## Quantum Physics: Max Planck

The Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) explains Max Planck's Constant & the Quantum Energy States of Light & Matter due to Standing Wave Interactions. Energy = Frequency by Planck's Constant. Max Planck Biography, Quotes, Pictures.

The Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) explains Max Planck's Constant & the Quantum Energy States of Light & Matter due to Standing Wave Interactions. Energy = Frequency by Planck's Constant. Max Planck Biography, Quotes, Pictures.

### Introductory Quotes: Max Planck

But even if the radiation formula should prove to be absolutely accurate it would after all be only an interpolation formula found by happy guesswork, and would thus leave one rather unsatisfied. I was, therefore, from the day of its origination, occupied with the task of giving it a real physical meaning … (**Max Planck**, 1919 Nobel Prize address, 'The Origin and Development of the Quantum Theory')

We have no right to assume that any physical laws exist, or if they have existed up to now, that will continue to exist in a similar manner in the future. (**Max Planck**)

A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light,

but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it. **(Max Planck**, surveying his own career in his Scientific Autobiography)

## Introduction

#### On Planck's Constant h and the Relationship between Frequency f and Energy E in E=hf

Explaining the Discrete Energy States of both Light (quanta / photons) and Matter as discovered in Quantum Physics

It is useful to begin with a quote from Albert Einstein on Max Planck's fundamental contribution to Quantum Physics.

In the year nineteen hundred, in the course of purely theoretical (mathematical) investigation, **Max Planck** made a very remarkable discovery: the law of radiation of bodies as a function of temperature could not be derived solely from the Laws of Maxwellian electrodynamics. To arrive at results consistent with the relevant experiments, radiation of a given frequency f had to be treated as though it consisted of energy atoms (photons) of the individual energy hf, where h is **Planck's** universal constant. This discovery became the basis of all twentieth-century research in physics and has almost entirely conditioned its development ever since. Without this discovery it would not have been possible to establish a workable theory of molecules and atoms and the energy processes that govern their transformations. Moreover, it has shattered the whole framework of classical mechanics and electrodynamics and set science a fresh task: that of finding a new conceptual basis for all physics. Despite remarkable partial gains, the problem is still far from a satisfactory solution. (**Albert Einstein**, On Quantum Physics, 1954)

**Albert Einstein** (1905) used **Planck's** relationship to explain the results of the photoelectric effect which showed that the energy E of ejected electrons was dependent upon the frequency f of incident light as described in the equation **E=hf**. It is ironic that in 1921 **Einstein** was awarded the Nobel Prize for this discovery, though he never believed in particles and acknowledged that he did not know the cause of the discrete energy transfers (**photons**) which were contradictory to his continuous field theory of matter.

However, his work on the photoelectric effect confirmed that light energy was only emitted and absorbed by electrons in discrete amounts or **quanta**. This **quanta** of light energy soon became known as the '**photon**' (i.e. discrete like a particle) and led to the paradox that light behaved both as a continuous e-m wave (**Maxwell**, **Einstein**) as well as a discrete particle/photon (**Planck**, **Einstein**). We can now understand the cause of this discrete energy '**quanta**' of Quantum Physics because Standing waves only exist and interact at discrete frequencies, like notes on the string of a guitar.

### Quantum Physics: On the Evolution of the Particle Wave Duality of Light and Matter

The evolution of our knowledge of Light and Matter has been both interesting and remarkable. In the late 1600s we had Newton's theory of Light and Matter 'particles' and Huygens' wave theory of light.

In 1801, Young's famous two slit experiment (which showed interference effects of waves from both slits) decided in favour of light being a continuous wave. Further discoveries by Faraday (electric and magnetic force fields) and Maxwell (Maxwell's equations which deduced the correct velocity for light by assuming an electromagnetic wave) seemed to confirm the wave theory of light as electromagnetic radiation.

Then at the turn of the 20th century with Quantum Physics it was discovered that light was emitted and received in discrete amounts (Planck, 1900; Einstein,1905), completely destroying the idea of light as a continuous wave. This was then followed with Schrodinger's wave equations (1928) and the realisation that matter (atoms / molecules) only existed in discrete energy states (which could be defined using wave equations and resonance arguments) and that light was emitted / absorbed as electrons moved from one discrete energy state to another (wave functions rather than orbits). The end result of this the current absurd states of Quantum Physics with the confusion of the particle wave duality of light (it behaves as a wave or a particle depending on the experiment).

One purpose of this web page is to describe this history of light in a little more detail (with some nice quotes from some very fine physicists). The most important function of this page though, is to explain how we can solve this problem of the particle wave duality of light, and thus actually understand what we mean when we talk about 'photons' of light.

The solution is quite simple once known. It simply requires discarding the concepts of particles which create spherical electromagnetic force fields in space-time, and replace them with matter existing as spherical standing waves in Space. You will then find that light is a wave, but it is caused by standing wave interactions of matter which only occur at discrete frequencies, like notes on the string of a guitar. Thus the Spherical Standing Wave Structure of Matter predicts that light will be emitted and absorbed in discrete amounts due to the discrete standing wave states of matter in atoms and molecules.

### Dr Milo Wolff on the Wave Structure of Matter (WSM)

#### Standing Wave Interactions (Resonant Coupling) can only occur at Discrete Frequencies and explain the Discrete Energy Exchanges of Light Quanta (Photons)

The Wave Structure of fundamental 'Particles' evolved over five years. It began with a simple speculation that waves in Space could explain the de Broglie wavelength. It continued to agree with more laws and observations than I first expected and I was amazed. The 'Particle' is two identical spherical waves traveling radially in opposite directions so that together they form a spherical standing wave. The wave which travels inward towards the center is called an In-Wave, and the wave traveling outward is an Out-Wave. The nominal location of the ‘Particle’ is the Wave-Center, but as must be true for any charged Particle, it has presence everywhere in Space because the charge forces extend throughout the Universe. (Milo Wolff)

How do Solid Bodies form from Waves? - The solid crystal array is a matrix of atoms held rigidly in space. How are the atoms suspended in space? We must conclude that the crystal’s rigidity derives from fixed standing waves propagating in a rigid wave medium. Calculations for diamonds and nuclear structure yields an enormous rigidity. This is really a separate argument about the rigidity of space, which is one of its properties. (Milo Wolff)

What is a Light 'Photon'? - Two Spherical Standing Waves (SSW) oscillators exchange energy much like classical coupled oscillators, such as electric circuits or joined pendulums. The coupling provided by the non-linear centers of the resonances (high mass-energy density of space Wave-Centers) allows them to shift frequency patterned by the modulation of each other's In and Out-Waves. Since significant coupling can only occur between two oscillators which possess the same resonant elements, the frequency (energy) changes are equal and opposite. This we observe as the law of conservation of energy.

When opposite changes of frequency (energy ) take place between two resonances, energy seems to be transported from the center of one resonance to another. We observe a loss of energy where frequency decreases and added energy where it increases. The exchange appears to travel with the speed of the In-Waves of the receiving resonance which is c, the velocity of light. When large numbers of changes occur together, we can sample part of it and see a beam of light (which causes the continuous electromagnetic waves of Modern Physics). When single exchanges occur we see 'photons' as discrete Standing Wave interactions. Thus the transitory modulated waves traveling between two resonances create the illusion of the 'photon particle'. (Milo Wolff)

## Quantum Physics: Max Planck

The Wave Structure of Matter explains Max Planck's Constant

Energy E = Frequency f by Max Planck's Constant h. E=hf

Consequently, there remains only the one conclusion, that previous electron theories suffer from an essential incompleteness which demands a modification, but how deeply this modification should go into the structure of the theory is a question upon which views are still widely divergent. J. J. Thompson inclines to the most radical view, as do J. Larmor, A. Einstein, and with him I. Stark who even believe that the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a pure vacuum does not occur precisely in accordance with the Maxwellian field equations, but in definite energy quanta hv.

I am of the opinion, on the other hand, that at present it is not necessary to proceed in so revolutionary a manner, and that one may come successfully through by seeking the significance of the energy quanta hv solely in the mutual actions with which the resonators influence one another. A definite decision with regard to these important questions can only be brought about as a result of more experience.

(From **Max Planck's** famous Columbia Lectures)

In 1900 Max Planck made a profound discovery. He showed (from purely formal / mathematical foundations) that light must be emitted and absorbed in discrete amounts if it was to correctly describe observed phenomena (i.e. Blackbody radiation). Prior to then light had been considered as a continuous electromagnetic wave, thus the discrete nature of light was completely unexpected, as Albert Einstein explains;

About fifteen years ago [1899] nobody had yet doubted that a correct account of the electrical, optical, and thermal properties of matter was possible on the basis of Galileo-Newtonian mechanics applied to molecular motion and of Maxwell's theory of the electromagnetic field. (**Albert Einstein**, 1915)

Then Max Planck showed that in order to establish a law of heat radiation (Infra red light waves) consonant with experience, it was necessary to employ a method of calculation whose incompatibility with the principles of classical physics became clearer and clearer. For with this method of calculation, Max Planck introduced into physics the quantum hypothesis, which has since received brilliant confirmation. (**Albert Einstein**, 1914)

In the year nineteen hundred, in the course of purely theoretical (mathematical) investigation, Max Planck made a very remarkable discovery: the law of radiation of bodies as a function of temperature could not be derived solely from the Laws of Maxwellian electrodynamics. To arrive at results consistent with the relevant experiments, radiation of a given frequency f had to be treated as though it consisted of energy atoms (photons) of the individual energy hf, where h is Planck's universal constant. During the years following, it was shown that light was everywhere produced and absorbed in such energy quanta. In particular, Niels Bohr was able to largely understand the structure of the atom, on the assumption that the atoms can only have discrete energy values, and that the discontinuous transitions between them are connected with the emission or absorption of energy quantum. This threw some light on the fact that in their gaseous state elements and their compounds radiate and absorb only light of certain sharply defined frequencies. (**Albert Einstein**, 1940)

Even the Greeks had already conceived the atomistic nature of matter and the concept was raised to a high degree of probability by the scientists of the nineteenth century. But it was Planck's law of radiation that yielded the first exact determination - independent of other assumptions - of the absolute magnitudes of atoms. More than that, he showed convincingly that in addition to the atomistic structure of matter there is a kind of atomistic structure to energy, governed by the universal constant h, which was introduced by Planck.

This discovery became the basis of all twentieth-century research in physics and has almost entirely conditioned its development ever since. Without this discovery it would not have been possible to establish a workable theory of molecules and atoms and the energy processes that govern their transformations. Moreover, it has shattered the whole framework of classical mechanics and electrodynamics and **set science a fresh task: that of finding a new conceptual basis for all physics**. Despite remarkable partial gains, the problem is still far from a satisfactory solution. (**Albert Einstein**, 1950)

Albert Einstein (1905) used Planck's relationship to explain the results of the photoelectric effect which showed that the energy E of ejected electrons was wholly dependent upon the frequency f of incident light as described in the equation E=hf. It is ironic that in 1921 Albert Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize for this discovery, though he never believed in particles and acknowledged that he did not know the cause of the discrete energy transfers (photons) which were contradictory to his continuous field theory of matter!

In 1954 Albert Einstein wrote to his friend Michael Besso expressing his frustration of Quantum Theory;

All these fifty years of conscious brooding have brought me no nearer to the answer to the question, 'What are light quanta?' Nowadays every Tom, Dick and Harry thinks he knows it, but he is mistaken.

(**Albert Einstein**, 1954)

Most importantly, Albert Einstein also suspected that Matter could not be described by a continuous spherical force field;

I consider it quite possible that physics cannot be based on the field concept, i.e., on continuous structures. In that case, nothing remains of my entire castle in the air, gravitation theory included, [and of] the rest of modern physics.

(**Albert Einstein**, 1954)

Albert Einstein's suspicions were well justified, for he had spent a lifetime trying (and failing) to create a unified field theory of matter that explained both Quantum Theory / Light and Relativity / Gravity.

In fact Matter, as a Spherical Standing Wave which causes the 'Field' effect, interacts with other matter in discrete standing wave patterns, not with continuous force fields as he had imagined, thus his task was ultimately impossible, as he sadly came to realise towards the end of his life.

However, his work on the photoelectric effect confirmed that light energy was only emitted and absorbed by electrons in discrete amounts or quanta. This quanta of light energy soon became known as the 'photon' (i.e. discrete like a particle) and led to the paradox that light behaved both as a continuous e-m wave (Maxwell, Albert Einstein) as well as a discrete particle/photon (Planck, Albert Einstein). So we see that Albert Einstein was partly responsible for the discovery of the particle/photon concept of light, though he completely rejected the notion of discrete particles. He writes;

Since the theory of general relativity implies the **representation of physical reality by a continuous field, the concept of particles or material points cannot play a fundamental part**, nor can the concept of motion.

(**Albert Einstein**)

Albert Einstein is correct that there are no discrete particles, and that The particle can only appear as a limited region in space in which the field strength or the energy density are particularly high. But it is the high Wave-Amplitude of the Wave-Center of a Spherical Standing Wave in Space (not of a continuous spherical force field) that causes the particle effect. Thus of three concepts, **particles**, **force fields**, and **motion**, it finally turns out that Motion, as the spherical wave motion of space, is the correct concept, as it then explains both particles and fields. (For further explanation see Article on Relativity)

It is most important to realise though that Albert Einstein was correct in imagining matter as being spatially extended, as he explains;

I wished to show that space time is not necessarily something to which one can ascribe to a separate existence, independently of the actual objects of physical reality. **Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended**. In this way the concept empty space loses its meaning. (**Albert Einstein**)

It is certainly true that the particle and its forces are very useful mathematical concepts, unfortunately, they also cause many problems and paradoxes because they are approximations to reality and do not physically exist.

We can now finally solve these problems of Quantum Theory by understanding the reason for these discrete energy states, which are due to the fact that standing waves only exist at discrete frequencies. Thus while the Spherical Standing Wave Structure of Matter predicts that energy exchanges will be discrete (as observed) the continuous e-m wave does not anticipate this. Thus the Spherical Standing Wave Structure of Matter explains Max Planck's Quantum Theory (1900) discovery that there are only certain allowed discrete energy states for electrons in molecules and atoms, and further, that light is only ever emitted and absorbed by electrons in discrete or 'quantum' amounts ('photons'), as the electrons move from one stable standing wave pattern to another.

## Max Planck Biography

(1858 - 1947)

Max Planck was a German Physicist.

Born in Kiel, Max Planck started his physics studies at Munich University in 1874, graduating in 1879 in Berlin. He returned to Munich in 1880 to teach at the university, and moved to Kiel in 1885. There he married Marie Mack in 1886. In 1889, he moved to Berlin, where from 1892 on he held the chair of theoretical physics.

In 1899, he discovered a new fundamental constant, which is named Planck's constant, and is, for example, used to calculate the energy of a photon. Also that year, he described his own set of units of measurement based on fundamental physical constants. One year later, he discovered the law of heat radiation, which is named Planck's law of black body radiation. This law became the basis of quantum theory, which emerged ten years later in cooperation with Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr.

From 1905 to 1909, Planck acted as the head of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft (German Physical Society). His wife died in 1909, and one year later he married Marga von Hoesslin. In 1913, he became head of Berlin University. For the foundation of quantum physics, he was awarded the 1918 Nobel Prize in Physics. From 1930 to 1937, Planck was head of the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften (KWG, Emperor-Wilhelm-Society for the advancement of science).

During World War II, Planck tried to convince Hitler to spare Jewish scientists. Planck's son Erwin was executed on July 20, 1944, for treason in connection with an attempted assassination of Hitler. After Max Planck's death on October 4, 1947 in Göttingen, the KWG was renamed as the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften (MPG, Max-Planck-Society for the advancement of science).

Max Planck Biography

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Max_Planck

## Help Humanity

*"You must be the change you wish to see in the world."
(Mohandas Gandhi)*

*"When forced to summarize the general theory of relativity in one sentence:
Time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter. ... Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended. In this way the concept 'empty space' loses its meaning. ... The particle can only appear as a limited region in space in which
the field strength or the energy density are particularly high. ...
The free, unhampered exchange of ideas and scientific conclusions is necessary for the sound development of science, as it is in all spheres
of cultural life. ... We must not conceal from ourselves that no improvement in the present depressing situation is possible without
a severe struggle; for the handful of those who are really determined to do something is minute in comparison with the mass of the lukewarm
and the misguided. ...
Humanity is going to need a substantially new way of thinking if it is to survive!" (Albert Einstein)*

Our world is in great trouble due to human behaviour founded on myths and customs that are causing the destruction of Nature and climate change. We can now deduce the most simple science theory of reality - the wave structure of matter in space. By understanding how we and everything around us are interconnected in Space we can then deduce solutions to the fundamental problems of human knowledge in physics, philosophy, metaphysics, theology, education, health, evolution and ecology, politics and society.

This is the profound new way of thinking that Einstein realised, that we exist as spatially extended structures of the universe - the discrete and separate body an illusion. This simply confirms the intuitions of the ancient philosophers and mystics.

Given the current censorship in physics / philosophy of science journals (based on the standard model of particle physics / big bang cosmology) the internet is the best hope for getting new knowledge known to the world. But that depends on you, the people who care about science and society, realise the importance of truth and reality.

## It is Easy to Help!

Just click on the Social Network links below, or copy a nice image or quote you like and share it. We have a wonderful collection of knowledge from the greatest minds in human history, so people will appreciate your contributions. In doing this you will help a new generation of scientists see that there is a simple sensible explanation of physical reality - the source of truth and wisdom, the only cure for the madness of man! Thanks! Geoff Haselhurst (Updated September, 2018)

A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it. (**Max Planck**, 1920)

Tweet Follow @philosophytruth | |

Geoff | |

Connect with Geoff Haselhurst at Facebook

*"All that is necessary for evil to succeed is for good people to do nothing." (Edmund Burke)*

*"In a time of universal deceit - telling the truth is a revolutionary act."(George Orwell)*

*"Hell is Truth Seen Too Late."(Thomas Hobbes)*

Legal Disclaimer and Privacy Policy