Philosophy: John Locke
Summary of Main Ideas / Empiricist Philosophy, John Locke Biography, Quotes, Pictures

There cannot any one moral Rule be propos'd, whereof a Man may not justly demand a Reason.

New opinions are always suspected, and usually opposed, without any other reason but because they are not already common.

Reading furnishes the mind only with materials for knowledge; it is thinking that makes what we read ours. …To love truth for truth's sake is the principal part of human perfection in this world, and the seed-plot of all other virtues. (John Locke)

Brief Biography of John Locke & Summary of his Main Ideas (1632 - 1704)

(John Locke) 'The people cannot delegate to government the power to do anything which would be unlawful for them to do themselves.'John Locke was a 17th-century philosopher concerned primarily with society and epistemology. An Englishman, Locke's notions of a "government with the consent of the governed" and man's natural rights - life, liberty, and estate (property) - had an enormous influence on the development of political philosophy.

His ideas formed the basis for the concepts used in American law and government, allowing the colonists to justify revolution. Locke's epistemology and philosophy of mind also had a significant influence well into the Enlightenment period.

Locke has been placed in a group called the British Empiricists, which includes David Hume and George Berkeley. Locke is perhaps most often contrasted with Thomas Hobbes.
In his main work, "An Essay Concerning Human Understanding" Locke critiques the philosophy of innate ideas and builds a theory of the mind and knowledge that gives priority to the senses and experience. His adherence to this doctrine is what marks him out as an empiricist philosopher rather than a rationalist such as his critic Leibniz.

The Essay sets out Locke's theory of ideas, including his distinction between passively acquired simple ideas, such as "red," "sweet," "round," etc., and actively built complex ideas, such as numbers, causes and effects, abstract ideas, ideas of substances, identity, and diversity. Locke also distinguishes between the truly existing primary qualities of bodies, like shape, motion and the arrangement of minute particles, and the secondary qualities that are "powers to produce various sensations in us" such as "red" and "sweet." These secondary qualities, Locke claims, are dependent on the primary qualities.

In 'Two Treatises of Government', Locke posits a state of nature as the proper starting point for examining politics. Individuals have rights, and their duties are defined in terms of protecting their own rights and respecting those of others. Through the law of nature, which Locke describes as "reason," we are able to understand why we must respect the natural rights of others (including the right to property for which one has labored). In practice, the law of nature is ignored and so government is necessary; this can be created only by the consent of the governed, which can be had only to a commonwealth of laws. A government betrays its trust when the laws are violated or when the trust of prerogative is abused. Once government is dissolved, the people are free to erect a new one and to oppose those who claim authority under the old one, i. e., to revolt.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Locke

John Locke Quotes

I doubt not, but from self-evident Propositions, by necessary Consequences, as incontestable as those in Mathematics, the measures of right and wrong might be made out.

A criminal who, having renounced reason ... hath, by the unjust violence and slaughter he hath committed upon one, declared war against all mankind, and therefore may be destroyed as a lion or tiger, one of those wild savage beasts with whom men can have no society nor security. And upon this is grounded the great law of Nature, "Who shedeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed.”

Religion, which should most distinguish us from the beasts, and ought most particularly elevate us, as rational creatures, above brutes, is that wherein men often appear most irrational, and more senseless than beasts.

Day-labourers and tradesmen, the spinsters and dairymaids must be told what to believe: The greatest part cannot know and therefore they must believe.

The people cannot delegate to government the power to do anything which would be unlawful for them to do themselves. (John Locke)


Philosophy
On Love of Wisdom from Truth & Reality

In Eastern philosophy, the main terms used in Hinduism and Buddhism have dynamic connotations. The word Brahman is derived from the Sanskrit root 'brih' (to grow) and thus suggests a reality which is dynamic and alive. (Capra, 1972)
Eastern Philosophy: Buddhism Hinduism Taoism Confucianism
Greek philosophy begins with the preposterous fancy, that water is the origin of all things. Is it necessary to stop there & become serious? Yes ... because it contains the idea we find in all philosophy: everything is one! (Nietzsche, 1890)
Ancient Greek Philosophy: Stoicism, Quotes, Pictures
All things come out of the one and the one out of all things. ... I see nothing but Becoming. Be not deceived! The very river in which you bathe a second time is no longer the same one you entered before. (Heraclitus, 500 B.C.)
Heraclitus: Biography, Pictures, Philosophy Quotes
Are you not ashamed that you give your attention to acquiring as much money as possible, and care so little about wisdom and truth, which you never regard or heed at all? (Socrates, The Apology, 469 - 399 B.C.)
Socrates: Life & Death, Biography, Pictures, Quotes
The philosopher is in love with truth, that is, not with the changing world of sensation, which is the object of opinion, but with the unchanging reality which is the object of knowledge. (Plato, 429-347 B.C.)
Plato: Greek Philosopher. Republic Quotes, Biography
The life of theoretical philosophy is the best & happiest one can lead. Few are capable of it (and only then intermittently). For the rest, the second-best way of life, is moral virtue & practical wisdom. (Aristotle, 384-322 B.C.)
Aristotle: Politics & Philosophy Quotes, Biography, Pictures
Frequently consider the connection of all things in the universe. ... We should not say 'I am an Athenian' or 'I am a Roman' but 'I am a citizen of the Universe. (Marcus Aurelius, Meditations, 121-180 A.D.)
Marcus Aurelius: 'Meditations' Quotes, Biography, Pictures
We are a part of nature as a whole, whose order we follow. ... He who lives under the guidance of reason endeavours to repay his fellows hatred, rage & contempt with love and nobleness. (Benedict de Spinoza, Ethics, 1632-1677)
Benedict de Spinoza: 'Ethics' Philosophy Quotes
Reality cannot be found except in One single source, because of the interconnection of all things with one another. I do not conceive of any reality at all as without genuine unity. (Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, 1646 - 1716)
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz: Monad Philosophy Quotes
My purpose therefore is, to try if I can discover what those principles are, which have introduced all that doubtfulness and uncertainty, those absurdities and contradictions into the several sects of philosophy. (George Berkeley, 1710)
George Berkeley: Philosophy Quotes, Biography, Pictures
And though the philosopher may live remote from business, the genius of philosophy, if carefully cultivated by several, must gradually diffuse itself throughout the whole society, and bestow a similar correctness on every art and calling. (David Hume, 1737)
David Hume: Biography, Pictures, Philosophy Quotes
It is the duty of philosophy to destroy the illusions which had their origin in misconceptions, whatever darling hopes and valued expectations may be ruined by its explanations. ... Pure reason is a perfect unity. (Immanuel Kant, 1781)
Immanuel Kant: Critique of Pure Reason Quotes
There is nothing more necessary than truth, everything else has only secondary value. One does not want to be deceived, under the supposition that it is injurious, dangerous, or fatal to be deceived. (Nietzsche, 1890)
Friedrich Nietzsche: Biography, Pictures, Philosophy Quotes
.. by nature man is a political animal. Men have a desire for life together, even when they have no need to seek each other's help. Common interest too is a factor in bringing them together, contributing to the good life of each. (Aristotle, Politics)
Politics: Political Science Globalisation Democracy, Utopia
Since philosophy is the art which teaches us how to live, and since children need to learn it as much as we do at other ages, why do we not instruct them in it? (Michel de Montaigne, Essays, 1592)
Philosophy of Education: Teaching Philosophy
Art is a selective re-creation of reality according to an artist's metaphysical value-judgments. An artist recreates those aspects of reality which represent his fundamental view of man's nature. (Ayn Rand, On Philosophy of Art)
Philosophy of Art: Renaissance Impressionist
Modern Art Gallery
If we take away the subject (Humans), or our senses in general, then not only the nature and relations of objects in space and time, but even space and time themselves disappear ... they cannot exist in themselves, but only in us. (Immanuel Kant, 1781)
Philosophy of Mind: Idealism to Realism
Uniting Matter & Mind
.. the puzzles that constitute normal science exist only because no paradigm that provides a basis for scientific research ever completely resolves all its problems. (Thomas Kuhn, 1962)
Postmodern Philosophy Postmodernism Vs. Realism



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Biography: Geoffrey Haselhurst, Philosopher of Science, Theoretical Physics, Metaphysics, Evolution. Our world is in great trouble due to human behaviour founded on myths and customs that are causing the destruction of Nature and climate change. We can now deduce the most simple science theory of reality - the wave structure of matter in space. By understanding how we and everything around us are interconnected in Space we can then deduce solutions to the fundamental problems of human knowledge in physics, philosophy, metaphysics, theology, education, health, evolution and ecology, politics and society.

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