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Quantum Physics / Mechanics: Max Born
The Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) replaces Max Born's 'Probability Waves' Interpretation of Quantum Wave Mechanics with Real Matter Waves in Physical Space. Max Born Biography, Pictures & Quotes.

Max Born Introduction - Born's Probability Waves of Quantum Physics - Max Born Quotes: Einstein's Relativity / Quantum Mechanics - Biography Max Born - Top of Page

I personally like to regard a probability wave as a real thing, certainly as more than a tool for mathematical calculations. ... how could we rely on probability predictions if we do not refer to something real and objective? (Max Born on Quantum Theory)

One obvious objection to the hypothesis of an elastic Aether (Space) arises from the necessity of ascribing to it the great rigidity it must have to account for the high velocity of Waves. Such a substance would necessarily offer resistance to the motion of heavenly bodies, particularly to that of planets. Astronomy has never detected departures from Newton's Laws of Motion that would point to such a resistance. (Max Born, 1924)

Quantum Physics: Max Born's Probability Interpretation of Quantum Theory Introduction: Max Born


.... To be completed by late 2018



Max Born Introduction - Born's Probability Waves of Quantum Physics - Max Born Quotes: Einstein's Relativity / Quantum Mechanics - Biography Max Born - Top of Page

Quantum Physics: Max Born's Probability Interpretation of Quantum Theory Quantum Physics: Max Born's 'Probability Waves' Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics (1928)

On Chance and Probability in a Necessarily Interconnected finite spherical Universe within a Non-Determined Infinite Space

Quantum Mechanics, from 1900 to 1930, revolutionised the foundations of our understanding of light and matter interactions. In 1900 Max Planck showed that light energy must be emitted and absorbed in discrete 'quanta' to explain blackbody radiation. Albert Einstein in 1905 showed that the energy of light is determined by its frequency, where E=hf. Then in the late 1920s, Louis de Broglie and Erwin Schrodinger introduced the concept of Standing Waves to explain these discrete frequency and energy states of light and matter (standing waves only exist at discrete frequencies and thus energy states).

At the same time that the wave properties of matter were discovered, two further discoveries were made by Werner Heisenberg and Max Born that also profoundly influenced (and confused) the future evolution of modern physics and quantum mechanics;

Quantum Physics: Werner Heisenberg: Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle of Quantum Theory Werner Heisenberg developed the uncertainty principle which tells us that we (the observer) can never exactly know both the position and momentum of a particle. As every observation requires an energy exchange (photon) to create the observed 'data', some energy (wave) state of the observed object has to be altered. Thus the observation has a discrete effect on what we measure. i.e. We change the experiment by observing it! (A large part of their problem though was to continue to assume the existence of discrete particles and thus to try to exactly locate both their position and motion, which is impossible as there is no discrete particle!)
Further, because both the observed position and momentum of the particle can never be exactly known, theorists were left trying to determine the probability of where, for example, the 'particle' would be observed.

Quantum Physics: Max Born Quotes on the Probability Interpretation of Quantum Theory Max Born (1928) was the first to discover (by chance and with no theoretical foundation) that the square of the quantum wave equations (described by the Wave Structure of Matter as mass-energy density of space) could be used to predict the probability of where the particle would be found. Since it was impossible for both the waves and the particles to be real entities, it became customary to regard the waves as unreal probability waves and to maintain the belief in the 'real' particle. Unfortunately (profoundly) this maintained the belief in the particle/wave duality, in a new form where the 'quantum' scalar standing waves had become 'probability waves' for the 'real' particle.

Albert Einstein unfortunately agreed with this probability wave interpretation, as he believed in continuous force fields (not in waves or particles) thus to him it was sensible that the waves were not real, and were mere descriptions of probabilities. He writes;

Quantum Physics: Albert Einstein Quotes on Quantum MechanicsOn the basis of quantum theory there was obtained a surprisingly good representation of an immense variety of facts which otherwise appeared entirely incomprehensible. But on one point, curiously enough, there was failure: it proved impossible to associate with these Schrodinger waves definite motions of the mass points - and that, after all, had been the original purpose of the whole construction. The difficulty appeared insurmountable until it was overcome by Born in a way as simple as it was unexpected. The de Broglie-Schrodinger wave fields were not to be interpreted as a mathematical description of how an event actually takes place in time and space, though, of course, they have reference to such an event. Rather they are a mathematical description of what we can actually know about the system. They serve only to make statistical statements and predictions of the results of all measurements which we can carry out upon the system. (Albert Einstein, on Quantum Physics, 1940)

Quantum Physics: Albert Einstein Quotes on Quantum MechanicsIt seems to be clear, therefore, that Born's statistical interpretation of quantum physics is the only possible one. The wave function does not in any way describe a state which could be that of a single system; it relates rather to many systems, to an 'ensemble of systems' in the sense of statistical mechanics. (Albert Einstein, on Quantum Mechanics, 1936)

Albert Einstein is correct in one sense, mistaken in another. It is true that matter is intimately interconnected to all the other matter in the universe by the Spherical In and Out-Waves, something quantum theory discovered but never correctly understood.
This has become known as quantum entanglement and relates to the famous experiment posed by Albert Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) and when later technology allowed its experimental testing, it confirmed quantum theory's entanglement. Albert Einstein assumed this interconnectedness was due to the spherical spatially extended field structure of matter, instead, it is due to the interaction of the spherical spatially extended Standing Waves of matter with other matter's Wave-Centers distant in Space. Explaining this Standing Wave interaction of matter with other matter in the Space around it (action-at-a-distance) is largely the purpose of these physics articles and is one of the great powers of the Metaphysics of Space and Motion and the Spherical Wave Structure of Matter.

Nonetheless, Albert Einstein was very close to the truth. He realised that because matter is spherically spatially extended we must give up the idea of complete localization and knowledge of the 'particle' in a theoretical model. For the particle is nothing but the Wave-Center of a Spherical Standing Wave, and thus can never be isolated as an entity in itself, but is dependent on its interactions with all the other Matter in the Universe. And it is this lack of knowledge of the system as a whole that is the ultimate cause of the uncertainty and resultant probability inherent in Quantum Physics.

Quantum Physics: Albert Einstein Quotes on Quantum TheoryThus the last and most successful creation of theoretical physics, namely quantum mechanics (QM), differs fundamentally from both Newton's mechanics, and Maxwell's e-m field. For the quantities which figure in QM's laws make no claim to describe physical reality itself, but only probabilities of the occurrence of a physical reality that we have in view. (Albert Einstein, 1931)
I cannot but confess that I attach only a transitory importance to this interpretation. I still believe in the possibility of a model of reality - that is to say, of a theory which represents things themselves and not merely the probability of their occurrence. On the other hand, it seems to me certain that we must give up the idea of complete localization of the particle in a theoretical model. This seems to me the permanent upshot of Heisenberg's principle of uncertainty. (Albert Einstein, on Quantum Physics, 1934)

Albert Einstein believed that Reality could be represented by spherical force fields, that reality was not founded on chance (as Bohr and Heisenberg argued) but on necessary connections between things (thus his comment 'God does not play dice'!). He was largely correct, Matter is necessarily connected due to the Spherical Standing Wave Structure of Matter, but due to lack of knowledge of the system as a whole (the Universe), and the fact that it is impossible to determine an Infinite system (of which our finite spherical universe is a part - see Cosmology), then this gives rise to the chance and uncertainty found in Quantum Mechanics.

Max Born Introduction - Born's Probability Waves of Quantum Physics - Max Born Quotes: Einstein's Relativity / Quantum Mechanics - Biography Max Born - Top of Page

Max Born Quotes 'Einstein's Theory of Relativity' Max Born Quotes: 'Einstein's Theory of Relativity'

(Dover edition, 1962, is a revised version of Max Born's 'Einstein's Theory of Relativity' published by Methuen Company in 1924)

Copernicus' constructive achievement was that his system explained in a simpler way the phenomena which the traditional world system was able to explain only by means of complicated and artificial hypotheses. (Max Born, 1924)

(Sir Isaac Newton) 'Absolute, True, and Mathematical Time, of itself, and from its own nature flows equably without regard to any thing external, and by another name is called Duration'Absolute, True, and Mathematical Time, of itself, and from its own nature flows equably without regard to any thing external, and by another name is called Duration: Relative, Apparent, and Common Time is some sensible and external (whether accurate or unequable) measure of Duration by the means of motion, which is commonly used instead of True time; such as an Hour, a Day, a Month, a Year...
For the natural days are truly unequable, though they are commonly considered as equal, and used for a measure of time: Astronomers correct this inequality for their more accurate deducing of the celestial motions. It may be, that there is no such thing as an equable motion, whereby time may be accurately measured. All motions may be accelerated and retarded, but the True, or equable progress, of Absolute time is liable to no change. The duration or perseverance of the existence of things remains the same, whether the motions are swift or slow, or none at all..
Concerning Space Newton expresses similar opinions. He says:
(Sir Isaac Newton) 'Absolute Space, in its own nature, without regard to any thing external, remains always similar and immovable.' Absolute Space, in its own nature, without regard to any thing external, remains always similar and immovable. Relative Space is some moveable dimension or measure of the absolute spaces; which our senses determine, by its position to bodies; and which is vulgarly taken for immovable space...
And so instead of absolute places and motions, we use relative ones; and that without any inconvenience in common affairs; but in Philosophical disquisitions, we ought to abstract from our senses, and consider things themselves, distinct from what are only sensible measures of them. For it may be that there is no body really at rest, to which the places and motions of others may be referred... (Sir Isaac Newton, Max Born, 1924)

Max Born 'Einstein's Theory of Relativity' QuotesHaving recognised that the individual points in Newton's absolute space have no physical reality, we must now inquire what remains of this concept at all. (Max Born, 1924)

Inertial actions arise whether accelerations occur, and these are nothing more than changes of velocity in absolute space.. (Max Born, 1924)

The undulatory, or wave theory, on the other hand, sets up an analogy between the propagation of light and the motion of waves on the surface of water or sound waves in air. For this purpose it has to assume the existence of an elastic medium that permeates all transparent bodies; this is the luminiferous ether. The individual particles of this substance merely oscillate about their positions of equilibrium. That which moves on as the light wave is the state of motion of the particles and not the particles themselves. (Max Born, 1924)

In liquids and gases there is no elastic resistance to the lateral displacement of the particles, but only to the change of volume, i.e., compressions and rarefactions. ..On the other hand, in solid bodies, on account of the elastic rigidity which opposes lateral displacements, three waves, one longitudunal and two transverse, with different velocities, can be transmitted in each direction. (Max Born, 1924)

Faraday came from no learned academy; his mind was not burdened with traditional ideas and theories. (Max Born, 1924)

(James Clerk Maxwell) 'In speaking of the Energy of the field, however, I wish to be understood literally. All energy is the same as mechanical energy, whether it exists in the form of motion or in that of elasticity, or in any other form. The energy in electromagnetic phenomena is mechanical energy.'We recall that Maxwell took the concept of displacement as the foundation of his argument, and we interpreted this visually as meaning that in the smallest parts or molecules of the ether, just as in the molecules of matter, an actual displacement and separation of the electric (or magnetic) fluid occur. So far as this idea concerns the process of electric polarisation of matter, it is well founded; it is also adopted in the modern modification of Maxwell's theory, the theory of electrons, for numerous experiments have rendered certain that matter has a molecular structure and that every molecule carries displaceable charges. But this is by no means the case for the free ether; here Maxwell's idea of displacement is purely hypothetical, and its only value is that it provides a visualizable image for the abstract laws of the field. (Max Born, 1924)

(Hendrik Lorentz, 1906) 'I cannot but regard the ether, which can be the seat of an electromagnetic field with its energy and its vibrations, as endowed with a certain degree of substantiality, however different it may be from all ordinary matter.'Lorentz proclaimed the very radical thesis which had never before been asserted with such definiteness:
The ether is at rest in absolute space.
In principle this identifies the ether with absolute space. Absolute space is no vacuum, but something with definite properties whose state is described with the help of two directed quantities, the electrical field E and the magnetic field H, and, as such is called the ether. (Max Born, 1924)

The most important is that of Lorentz (1904) which closely connected with the theory of relativity. Lorentz assumed that every moving electron contracts in the direction of motion, so that from a sphere it becomes a flattened spheroid of revolution, the amount of flattening depending in a definite way on the velocity. This hypothesis seems at first sight strange. It certainly gives a simpler formula for the way electromagnetic mass depends on velocity than does Abraham's theory, but this in itself does not justify it. (Max Born, 1924)

Newton included the infinity of space and time in his fundamental principles and speculated on the question of whether or not the stars were finite in number and filled only a finite part of the infinite space. He came to the conclusion that the number of stars must be infinite and spread rather uniformly through space, for a finite number would collapse in consequence of their mututal attraction. Later it turned out that this argument led to mathematical difficulties of so severe a kind that even modifications of the Newtonian law of gravitation for large distances were contemplated. (Max Born, 1924)

(Edwin Hubble, 1937)'(If the redshifts are a Doppler shift) ... the observations as they stand lead to the anomaly of a closed universe, curiously small and dense, and, it may be added, suspiciously young. On the other hand, if redshifts are not Doppler effects, these anomalies disappear and the region observed appears as a small, homogeneous, but insignificant portion of a universe extended indefinitely both in space and time.'About 1929 the American astronomer Hubble demonstrated the existence of a strange correlation between distance and speed of the nebulae: they all move outwards, away from us, and with a velocity which inceases proportional to the distance; or, in other words, the system of the spiral nebulae is expanding- just as the primitive comparison of this system with a gas had suggested to earlier thinkers. Now if one regards the expansion to have been the same in the past as it is today, one is led to the idea that the whole system must have had a beginning when all matter was condensed in a small "supernucleus," and one can calculate the time interval since this "beginning of the world" and the present instant. The result obtained from Hubble's data was 2000 to 3000 millions of years.
Meanwhile the relativistic cosmology initiated by Einstein and De Sitter began to ripen in the hands of Friedmann, Lemaitre, Tolman, Robertson and others. A series of new possible models of the world were discovered between the extreme cases found by Einstein and De Sitter, and the question arose which of them fitted the empirical facts best, in particular those facts established by Hubble. Today there are many ramifications and refinements of the theory and there has been so enormous an increase of observational material that it is difficult to judge the actual situation. Earlier ideas which seemed to be most fertile have turned out to be too narrow or even wrong. (Max Born, 1924)

(Max Born on Quantum Physics) 'If God has made the world a perfect mechanism, He has at least conceded so much to our imperfect intellects that in order to predict little parts of it, we need not solve innumerable differential equations, but can use dice with fair success.'Max Born Quantum Mechanics Quotes

No concealed parameters can be introduced with the help of which the indeterministic description could be transformed into a deterministic one. Hence if a future theory should be deterministic, it cannot be a modification of the present one but must be essentially different. (Max Born, on Quantum Physics, 1949)

If God has made the world a perfect mechanism, He has at least conceded so much to our imperfect intellects that in order to predict little parts of it, we need not solve innumerable differential equations, but can use dice with fair success. (Max Born, on Quantum Physics)

One obvious objection to the hypothesis of an elastic Aether (Space) arises from the necessity of ascribing to it the great rigidity it must have to account for the high velocity of Waves. Such a substance would necessarily offer resistance to the motion of heavenly bodies, particularly to that of planets. Astronomy has never detected departures from Newton's Laws of Motion that would point to such a resistance. (Max Born, on Quantum Physics, 1924)

Max Born Introduction - Born's Probability Waves of Quantum Physics - Max Born Quotes: Einstein's Relativity / Quantum Mechanics - Biography Max Born - Top of Page

Max Born Biography
(1882 - 1970)

Quantum Physics: Max Born BiographyMax Born (December 11, 1882 – January 5, 1970) was a Jewish German mathematician and physicist and was the only child of Gustav Born and Margarete Kauffmann. He is also the maternal grandfather of British / Australian singer and actress Olivia Newton-John.

Initially educated at the König-Wilhelm-Gymnasium, Born went on to study at the University of Breslau followed by Heidelberg University and Zurich University. During this period he came into contact with many prominent scientists and mathematicians including Klein, Hilbert, Minkowski, Runge, Schwarzschild, and Voigt.

In 1909 he was appointed a lecturer at the University of Göttingen where he worked until 1912 when he moved to work at the University of Chicago. In 1919 after a period in the German army he became a professor at the University of Frankfurt am Main, and then professor at Göttingen, 1921. During this period, he formulated the now-standard interpretation of the probability density in the Schrödinger equation of quantum mechanics, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1954, some three decades later. In 1933 he left Germany to escape anti-Semitism. He went to lecture at the University of Cambridge, until 1936, and the Edinburgh University to 1953.

Albert Einstein was a friend of Born's, and it was in a letter to him in 1926 that Einstein made his famous remark regarding quantum mechanics, often paraphrased as "God does not play dice with the universe."

Quantum Physics: Max Born BiographyAfter World War II, Max and Hedwig Born retired from England, to Germany, but his children remained in the Commonwealth.

His published works include;

The Restless Universe - a popularization for students
Einstein's Theory of Relativity 1924. (The 1962 Library of Congress 62-5801 Dover edition, page 348 lists a table documenting the observed and calculated values for the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, Venus, and Earth.)
Dynamics of Crystal Lattices,
Natural Philosophy of Cause and Chance and
Zur Quantummechanik.
He was awarded the 1954 Nobel Prize in Physics, the Stokes Medal and the 1950 Hughes Medal. In Natural Philosophy of Cause and Chance, Born solves Kant's puzzle of the Ding an Sich, the thing in itself.

Max Born Biography

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Albert Einstein"When forced to summarize the general theory of relativity in one sentence: Time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter. ... Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended. In this way the concept 'empty space' loses its meaning. ... The particle can only appear as a limited region in space in which the field strength or the energy density are particularly high. ...
The free, unhampered exchange of ideas and scientific conclusions is necessary for the sound development of science, as it is in all spheres of cultural life. ... We must not conceal from ourselves that no improvement in the present depressing situation is possible without a severe struggle; for the handful of those who are really determined to do something is minute in comparison with the mass of the lukewarm and the misguided. ...
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Biography: Geoffrey Haselhurst, Philosopher of Science, Theoretical Physics, Metaphysics, Evolution. Our world is in great trouble due to human behaviour founded on myths and customs that are causing the destruction of Nature and climate change. We can now deduce the most simple science theory of reality - the wave structure of matter in space. By understanding how we and everything around us are interconnected in Space we can then deduce solutions to the fundamental problems of human knowledge in physics, philosophy, metaphysics, theology, education, health, evolution and ecology, politics and society.

This is the profound new way of thinking that Einstein realised, that we exist as spatially extended structures of the universe - the discrete and separate body an illusion. This simply confirms the intuitions of the ancient philosophers and mystics.

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