and about all its alterations we think that we have knowledge when we know the source of its movement. (Aristotle, Metaphysics)

Plato, Republic(Plato, Republic) And those whose hearts are fixed on Reality itself deserve the title of Philosophers. ...
The society we have described can never grow into a reality or see the light of day, and there will be no end to the troubles of states, or indeed, my dear Glaucon, of humanity itself, till philosophers are kings in this world, or till those we now call kings and rulers really and truly become philosophers, and political power and philosophy thus come into the same hands, while the many natures now content to follow either to the exclusion of the other are forcibly debarred from doing so. This is what I have hesitated to say so long, knowing what a paradox it would sound; for it is not easy to see that there is no other road to happiness, either for society or the individual. ...
When the mind's eye rests on objects illuminated by truth and reality, it understands and comprehends them, and functions intelligently; but when it turns to the twilight world of change and decay, it can only form opinions, its vision is confused and it