Comment / Share

  Instagram Profile - Geoffrey Haselhurst


Quantum Mechanics: John Stewart Bell
The Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) explains Bell's Inequality & 'apparent' Non-Locality of EPR. From 'particle' to wave center of Spherical Standing Wave confirms hidden variables of Quantum Mechanics.

Intro: John Stewart Bell - Bell's Inequality / Nonlocality of Quantum Mechanics - EPR Paradox - John Stewart Bell Biography - Top of Page


Quantum Physics: John Stewart Bell: Bell's Theorem: EPR ParadoxIt has been argued that quantum mechanics is not locally causal and cannot be embedded in a locally causal theory. That conclusion depends on treating certain experimental parameters, typically the orientations of polarization filters, as free variables. But it might be that this apparent freedom is illusory. Perhaps experimental parameters and experimental results are both consequences, or partially so, of some common hidden mechanism. Then the apparent non-locality could be simulated. (John Bell, 'Free Variables and Local Causality', 'Epistemological Letters', 15, 1977)

The discomfort that I feel is associated with the fact that the observed perfect quantum correlations seem to demand something like the 'genetic' hypothesis. For me, it is so reasonable to assume that the photons in those experiments carry with them programs, which have been correlated in advance, telling them how to behave. This is so rational that I think that when Einstein saw that, and the others refused to see it, he was the rational man. The other people, although history has justified them, were burying their heads in the sand. I feel that Einstein's intellectual superiority over Bohr, in this instance, was enormous; a vast gulf between the man who saw clearly what was needed, and the obscurantist. So for me, it is a pity that Einstein's idea doesn't work. The reasonable thing just doesn't work. (John Stewart Bell (1928-1990), author of 'Bell's Theorem' / 'Bell's Inequality', quoted in Quantum Profiles, by Jeremy Bernstein [Princeton University Press, 1991, p. 84] From Kelly Ross,

That the guiding wave, in the general case, propagates not in ordinary three-space but in a multi-dimensional configuration space is the origin of the notorious "non-locality" of quantum mechanics. It is a merit of the de Broglie- Bohm version to bring this out so explicitly that it cannot be ignored. (John Stewart Bell)


Under construction - To be completed by late 2018

Intro: John Stewart Bell - Bell's Inequality / Nonlocality of Quantum Mechanics - EPR Paradox - John Stewart Bell Biography - Top of Page

Quantum Physics: Bell's Inequality / Nonlocality of Quantum Mechanics

Under construction - To be completed by late 2018



Intro: John Stewart Bell - Bell's Inequality / Nonlocality of Quantum Mechanics - EPR Paradox - John Stewart Bell Biography - Top of Page

Quantum Physics: EPR Paradox

Under construction - To be completed by late 2018



Intro: John Stewart Bell - Bell's Inequality / Nonlocality of Quantum Mechanics - EPR Paradox - John Stewart Bell Biography - Top of Page

John Stewart Bell Biography: Life & Ideas
Quantum Physics: John Stewart Bell Biography

John Stewart Bell (June 28, 1928 - October 1, 1990) was a physicist who became well known as the originator of Bell's Theorem, regarded by some in the quantum physics community as one of the most important theorems of the 20th century.

John Stewart Bell was born in Belfast, Northern Ireland, and graduated in experimental physics at Queen's University, Belfast, in 1948. He went on to do a PhD in Birmingham, specialising in nuclear physics and quantum field theory. His working career started with the British Atomic Energy Agency, in Malvern, Britain, then Harwell. After several years he moved to the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN). Here he worked almost exclusively on theoretical particle physics and on accelerator design, but found time to persue a major "hobby", investigating the fundamentals of quantum theory.

In 1964, after a year's leave from CERN that he spent at Stanford, the University of Wisconsin and Brandeis University, he derived his famous inequality. This must be satisfied by any local hidden variable theory but can be violated under quantum mechanics. He had first shown that von Neumann’s proof against deterministic quantum mechanics lacked rigor and that Bohm’s work got around von Neumann’s objections through the use of superluminal signalling. (Interestingly, the flaw in von Neumann's proof was previously discovered by Grete Hermann in 1935, but did not become common knowledge until rediscovered by Bell.)

In 1972 the first of many experiments that have shown a violation of Bell's Inequality was conducted. The fate of local hidden variable theories is currently generally regarded as sealed. Bell's Theorem has come to be regarded a proof that the underlying theory of the universe must be a quantum-mechanical one, although Bell's original goal was just the opposite.

Bell became a supporter of the Bohm interpretation, a nonlocal hidden variable theory involving superluminal signaling, calling its suppression a "scandal" within physics, and took to defending his work against those whom he perceived as distorting its meaning to favor indeterministic quantum mechanics such as the Copenhagen and Everett "many-worlds" interpretations.

The outcomes of the experiments, showing as they did a violation of his inequalities, did not make John Bell particularly happy: he had hoped that they would always be satisfied in Nature, and that experiments would eventually falsify quantum mechanics. Despite the observed violations, he kept some belief that future experiments would change the situation. Nevertheless he was ready to accept the validity of the orthodox quantum mechanics. Referring to the Bell test experiments, a remark of his is frequently quoted:

"It is difficult for me to believe that quantum mechanics, working very well for currently practical set-ups, will nevertheless fail badly with improvements in counter efficiency ..." (Ref 1, page 109)
Some people continue to believe that the probabilistic quantum mechanics must be incorrect. They argue that future, much more precise, experiments could reveal that one of the known loopholes, for example the so-called "fair sampling loophole", had been biasing the interpretations. This latter loophole, first publicised by Philip Pearle in 1970 (ref below), is such that increases in counter efficiency decrease the measured quantum correlation, eventually destroying the empirical match with quantum mechanics. Most mainstream physicists are highly skeptical about all these "loopholes", admitting their existence but continuing to believe that quantum mechanics is correct. It is claimed, after all, never to have failed any other test.

Bell died unexpectedly of a cerebral haemorrhage in Belfast in 1990. Believers in local realism and quantum theory alike continue to search for ways of making sense of the apparent failure of local realism in the Bell test experiments.


Bell, John S, The Speakable and Unspeakable in Quantum Mechanics, Cambridge University Press 1987
Pearle, P, Hidden-Variable Example Based upon Data Rejection, Physical Review D, 2, 1418-25 (1970)
Aczel, Amir D, Entanglement: The greatest mystery in physics, Four Walls Eight Windows, New York, 2001

Help Humanity

"You must be the change you wish to see in the world."
(Mohandas Gandhi)

Albert Einstein"When forced to summarize the general theory of relativity in one sentence: Time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter. ... Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended. In this way the concept 'empty space' loses its meaning. ... The particle can only appear as a limited region in space in which the field strength or the energy density are particularly high. ...
The free, unhampered exchange of ideas and scientific conclusions is necessary for the sound development of science, as it is in all spheres of cultural life. ... We must not conceal from ourselves that no improvement in the present depressing situation is possible without a severe struggle; for the handful of those who are really determined to do something is minute in comparison with the mass of the lukewarm and the misguided. ...
Humanity is going to need a substantially new way of thinking if it is to survive!" (Albert Einstein)

Biography: Geoffrey Haselhurst, Philosopher of Science, Theoretical Physics, Metaphysics, Evolution. Our world is in great trouble due to human behaviour founded on myths and customs that are causing the destruction of Nature and climate change. We can now deduce the most simple science theory of reality - the wave structure of matter in space. By understanding how we and everything around us are interconnected in Space we can then deduce solutions to the fundamental problems of human knowledge in physics, philosophy, metaphysics, theology, education, health, evolution and ecology, politics and society.

This is the profound new way of thinking that Einstein realised, that we exist as spatially extended structures of the universe - the discrete and separate body an illusion. This simply confirms the intuitions of the ancient philosophers and mystics.

Given the current censorship in physics / philosophy of science journals (based on the standard model of particle physics / big bang cosmology) the internet is the best hope for getting new knowledge known to the world. But that depends on you, the people who care about science and society, realise the importance of truth and reality.

It is Easy to Help!

Just click on the Social Network links below, or copy a nice image or quote you like and share it. We have a wonderful collection of knowledge from the greatest minds in human history, so people will appreciate your contributions. In doing this you will help a new generation of scientists see that there is a simple sensible explanation of physical reality - the source of truth and wisdom, the only cure for the madness of man! Thanks! Geoff Haselhurst (Updated September, 2018)

A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it. (Max Planck, 1920)

Instagram Profile - Geoffrey Haselhurst

Connect with Geoff Haselhurst at Facebook

"All that is necessary for evil to succeed is for good people to do nothing."
(Edmund Burke)

"In a time of universal deceit - telling the truth is a revolutionary act."
(George Orwell)

"Hell is Truth Seen Too Late."
(Thomas Hobbes)

Copyright 1997 - 2018
We support 'Fair Use' of these pages for Academic & Non Commercial use.
You are welcome to use images and text, but please reference them with a link to relevant web page on this site. Thanks!

Creative Commons License